First International Orbital Debris Conference

December 9-12, 2019

 

Program and Abstracts

 

Sunday, December 8, 2019

6:00 p.m.

Sugar Land Lobby

Registration

6:00–7:30 p.m.

Sugar Land Ballroom I-IV

Opening Reception

 

Monday, December 9, 2019

9:00 a.m.

Sugar Land Ballroom I-V

Opening Plenary

1:00 p.m.

Sugar Land Ballroom I–IV

Reentry I

1:00 p.m.

Sugar Land Ballroom V

Radar Measurements

3:50 p.m.

Sugar Land Ballroom I–IV

Reentry II

3:50 p.m.

Sugar Land Ballroom V

Conjunction Assessment Processes

 

Tuesday, December 10, 2019

9:00 a.m.

Sugar Land Ballroom I–IV

In-Situ and Laboratory Measurements

9:00 a.m.

Sugar Land Ballroom V

Remediation I

1:00 p.m.

Sugar Land Ballroom I–IV

Hypervelocity Impact and Protection I

1:00 p.m.

Sugar Land Ballroom V

Remediation II

3:00 p.m.

Sugar Land Ballroom VII–X

Poster Session I

4:00 p.m.

Sugar Land Ballroom I–IV

Hypervelocity Impact and Protection II

4:00 p.m.

Sugar Land Ballroom V

Meteoroids

 

Wednesday, December 11, 2019

9:00 a.m.

Sugar Land Ballroom I–IV

Dynamics and Modeling

9:00 a.m.

Sugar Land Ballroom V

STM, SSA, and Policy

1:00 p.m.

Sugar Land Ballroom I–IV

Conjunction Assessment Mission Impacts and Management

1:00 p.m.

Sugar Land Ballroom V

Mitigation I

3:00 p.m.

Sugar Land Ballroom VII–X

Poster Session II

4:00 p.m.

Sugar Land Ballroom I–IV

SSA, Operation Risks and Anomalies

4:00 p.m.

Sugar Land Ballroom V

Mitigation II

 

Thursday, December 12, 2019

9:00 a.m.

Sugar Land Ballroom I–IV

Optical Measurements I

9:00 a.m.

Sugar Land Ballroom V

Environment Modeling I

11:00 a.m.

Sugar Land Ballroom I–IV

Optical Measurements II

11:00 a.m.

Sugar Land Ballroom V

Environment Modeling II

 

 

Monday, December 9, 2019

OPENING PLENARY

9:00 a.m.   Sugar Land Ballroom I-V

Chairs:  Jer-Chyi Liou and Eugene Stansbery

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Times

Authors (*Denotes Presenter)

Abstract Title and Summary

9:00 a.m.

Liou J.-C.   Matney M.   Cowardin H.

Opening Remarks and Logistics Information

9:30 a.m.

Keynote Speaker:  Mr. Curtis Hernandez, Director of National Security Space Policy, National Space Council

Driving Adaptive and Responsive Orbital Debris Policy

9:50 a.m.

Keynote Speaker:  Mr. Don Kessler, former NASA Senior Scientist for Orbital Debris

A Brief History of the NASA Space Debris Programs

10:10 a.m.

Keynote Speaker:  Professor Heiner Klinkrad, Technical University of Braunschweig, former Head of European Space Agency Space Debris Office

History of Space Debris Activities at ESA

10:30 a.m.

 

Break

 

Monday, December 9, 2019

REENTRY I

1:00 p.m.   Sugar Land Ballroom I–IV

Chairs:  Christopher Ostrom and Toru Yoshihara

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Times

Authors (*Denotes Presenter)

Abstract Title and Summary

1:00 p.m.

Beck J. B.   Caiazzo A. C. *   Innocenti L. I.   Schleukter T. S.   Soares T. S.

Plasma Wind Tunnel Demisability Testing of Spacecraft Equipment [#6107]
ESA Clean Space initiative has launched a new activity with the objective to characterize the break-up processes of critical spacecraft elements through destructive on-ground re-entry tests to be performed in Plasma Wind Tunnel.

1:20 p.m.

Ostrom C. L. *   Greene B. R.   Smith A. N.   Toledo-Burdett R. C.   Matney M. J.   Opiela J. N.   Marichalar J. J.   Bacon J. B.   Sanchez C. M.

Operational and Technical Updates to the Object Reentry Survival Analysis Tool [#6018]
Overview of the development of NASA ODPO reentry software package “ORSAT” over the last three years, and the subsequent effects on top-level results such as reentry ground casualty risk.

1:40 p.m.

Eggen N. *   Soares T.   Innocenti L.

Containment Methods for the Atmospheric Reentry of Satellites [#6106]
Containment methods are studied by ESA Clean Space to help missions comply with internationally adopted safety guidelines. The potential benefits as well as the challenges are assessed.

2:00 p.m.

Marichalar J. J. *   Ostrom C. L.

Estimating Drag and Heating Coefficients for Hollow Reentry Objects in Transitional Flow Using Direct Simulation Monte Carlo [#6019]
Direct Simulation Monte Carlo is used to compute drag and aerothermal heating coefficients on hollow boxes and cylinders in rarefied flow. A preliminary model is presented for implementation in reentry survivability codes.

2:20 p.m.

Donaldson N. L. *

Aerodynamic Coefficient Modelling of Cylindrical Space Debris Analogues During Atmospheric Entry [#6199]
A new method for modelling aerodynamic properties of cylindrical space debris items is described. Machine learning is used to correlate drag, lift, and pitching moment coefficients in order to improve the speed and accuracy of re-entry simulations.

2:40 p.m.

Rembaut N. *   Joussot R.   Lago V.

Debris Characterization in the Super/Hypersonic and Rarefied Wind Tunnel MARHy [#6183]
Experimental study of the aerodynamic properties, shock shape and drag forces, of spherical debris in Mach 4 supersonic rarefied flows ranging from the transitional to the near continuum regime with slip conditions.

3:00 p.m.

Prévereaud Y. *   Vérant J.-L.   Annaloro J.

Noncatalytic and Finite Catalytic Heating Models for Atmospheric Re-Entry Codes [#6112]
New analytical heat flux models for non-catalytic and partially catalytical wall for atmospheric entry codes have been developed and are presented to better evaluate the ground risk generated by space debris atmospheric entry.

3:20 p.m.

 

Break

 

Monday, December 9, 2019

RADAR MEASUREMENTS

1:00 p.m.   Sugar Land Ballroom V

Chairs:  Timothy Payne and Timothy Kennedy

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Times

Authors (*Denotes Presenter)

Abstract Title and Summary

1:00 p.m.

Matney M. *   Anz-Meador P.   Murray J.   Miller R.

The NaK Population:  A 2019 Status [#6041]
In this paper we review the current status of the so-called NaK (Sodium-Potassium) debris population at 65 degree inclination, including potential new NaK environmental sources.

1:20 p.m.

Murray J.   Miller R.   Matney M.   Anz-Meador P.   Kennedy T.

Recent Results from the Goldstone Orbital Debris Radar:  2016–2017 [#6138]
In this paper, we present measurements and results derived from data taken during the 2016–2017 calendar years by the Goldstone Orbital Debris Radar and compare this to measurements taken by the Haystack Ultra-wideband Satellite Imaging Radar.

1:40 p.m.

Ahmed R. *   Majurec N.   De Bleser J. w.

A CubeSat-Based Radar for Characterization of Millimetric Orbital Debris [#6079]
Accumulation of small (<3mm diameter) orbital debris is an increasing threat to spaceborne assets. We present a unique radar design, capable of characterizing mm sized debris from a small platform (CubeSat), based on a novel observation strategy.

2:00 p.m.

Murray J. *   Miller R.   Matney M.   Kennedy T.

Orbital Debris Radar Measurements from the Haystack Ultra-Wideband Satellite Imaging Radar (HUSIR):  2014–2017 [#6133]
Using data collected for the NASA Orbital Debris Program Office (ODPO) on the orbital debris environment, we will compare the size distributions and flux measurements of selected orbital debris populations over a four-year period (2014–2017).

2:20 p.m.

 

Discussion

2:40 p.m.

Lee C. G. *   Slade M. A.   Jao J. S.   Rodriquez-Alvarez N.

Micro-Meteoroid and Orbital Debris Radar from Goldstone Radar Observations [#6185]
Goldstone’s Orbital Debris Radar enhances NASA’s orbital debris model by providing exclusive vital information about millimeter size orbital debris, including size, range, Doppler, and inclination angle.

3:00 p.m.

Pupillo G. *   Bianchi G.   Mattana A.   Naldi G.   Bortolotti C.   Roma M.   Schiaffino M.   Perini F.   Lama L.   Losacco M.   Massari M.   Di Lizia P.   Magro A.   Cutajar D.   Borg J.   Monaci F.   Maccuferri A.   Purpura G.

Operational Challenges of the Multi-Beam Radar Sensor BIRALES for Space Surveillance [#6202]
We present the novelties of the the Italian multibeam BIstatic RAdar for LEo Survey (BIRALES). The challenges faced during BIRALES sensor setup and operation, the performance and the results obtained during recent observation campaigns are described.

3:20 p.m.

 

Break

 

Monday, December 9, 2019

REENTRY II

3:50 p.m.   Sugar Land Ballroom I–IV

Chairs:  Jack Bacon and Michael Weaver

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Times

Authors (*Denotes Presenter)

Abstract Title and Summary

3:50 p.m.

Bouilly J-M. *   Chevalier L.   Dias N.

Development Status and Application of the ArianeGroup Fragmentation/Survivability Chain of Tools [#6151]
Global overview of the activity carried out over the last years by ArianeGroup to develop a Fragmentation/Survivability chain of tools (main outcomes, validation approach, application to Ariane6 Safety File).

4:10 p.m.

Baker K.   Culton E.   Lang J.   Lewis Z.   Perez-Alemany R.   Rizzo A.   Starks A.   Teneyck J.   Smeresky B.   Rhatigan J. L. *   Romano M.

An Updated Re-Entry Analysis of the Hubble Space Telescope [#6125]
Students from the Naval Postgraduate School examine the problem of disposal of the Hubble Space Telescope at its projected end-of-life.

4:30 p.m.

Zilkova D. *   Matlovic P.   Toth J.   Kornos L.   Havrila K.   Balaz M.   Krajcovic S.   Silha J..

Applications of AMOS Meteor All-Sky Detection System for Space Debris Research [#6083]
The All-Sky Meteor Orbit System (AMOS) is a worldwide network used for detection and orbit determination of meteors. Thanks to its output data types like astrometry, photometry and spectra, AMOS can support reentry events monitoring.

4:50 p.m.

Tommei G. *   Alessi E. M.

Studying a Direct Re-Entry from a Sun-Earth Libration Point Orbit:  Can Ground Uncertainty be Kept Under Control? [#6073]
In the present work, we keep on investigating the opportunity of an Earth’s atmospheric reentry for Sun-earth LPO missions. We aim to address the aspect related to the OD and the need of a correction maneuver to constrain the impact location.

5:10 p.m.

Perrault S. P. *   Soares T. S.   Innocenti L. I.   Delaval J. D.

Reentry Strategies to Comply with Space Debris Mitigation Guidelines [#6052]
In the frame of the space debris mitigation requirements, ESA has set quick and simplified guidelines to choose the most relevant propulsion systems to use on-board future missions to perform a controlled re-entry.

5:30 p.m.

Spencer D. A.   Black A. *

DragSail Systems for Satellite Deorbit and Targeted Reentry [#6020]
In this paper, a square pyramid dragsail is evaluated for long-term deorbit and targeted reentry. Through parametric studies and Monte Carlo analyses, dragsail performance is shown for a range of host satellite orbit and mass characteristics.

 

Monday, December 9, 2019

CONJUNCTION ASSESSMENT PROCESSES

3:50 p.m.   Sugar Land Ballroom V

Chairs:  Lauri Newman and Corley Bryan

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Times

Authors (*Denotes Presenter)

Abstract Title and Summary

3:50 p.m.

Thorsteinson S. *   Scott R. L.   Abbasi V.

Imaging of Self Conjuncting Objects Ahead of the Time of Closest Approach with NEOSSat [#6141]
The NEOSSat optical microsattelite was used in a new capacity to image a variety of objects with which it was undergoing self conjunction, with the attempt to improve probability of collision accuracy in the few orbits ahead of the TCA.

4:10 p.m.

Bastida Virgili B. *   Flohrer T.   Krag H.   Merz K.   Lemmens S.

CREAM — ESA’s Proposal for Collision Risk Estimation and Automated Mitigation [#6031]
Introduce ESA’s new proposal for the Space Safety programme, which intends to develop the technologies for automated collision avoidance and to demonstrate these with a suitable newly developed or existing flying demonstration platform.

4:30 p.m.

Nicolls M. J. *   McKnight D.

Collision Risk Assessment for Derelict Objects in Low-Earth Orbit [#6096]
Collisions between rocket bodies and non-operational satellites are the most significant source of debris-generating risk in LEO. We perform a statistical analysis of collision risk for objects in these clusters using LeoLabs and CSpOC data sources.

4:50 p.m.

Surdi S. A. *

Space Situational Awareness Through Blockchain Technology [#6192]
The paper explores the study of global decentralized network of satellites and ground stations. A lot of assumptions and trade-offs are mentioned. Also, it is explained with examples how this system can save lives of future astronauts and satellites.

5:10 p.m.

Radley C. F. *   Eubanks T. M.

GNSS with Satcom Networks to Dramatically Improve Space Situational Awareness [#6044]
We propose autonomous tracking devices attached to satellites to send accurate location data to a central station via commercial satellite network. Improved knowledge of spacecraft position improves predictions of collisions by orders of magnitude.

5:30 p.m.

Yan R. D. *   Wang R. L.   Liu S. Q.   Gong J. C.

Accurate Collision Probability Calculation Using Gaussian Mixture in Orbital Uncertainty Propagation [#6047]
A new Gaussian mixture uncertainty propagation method is applied to the calculation of collision probability. The Gaussian mixture algorithm is based on particle-filtering algorithm.

5:50 p.m.

Ly D. *   Lucken R.   Giolito D.

Correcting TLEs at Epoch:  Application to the GPS Constellation [#6132]
This paper presents the hybrid orbit propagator developed within the frame of the CALM project by Share My Space SAS, France.

 

Tuesday, December 10, 2019

IN-SITU AND LABORATORY MEASUREMENTS

9:00 a.m.   Sugar Land Ballroom I–IV

Chairs:  Phillip Anz-Meador and Norman Fitz-Coy

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Times

Authors (*Denotes Presenter)

Abstract Title and Summary

9:00 a.m.

Bennett A. A. *   Schaub H.

Identifying and Assessing Debris Strikes in NASA Spacecraft Telemetry [#6014]
This study examines telemetry from several spacecraft and applies algorithms to identify strikes. Algorithms are developed through both simulation and examination of telemetry during debris strikes, and are run on a variety of telemetry points.

9:20 a.m.

Ward M. A. *   Anz-Meador P. D.

MLI Impact Phenomenology Observed on the HST Bay 5 MLI Panel [#6023]
Three HST Bay MLI blankets were obtained by ODPO to analyze impact features and develop a flux estimate. The impact feature phenomenology observed and a new method of characterization techniques used during analysis of the HST MLI is presented.

9:40 a.m.

Anz-Meador P. D. *   Le L. H.   Ward M. A.   Thomas-Keprta K. L.   Ross D. K.

Analysis of WFPC-2 Core Samples for MMOD Discrimination [#6027]
A selection of large cores from WFPC-2 were reexamined using a new technique to overcome some limitations of traditional crater imaging and analysis. This technique examines a polished, lateral surface area revealed by cross-sectioning a core sample.

10:00 a.m.

Truitt A. S. *   Hartzell C. M.

Characteristics of Plasma Solitons Produced by Small Orbital Debris [#6035]
We will present results from computational simulations of plasma solitons generated by small orbital debris, and discuss the characteristics that influence the detectability of sub-centimeter orbital debris.

10:20 a.m.

Murray J. *   Cowardin H.   Liou J.-C.   Sorge M.   Fitz-Coy N.   Huynh T.

Analysis of the DebriSat Fragments and Comparison to the NASA Standard Satellite Breakup Model [#6135]
This paper will present the current status of the analysis of the DebriSat fragment data, including cumulative characteristic length and cumulative mass distributions, area-to-mass distributions, and characteristic length versus mass distributions.

10:40 a.m.

Wozniakiewicz P. J. *   Kearsley A. T.   Bridges J.   Holt J.   Price M. C.   Burchell M. J.   Hicks L.

Orbital Dust Impact Experiment (ODIE) — A Passive Dust Collector Designed to Address the Dust Flux Data Gap [#6149]
We describe a passive dust collector whose exposure in low Earth orbit and subsequent return to Earth will allow unambiguous identification of both micrometeoroid and orbital debris particles over sizes from 200µm to 2mm.

11:00 a.m.

Toledo R. *   Shiotani B.   Symoens B.   Carrasquilla R.   Fitz-Coy N.

Imaging Systems Utilized in the DebriSat Fragment Size Characterization Process [#6197]
This paper describes the development, operations, and updates to the DebriSat imaging systems. Additionally, preliminary characterization data from the imagers are also discussed.

11:20 a.m.

 

Lunch

 

Tuesday, December 10, 2019

REMEDIATION I

9:00 a.m.   Sugar Land Ballroom V

Chairs:  Christophe Bonnal and Jason Forshaw

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Times

Authors (*Denotes Presenter)

Abstract Title and Summary

9:00 a.m.

Tanishima N. *   Okamoto H.   Iki K.   Watanabe K.   Okumura T.   Kato H.   Hayashi M.   Hirano D.

Concept and Design of the Caging-Based Debris Gripper for PAF Capturing [#6046]
This study proposes the concept and design of the debris gripper to capture PAF of the rocket upper body. The caging-based capturing is selected as technology to capture the debris. Experiments using BBM were carried out to verify its mechanism.

9:20 a.m.

Perrault S. P. *   Soares T. S.   Innocenti L. I.   Delaval J. D.

Design for Removal (D4R) Technologies to Ease the Removal of Future LEO Platforms [#6051]
Active Debris Removal is difficult, especially when the object is uncooperative. ESA Clean Space started a series of activities, called Design for Removal, aiming to ease the capture of its future LEO platforms in case of failure.

9:40 a.m.

Dargin J. F. *

Method and Apparatus for Removing Orbital Space Debris from Near Earth Orbit Using the Solar Wind:  Platform for Redirecting and Removing Inert Space Material (PRRISM) [#6055]
A device that uses an electromagnetic wave to control the solar wind through the polar cusp in order to redirect and remove smaller space debris from near earth orbit without having to operate in the same orbit as the debris.

10:00 a.m.

Bonnal Ch. *   Dupont C.   Missonnier S.   Lequette L.   Merle M.   Rommelaere S.

Just-in-Time Collision Avoidance (JCA) Using a Cloud of Particles [#6062]
Using a cloud of particles injected on the path of a large debris may prevent a collision.

10:20 a.m.

Forshaw J. *   Iizuka S.   Blackerby C.   Okada N.

ELSA-d — A Novel End-of-Life Debris Removal Mission:  Mission Overview, CONOPS, and Launch Preparations [#6076]
The novel End-of-Life Services by Astroscale demonstration (ELSA-d) mission promises to be a major step forward in proving technology necessary for rendezvous and proximity operation (RPO), capture, and removal of orbital debris.

10:40 a.m.

Okamoto H. *   Yamamoto T.

A Novel Concept of Cost-Effective Active Debris Removal Spacecraft System [#6085]
A novel concept of ADR spacecraft system will be introduced with utilization of the air drag for lowering the system requirements, and the cost effective ADR solution, which will remove a large rocket body debris from crowded region, will be shown.

11:00 a.m.

Yamamoto T. *   Nakajima Y.   Sasaki T.   Okada N.   Haruki M.   Yamanaka K.

GNC Strategy to Capture, Stabilize, and Remove Large Space Debris [#6109]
Issues of GNC for ADR can be roughly divided into two:  “How to deal with freely moving targets” and “How to deal with the weight of targets.” Ideas of GNC techniques for solving the above two are described, and numerical simulation results will be shown.

11:20 a.m.

 

Lunch

 

Tuesday, December 10, 2019

HYPERVELOCITY IMPACT AND PROTECTION I

1:00 p.m.   Sugar Land Ballroom I–IV

Chairs:  Eric Christiansen and Sen Liu

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Times

Authors (*Denotes Presenter)

Abstract Title and Summary

1:00 p.m.

Hyde J. L. *   Christiansen E. L.   Lear D. M.

Observations of Micrometeoroid and Orbital Debris Impact Damage to the International Space Station [#6001]
Paper will introduce the ISS Impact database, which includes nearly 1,000 direct observations of hypervelocity impact damage on spacecraft surfaces returned from ISS on the shuttle. On orbit imagery of HVI damage will also be discussed.

1:20 p.m.

Hull S. M. *

Standardized MMOD Shielding for Robotic Spacecraft [#6121]
An approach is proposed to make shielding for MMOD protection more predictable and cost-effective, by developing and testing standard shields for several levels of protection, addressing the threat for a range of orbits.

1:40 p.m.

Akahoshi Y. *

Discharge of Solar Array Coupon Due to Hypervelocity Impact [#6093]
Electric discharge of solar array panel of artificial satellite due to hypervelocity impact is studied.  If applied voltage and supplied current are large enough, not only primary arc but also permanent sustained arc is observed at the impact.

2:00 p.m.

Schonberg W. P. *

Soft Passivation of Spacecraft Pressure Vessels [#6042]
This paper provides a summary of two tasks performed to provide guidelines that could be used by satellite programs to meet passivation requirements using “soft passivation,” that is, when not performing complete fuel depletion or hard passivation.

2:20 p.m.

Bjorkman M. D. *

Aluminum Cratering Relations for In-Situ Detection of Micrometeoroid and Orbital Debris Particle Diameters [#6163]
Recommended aluminum crater dimension scaling relations for interpreting observations of MMOD impact damage.

2:40 p.m.

Di Carlo T.   Graves R. F. *

Improving Meteoroid and Orbital Debris (M/OD) Failure Predictions [#6187] PRESENTATION CANCELLED
This paper aims to improve the state of the art in M/OD failure predictions. For example, how well do predictions correlate with fact? What can we do to improve fidelity? How can better correlation be leveraged for improving space architectures?

 

Tuesday, December 10, 2019

REMEDIATION II

1:00 p.m.   Sugar Land Ballroom V

Chairs:  Satomi Kawamoto and Timothy Maclay

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Times

Authors (*Denotes Presenter)

Abstract Title and Summary

1:00 p.m.

Maclay T. *   Sheehan J. P.   Han E.   Goff J.

The Development of Commercially Viable Active Debris Removal (ADR) Services:  Challenges and Opportunities [#6142]
OneWeb is committed to good environmental stewardship and believes that the long-term space sustainability requires a comprehensive approach to Space Environment Management (SEM), one that includes real possibilities for environmental remediation.

1:20 p.m.

Krag H. *

ESA’s Space Safety Programme [#6147]
ESA’s Space Safety Programme will adress space debris observation, small particle measurements, automated collision avoidance, and an ambitious mission to remove an ESA owned objects >100kg from orbit and onboard technology for debris mitigation.

1:40 p.m.

 

Discussion

2:00 p.m.

Trushlyakov V. I. *   Yudintsev V. V.

Method of Active Debris Removal Using Rotating Space Tether System [#6167]
We propose an alternative technique for orbital transfer of tethered tug-debris system, utilizing rotation of the system to induce tension of the tether that allows applying the tug’s thrust along the tether and use push towing scheme.

2:20 p.m.

Caiazzo A. C. *   Capogna F. C.   Innocenti L. I.   Wolahan A. W.   Vakaet C. V.

Design Principles for Sustainable Close Proximity Operations [#6177]
Interest is rising in the execution of rendezvous, proximity, and capture operations for on-orbit services such as repair, refuelling, and tugging and the definition of accepted technical and safety standards for on-orbit servicing is fundamental.

2:40 p.m.

Jorgensen M. K.   Sharf I.

Optimal Drift Orbital Planning for a Multiple Space Debris Removal Mission Using High-Accuracy Low-Thrust Transfers [#6170]
The purpose of this research is to evaluate and minimize the fuel and time cost of the accurate rendezvous and the de-orbiting of multiple pieces of space debris in a single mission.

 

Tuesday, December 10, 2019

POSTER SESSION I

3:00 p.m.   Sugar Land Ballroom VII–X

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Authors

Abstract Title and Summary

 

An Astronaut’s Risk of Experiencing a Critical Impact from Lunar Ejecta During Lunar EVA [#6129]
Calculated an astronaut’s risk from impact by lunar ejecta while performing a lunar EVA.

Hickson P.

OCS:  A Flexible Observatory Control System for Robotic Telescopes with Application to Detection and Characterization of Orbital Debris [#6066]
I describe a software package for the autonomous control of robotic telescopes for optical observations of space debris. Employed by NASA’s MCAT facility, it automates all functions including tracking, imaging, object detection, and data analysis.

Blacketer L. D. J.   Lewis H. G.   Urrutxua H.

Toward a Physical Characterization of the Soviet/Russian Constellation of Molniya Satellites [#6068]
Light curve analysis could form an important component of future space situational awareness. This paper tests attitude determination techniques on synthetic light curves generated using a number of object geometries and attitude states.

Campbell T.   Reddy V.   Furfaro R.   Tucker S.   Gray D.

Characterizing Space Debris Objects Using Simultaneous Multi-Color Optical Array [#6117]
Using high speed simultaneous multi-color photometry to characterize RSOs, both debris and active.

Zhang C.   Sun R. Y.   Yu S. X.

Combine the Space Domain Situational Awareness and Time Domain Astronomy with Massive Optical Survey [#6161]
Space situational awareness is a kind of resource dependent observation. Introducing data from time domain astronomy will greatly increase the ability of SSA. With this help, on large field survey array CHES, we can take care of both sides.

Carroll J. A.

A Clearer View of Orbital Debris [#6144]
This paper describes and analyzes a ground-based telescope network for detecting and tracking up to most lethal debris in LEO. It also estimates both costs and benefits of being able to avoid even most cm-class shrapnel that will not be tracked by the new S-band radar fence.

Nicholas A. C.   Englert C. R.   Brown C. M.   Finne T. T.   Marr K. D.   Binz C. R.   Healy L.   Kindl S. T.

Lightsheet Sensor for the Detection of Orbital Debris [#6036]
The instrument consists of a camera with a fisheye lens and a light-sheet created via a collimated light source and an axicon. Debris passing through the light-sheet will scatter light into the camera, which allows the detection of the debris.

Matsushita Y.   Arakawa R.   Yoshimura Y.   Hanada T.

Light Curve Analysis and Attitude Estimation of Space Objects Focusing on Glint [#6091]
This paper proposes a high-accurate estimation method only with light curves, by focusing on the characteristic, especially the rapid change of magnitude, called “glint” and shows conditions and characteristics of glint detection using two models.

Pearce E. C.   Weiner B. J.   Krantz H.

Examining the Effects of On-Orbit Aging of SL-12 Rocket Bodies Using Visible Band Spectra with the MMT Telescope [#6180]
We have collected high resolution spectra of five Russian SL12 rocket bodies in GEO. Spectra were collected by the 6.5m MMT telescope Blue Channel Spectrograph. Spectra are analyzed for evidence of the effects of on-orbit reddening and other changes.

Taylor P. A.   Rivera-Valentin E. G.

Radar Characterization of Orbital Debris with Arecibo Observatory and the Planetary Radar Investigation, Demonstration, and Exploration (PRIDE) Laboratory [#6181]
We will describe the technical capabilities of Arecibo Observatory for observations of orbital debris as well as of the PRIDE Lab at the Lunar and Planetary Institute for understanding the radar scattering properties of analog materials.

Gates D.   Anz-Meador P.

An 82o Inclination Debris Cloud Revealed by Radar [#6038]
We describe a new, small particle population discovered by the HUSIR radar. This special population is included in the ORDEM 3.1 engineering model for completeness.

Hostetler J.   Cowardin H.

Experimentally Derived Phase Function Approximations in Support of the Orbital Debris Program Office [#6148]
Overview of NASA’s JSC Optical Measurement Center and the current capabilities for broadband bidirectional reflectance distribution measurements. Laboratory phase functions will also be presented in support of better characterizing orbital debris.

Reyes J. A.   Hoffmann R. H.   Engelhart D. E.   Cowardin H.   Cone D.

Spectroscopic Behavior of Composite, Black Thermal Paint, Solar Cell, and Multi-Layer Insulation Materials in a GEO Simulated Environment [#6184]
Data in this study is of value to the orbital debris community with the presented reflectance spectroscopic measurements and bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) evaluations taken on selected materials used in space hardware.

Allen S.   Fitz-Coy N.

DebriSat Fragment Characterization:  Quality Assurance [#6189]
The DebriSat satellite laboratory hypervelocity impact test was conceived to provide NASA and the DoD with a debris dataset to improve existing satellite break-up models. This paper discusses the testing methods in place to ensure quality data.

Allen A. R.   Bacon J. B.

Macro-Scale Findings of the DebriSat Debris Field Obtained from X-Rays of the Catch Panels [#6029]
Screening/debris-locating X-rays of catchment panels are used to generate a full 3D map of all captured particles from a hypervelocity impact, including shapes and sizes, with shedding/bending history correlated to the path through the panels.

Anz-Meador P. D.   Ward M. A.   Manis A. P.   Nornoo K. B.   Dolan B. P.   Claunch C. A.   Rivera J. A.

The Space Debris Sensor Experiment [#6026]
This paper addresses the technical performance of the SDS during its operational lifetime and its realization of technical and scientific goals.This paper also addresses the anomalies that occurred during operation, their attribution, and resolution.

Diserens S.   Lewis H. G.   Fliege J.

Assessing Collision Algorithms for the NewSpace Era [#6012]
Collision algorithms used in current evolutionary orbital debris models are re-assessed in light of the ongoing changes of the NewSpace era in order to understand the errors potentially introduced and their implications.

Hesselbach S.   Virgili B. B.   Braun V.   Krag H.   Stoll E.

Enhancements for Modeling Future Characteristics with the new ESA-DELTA [#6094]
The new version of the ESA tool DELTA 4 supports an important step towards object-oriented simulation of certain individual behaviour patterns and possibly more realistic evaluations of the long-term development of the space debris environment.

Seago J. H.   Matney M. J.   Vavrin A. B.

Development of a Model for the Small-Particle Orbital Debris Population Based on the STS Impact Record [#6137]
The NASA Orbital Debris Program Office (ODPO) has revisited its modeling of orbiting debris populations having characteristic sizes smaller than 1 cm. Methodologies and results for estimating and adjusting fine-particle populations are described.

Brown M. K.   Lewis H. G.   Kavanagh A. J.   Cnossen I

Future Secular Neutral Density Trends at LEO Altitudes and Their Implications for the Debris Population [#6179]
The impact that greenhouse gas emissions will have upon future thermospheric neutral densities via the numerical atmospheric model WACCM-X, and the implications this will have upon the LEO debris environment where atmospheric drag dominates.

Lewis H. G.   Diserens S.   Maclay T.   Sheehan J. P.

Limitations of the Cube Method for Assessing Large Constellations [#6104]
Errors in collision probability estimates generated by the cube method for the OneWeb constellation were investigated. Results show errors arise due to insufficient sampling, incorrect cube sizes, and an inability to capture constellation structure.

Lin H.-Y.   Zhao C.-Y.

Atmospheric Density Gradient Torque — A Possible New Torque Estimated from the Rotational State of Tiangong-1 [#6050]
We propose a new torque that considers the torque generated by the change in atmospheric density with orbital altitude at satellite scale. The order of magnitude is estimated to be reasonable. The numerical results show that it may need improvement.

Xu Y.-L.   Kennedy T. F.   Stansbery E. G.

Radar Cross Section of Orbital Debris Objects [#6164]
RCS of a non-spherical body is orientation-dependent. Besides the probability density distributions of RCS for orbital debris objects provided in NASA SEM, theoretical tools and computer codes for predicting RCS of irregular shapes are discussed.

Choi E.-J.   Cho K. S.   Yoon J. C.

Development of Space Surveillance Tracking and Orbit Determination Program [#6116]
This paper presents the space surveillance tracking and orbit determination program(SSTOD) and its verification results. SSOTD was developed to prepare space hazards such as the reentry or collision of orbital debris.

Adilov N.   Alexander P. J.   Cunningham B. M.

Economic Dynamics of Orbital Debris:  Theory and Application [#6072]
Using economic models of business activity in orbital space, the study analyzes how economic forces contribute to the accumulation and mitigation of orbital debris and presents the forecasts of future levels of orbital debris and economic activity.

Mukherjee B.   Ratnoo A.   Ghose D.   Ramadas M.

Spacecraft Attitude Determination from Landmarks on Space Objects [#6206]
The success of most space debris mitigation practices, such as on-orbit collision avoidance, post mission disposal by de-/re-orbiting, controlled or semi-controlled re-entry into atmosphere etc. necessitates attitude knowledge of the space vehicle..

Cooper J.   Juvan-Beaulien I   Wise A.

Scientific CMOS Optical Detectors for Orbital Debris Observations [#6207]
In ground-based optical tracking, size of tracked objects is limited by camera performance, with throughput and noise at odds. Simulations show how imaging system, sensor architecture and camera performance effect accuracy of estimated trajectories.

 

Tuesday, December 10, 2019

HYPERVELOCITY IMPACT AND PROTECTION II

4:00 p.m.   Sugar Land Ballroom I–IV

Chairs:  William Schonberg and Yasuhiro Akahoshi

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Times

Authors (*Denotes Presenter)

Abstract Title and Summary

4:00 p.m.

Davis B. A. *   Christiansen E. L.   Lear D. M.   Miller J. E.

Hypervelocity Impact of Composite Overwrap Pressure Vessels [#6102]
There’s a limited amount of hypervelocity impact (HVI) data on pressurized composite overwrapped pressure vessels (COPV’s). NASA has performed HVI tests to characterize impact conditions resulting in either leak or burst of the COPVs.

4:20 p.m.

Schonberg W. P. *

Will it Leak? Will it Burst? COPV Perforation and Rupture After a MMOD Impact [#6043]
Two types of equations for COPVs:  A RLE that differentiates between conditions that result in either a rupture or only a small hole, and a BLE that distinguishes between conditions that result in only a front side puncture from those that would not.

4:40 p.m.

 

Discussion

5:00 p.m.

Hoffman K. D.   Hyde J. L.   Christiansen E. L.   Lear D. M.

Comparison of Risk from Orbital Debris and Meteoroid Environment Models on the Extravehicular Mobility Unit [#6131]
Comparison of the updated orbital debris and meteoroid environment models (i.e. ORDEM 3.0 vs 3.1 and MEM R2 vs R3) with regards to MMOD risk to the extravehicular mobility unit (EMU) ”spacesuit.”

5:20 p.m.

Miller J. E. *

Considerations of Oblique Impacts of Non-Spherical, Graphite-Epoxy Projectiles [#6021]
This work extends recent work in the development of oblique impacts of shaped projectiles at a representative orbital speed of 7 km/s and addresses the complexities associated with that addition.

5:40 p.m.

Steinhauser M. O. *

Particle-Based Modeling of Hypervelocity Impact and Fragmentation in Materials [#6200]
In this paper we investigate the suitability of particle-based methods for simulating hypervelocity impact phenomena and present a simple model based on discrete spheres interacting via cohesive and repulsive potentials.

 

Tuesday, December 10, 2019

METEOROIDS

4:00 p.m.   Sugar Land Ballroom V

Chairs:  William Cooke and Diego Janches

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Times

Authors (*Denotes Presenter)

Abstract Title and Summary

4:00 p.m.

Moorhead A. V. *

Meteoroid Engineering Model (MEM) 3:  NASA’s Newest Meteoroid Model [#6054]
We present version 3 of the Meteoroid Engineering Model, which provides a more accurate and easier-to-use model of the meteoroid environment in the inner solar system.

4:20 p.m.

Ehlert S. R. *   Cooke W. J.

Modeling Meteoroid Densities for Spacecraft Risk Assessment [#6008]
We discuss the methods by which NASA’s Meteoroid Environment Office (MEO) is modeling the ablation of meteoroids in order to measure their bulk densities. We will emphasize the implications of these measurements for spacecraft risk.

4:40 p.m.

Janches D. *   Bruzzone J. S.   Hormaechea J. L.   Weryk R.   Gural P.   Matney M.   Minow J.   Cooke W.   Robinson R. M.

A Status Update on the Southern Hemisphere Meteoroid Measurements [#6064]
We present a status report of an observational facility to monitor the meteoroid environment in the Southern Hemisphere, which provides to NASA’s Meteoroid Environment Office (MEO) a more complete picture of potential meteoroid-related threats.

5:00 p.m.

Rodmann J. *   Bunte K. D.   Miller A.   Millinger M.   Traud m.   Zaake M.

Micrometeoroid Impact Risk Assessment for Interplanetary Missions [#6070]
This paper will provide an overview of the main software development activities to enable ESABASE2/Debris, ESA’s tool to analyse the effects of space debris and meteoroid impacts on spacecraft, to provide risk assessment for interplanetary missions.

5:20 p.m.

Fladeland L.   Boley A. C. *   Byers M.

Meteoroid Stream Formation Due to the Extraction of Space Resources from Asteroids [#6101]
We simulate the formation of debris streams by directly integrating particles released during asteroid mining. The results will be used to highlight astro-environmental considerations for the further development of international space law.

 

Wednesday, December 11, 2019

DYNAMICS AND MODELING

9:00 a.m.   Sugar Land Ballroom I–IV

Chairs:  Alessandro Rossi and Daniel Scheeres

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Times

Authors (*Denotes Presenter)

Abstract Title and Summary

9:00 a.m.

Di Mare L.   Cicalò S.   Rossi A. *   Alessi E. M.   Valsecchi G. B.

In-Orbit Fragmentation Characterization and Parent Bodies Identification by Means of Orbital Distances [#6007]
We propose a new approach to correlate fragments with known orbits to parent objects, using the definition of a suitable orbital similarity function, like it is usually done in the case of asteroid families and meteor streams identification.

9:20 a.m.

Petit A.   Alessi E. M.   Rossi A. *

Low-Thrust Strategies and Implications in the Perspective of Space Debris Mitigation for Large Constellations [#6032]
The aim of this work is to address the low-thrust maneuvering of large constellations for collision avoidance and deorbiting purposes. The analysis focuses on the orbital dynamics, the environmental implications, and the operational effort.

9:40 a.m.

Kim R. H. *

Small Debris Estimation Approach Using Sparse Sampling to Infer Markov Steady State Distributions [#6060]
Using Markov process framework to characterize deep space debris distributions in order to determine optimal data collection policies.

10:00 a.m.

Benson C. J. *   Scheeres D. J.

Averaged Tumbling Dynamics of Defunct GEO Satellites [#6080]
Many defunct GEO satellites are evolving in non-principal axis tumbling. Averaging solar torques over the tumbling motion, our results are consistent with full dynamics simulations and help explain the mechanisms driving long-term evolution.

10:20 a.m.

Healy L. M. *   Halpin B. T.   Kindl S. T.   Hoskins B. P.   Binz C. R.

Initial Velocity Distribution and Consequent Spatial Distribution of Fragments [#6115]
A fixed amount of energy distributed equally into the whole set of fragments whose masses follow a power law determine the velocity distribution, which affects the resultant time-dependent spatial density.

10:40 a.m.

Furfaro R. *   Linares R.   Reddy V.

Space Debris Identification and Characterization via Deep Meta-Learning [#6123]
In this paper, we design, test, and validate a new class of deep meta-learning algorithms that can discriminate debris from non-debris objects using single and multi-color light curve data.

11:00 a.m.

Dolado J. C. *   Morand V.   Yanez C.

BAS3E:  A Framework to Conceive, Design, and Validate Present and Future SST Architectures [#6154]
This paper introduces a complete SST simulation framework with the goal to evolve existing Space Surveillance and Tracking (SST) network, both from a software and hardware point of view, and to define major evolutions of existing SST networks.

11:20 a.m.

 

Lunch

 

Wednesday, December 11, 2019

STM, SSA, AND POLICY

9:00 a.m.   Sugar Land Ballroom V

Chairs:  Pascal Faucher and Hedley Stokes

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Times

Authors (*Denotes Presenter)

Abstract Title and Summary

9:00 a.m.

Oltrogge D. L. *   Christiansen I.

Space Governance in the New Space Era [#6013]
This paper presents a broad, holistic overview of our current space governance system, from spacecraft operators and relevant industry associations, to United Nations, IADC, ITU, ISO, and CCSDS, and finally national policy and regulatory governance.

9:20 a.m.

Stokes H. *   Akahoshi Y.   Bonnal C.   Destefanis R.   Gu Y.   Kato A.   Kutomanov A.   LaCroix A.   Lemmens S.   Lohvynenko A.   Oltrogge D.   Omaly P.   Opiela J.   Quan H.   Sato K.   Sorge M.   Tang M.

Evolution of ISO’s Space Debris Mitigation Standards [#6053]
We describe the ISO space debris mitigation standards and how they are evolving to address the needs of space environment sustainability within the context of a rapidly changing space industry. Particular emphasis is placed on ISO 24113.

9:40 a.m.

Carroll J. A.

Bounties on Orbital Debris? [#6143]
This paper fleshes out a funding option involving paying bounties for removing or relocating debris based on estimated future savings.

10:00 a.m.

McKnight D. *   Arora R.   Witner R.

Intact Derelict Deposition Study [#6011]
This study characterizes the deposition profile for the current on-orbit massive derelicts (i.e., rocket bodies and nonoperational payloads) by country, orbit, and mass. This research provides context for ongoing debris collision risk analysis.

10:20 a.m.

Weeden C. *   Blackerby C.   Forshaw J.   Martin C.   Lopez R.   Yamamoto E.   Okada N.

Perspectives from Astroscale:  Development of Global Policy for Active Debris Removal Services [#6077]
This paper examines Astroscale’s efforts in actively discussing global standards and policy for orbital debris removal with a range of constituencies. We are contributing to discussions among policy makers in the U.S., Japan, and Europe.

10:40 a.m.

Faucher P. *   Peldszus R.

Operational Space Surveillance and Tracking in Europe [#6165]
This paper presents the EU SST Consortium, focusing on its creation, current functioning and governance, describing the various functions (sensor, data processing, service provision) and presenting some results of future architecture studies.

11:00 a.m.

Gleason M. P. *

Prioritizing and Establishing Mechanisms for the Formation of Space Traffic Management Standards, Guidelines, and Best Practices [#6182]
This paper addresses U.S. Space Policy Directive-3 on National Space Traffic Management (STM) Policy and identifies the need for more than 40 different STM related standards, best practices, and guidelines to be developed to broadly address STM issues.

11:20 a.m.

 

Lunch

 

Wednesday, December 11, 2019

CONJUNCTION ASSESSMENT MISSION IMPACTS AND MANAGEMENT

1:00 p.m.   Sugar Land Ballroom I–IV

Chairs:  Joshua Parris and Camilla Colombo

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Times

Authors (*Denotes Presenter)

Abstract Title and Summary

1:00 p.m.

Mulholland M. *

Department of Commerce’s Vision for STM/SSA and Enhanced Conjunction Assessments 

1:20 p.m.

Channumsin S. *   Sreesawet S.   Saroj T.   Saingyen P.   Puttasuwan K   Udomthanatheera P.   Jaturut S.

Collision Avoidance Strategies and Conjunction Risk Analysis Tool by GISTDA [#6004]
This paper presents the current collision avoidance operation for GISTDA mission. We provide an overview on the development of the risk assessment tool, the architecture design, and further development of the system to support all Thailand satellites.

1:40 p.m.

Richardson-Little W. *   Patterson C.   Peake G.

Collision Avoidance Management for Earth Observation Constellation Missions [#6118]
MDA has created a risk mitigation/operations support demonstration tool for CSA’s RADARSAT Constellation Mission to provide an assessment of debris avoidance maneuvers, including orbital tube recovery options, based on various optimization criteria.

2:00 p.m.

Gonzalo J. L.   Colombo C. *

Introducing MISS, a New Tool for Collision Avoidance Analysis and Design [#6128]
Manoeuvre Intelligence for Space Safety (MISS) is a new tool for designing maximum miss distance or minimum collision probability collision avoidance manoeuvres, either impulsive or low-thrust, based in analytical and semi-analytical techniques.

2:20 p.m.

Singh S. K. *

A New Tool for Conjunction Analysis of ISRO’s Operational Satellites, Close Approach Prediction Software:  CLAPS [#6158]
The paper describes the design methodology used in development of a new conjunction analysis tool named CLAPS. Efficiency and accuracy of results are presented. This tool is operational at ISRO’s control center for monitoring close approaches.

2:40 p.m.

 

Discussion

 

Wednesday, December 11, 2019

MITIGATION I

1:00 p.m.   Sugar Land Ballroom V

Chairs:  Karl Kensinger and Scott Hull

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Times

Authors (*Denotes Presenter)

Abstract Title and Summary

1:00 p.m.

Pryzby M. S. *   Hull S. M.   Russo A. M.   Helfrich D. D.   Iona G. T.   Webb E. H.

Landsat 9 Micrometeoroid and Orbital Debris Mission Success Approach [#6058]
L9 incorporated MMOD protection for small object collisions as part of the L9’s mission success criteria. NASA/GSFC developed a design process to protect against MMOD during the life of Low Earth Orbit observatories components not related to reentry.

1:20 p.m.

Suchantke I.   Braun V.   Letizia F.   Braun V.   Krag H.   Soucek A.

Space Sustainability in Martian Orbits — First Insights in a Technical and Regulatory Analysis [#6110]
This paper deals with the issue of space debris in martian orbits in the light of planetary protection to shed light on a topic of future importance.

1:40 p.m.

Braun V. *   Funke Q.   Lemmens S.   Sanvido S.

DRAMA 3.0 — Upgrade of ESA’s Debris Risk Assessment and Mitigation Analysis Tool Suite [#6136]
The Debris Risk Assessment and Mitigation Analysis (DRAMA) software has been recently updated. It is being used in the compliance verification process at ESA but also in other agencies world-wide. New functions are presented along with dedicated examples.

2:00 p.m.

Renard E. *   Oriol St.   Bonnal Ch.   Leboucher St.   Joner St.   Jourdainne L.   Daugeron F.

Maneuvers to Reduce Ariane 5 Upper Stage Lifetime Duration in Orbit [#6090]
The Ariane 5 Upper Stage is not re-ignitable. So it is not possible to do a controlled re-entry after the main mission. Maneuvers, using remaining onboard energy, have been implemented to reduce its altitude and so its lifetime duration in orbit.

2:20 p.m.

Voss H. D.   Dailey J. D.   Orvis M. B.   Voss M. C. *   Kiers K.   Brandle S.   Bowser I.   Marazzi B.

“Black Box” RF Sat-Link for Space Debris, Mission Success, and Risk Mitigation [#6126]
Expensive satellites may be lost without a Black Box by identifying problems early before they reach a ground station (hours). The Black Box is currently in SBIR phase II and has hertage. It provides 24/7 real-time (sec) health and status visibility.

2:40 p.m.

 

Discussion

 

Wednesday, December 11, 2019

POSTER SESSION II

3:00 p.m.   Sugar Land Ballroom VII–X

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Authors

Abstract Title and Summary

Pellegrino M. M.   Scheeres D. J.   Streetman B. J.

Long Term Dynamics of Debris Objects in MEO [#6162]
This paper will seek to study the evolution of orbits in MEO in both the satellites that are currently in it, namely heavy GNSS satellites, and the potential orbital debris that may inhabit the region, including high area to mass ratio objects.

Rovetto R. J.   Kelso T. S.   O’Neil D. A.

Orbital Debris Ontology, Terminology, and Knowledge Modeling [#6172]
Knowledge modeling, specifically ontology engineering for orbital debris data, is discussed. The Orbital Debris Ontology, part of the author’s work to develop an orbital space domain ontology, is summarized. Standards efforts, terminological, and policy questions can benefit.

Carrasquilla R. E.   Fitz-Coy N. F.

DebriSat:  Generating a Dataset to Improve Space Debris Models from a Laboratory Hypervelocity Experiment [#6193]
Overview of the DebriSat project, and preliminary findings on fragment characterizations and distributions.

Samuel R. H.

A New Method of Refining Near-Earth Object Characteristics and Behaviours Using Differential Correction [#6003]
A new method of refining the physical and behavioural characteristics of near-earth orbiting objects is being developed. This paper describes the solution strategy, the input data requirements, the uniqueness of solutions, and implementation issues.

Kuznetsov E. D.   Belkin S. O.

Orbital Flips Due to Solar Radiation Pressure for Orbital Debris in Near-Circular Orbits [#6152]
Orbital plane flips due to solar radiation pressure are investigated. We consider initial near-circular orbits in the vicinity of the GNSS, GEO, geosynchronous orbits, and super-GEO regions. Flips are fixed for high area-to-mass ratios.

Libben B. J.   Needels J. T.   Ellerby D. T.   Vander Kam J. C.   White T. R.   Gage P. J.   Robertson D. K.   Coates A. M.

High Velocity Impact Performance of a Dual Layer Thermal Protection System for the Mars Sample Return Earth Entry Vehicle [#6030]
This paper will discuss the performance of the dual layer TPS material HEEET against a wide range of impact kinetic energies and densities, as well as the comparison of HEEET to PICA in terms of MM/OD performance and selectability criteria.

Christiansen E. L.   Davis B. A.

Using Heat-Cleaned Nextel in MMOD Shielding [#6099]
This paper will provide data demonstrating that hypervelocity impact protection performance is not adversely altered for shields containing heat-cleaned Nextel compared to Nextel with sizing left on the fabric to reduce fiber breakage.

Lear D. M.   Christiansen E. L.   Hyde J. L.

BUMPER:  A Tool for Analyzing Spacecraft Micrometeoroid and Orbital Debris Risk [#6120]
“Bumper” is NASA’s computer program for analyzing spacecraft micrometeoroid and orbital debris (MMOD) risk. The NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) Hypervelocity Impact Technology (HVIT) Team is responsible for all aspects of the Bumper software.

Smith A. N.   Greene B. R.

Development and Analysis of the Automated Object Reentry Survival Analysis Tool’s Parametric Study Wrapper [#6028]
The authors have developed a wrapper program for the ORSAT that can be used to perform Monte Carlo style analyses of object reentry demise. Results of initial studies using this tool and the development of a survivability database are presented.

Singh S. K.

IRNSS-1H/PSLV-C39 Orbit Evolution and Re-Entry Analysis [#6159]
The paper provides the results of re-entry prediction analysis for IRNSS-1H/PSLV-C39 object.

Bamann C.   Hugentobler U.   Scharring S.   Riede W.   Setty S. J.

Analysis of Collision Avoidance via Ground-Based Laser Momentum Transfer [#6063]
There is little potential of action in case of conjunctions where neither chaser nor target can be controlled by spacecraft operators. In this regard, we study potentials and limitations of momentum transfer via ground-based lasers for collision avoidance.

Rajesh Kannan M. R.   Jantikar R.   Nagesh Rao B.   Subramanian M. N.   Shenoy H. P.

Two-Line-Element Self Consistency Analysis of Orbital Debris in Geosynchronous Regime [#6166]
In this paper we present the analysis of TLE self-consistency of uncontrolled objects in geosynchronous regime, based on their orbit classification. It helps in improving the close approach analysis for geosynchronous space situational awareness.

Wang R. L.   Liu W.   Yan R. D.   Shi L. Q.   Kiu S. Q.

Refinded Study of Space Debris Collision Warning Techniques [#6048]
This paper introduced some further work on the collision warning techniques including TLE precision improvement, drag coefficient analysis, the size and error effect to the collision probability, and so on.

Harris T. H. S.

Angular Momentum Actuator Network Architecture for Bending, Length Change, Grapple Docking, and Orbit Upkeep of Bi-Helical Space Junk Mitigation Tether [#6005]
An extended tether with smart-controlled bending and longitudinal actuation may prove useful for “Grapple and Throw Down” space junk mitigation, matching speeds, and grabbing target junk by strong twist and fling of the grapple, throw down adding delta V.

Anz-Meador P.

Root Cause Classification of Breakup Events 1961–2018 [#6040]
In this paper we examine the root causes of all known fragmentation events, and the effectiveness of mitigation standard practices in managing the progenitors and the general debris environment.

Migaud M. R.

Policy Tools for Preventing, Mitigating, and Defending Against Orbital Debris [#6103]
This analysis maps the policy tools used to combat space debris at the national and international levels, and divides United States orbital debris policies by their ability to prevent, mitigate, and defend against orbital debris.

Maury T.   Morales Serrano S.   Loubet P.   Sonnemann G.   Colombo C.   Innocenti L.

Space Debris Through the Prism of the Environmental Performance of Space Systems [#6086]
The space sector is a new area of development for Life Cycle Assessment studies. However, environmental impacts occur in both the Earth and orbital environments. We propose a methodology to characterize  potential impacts on the orbital environment.

Croghan A. M. C.

Proposal for Ablation Cascade Mitigation and Defense [#6113]
Calls for an immediate beginning to building a self sustaining mitigation infrastructure in orbit using biomimicry, programmable materials, additive manufacturing, and swarm intelligence.

Nitta M. N.   Yoshimura Y. Y.   Hanada T. H.

Space Debris Mitigation by Passive Debris Removal in Large Constellation [#6084]
When a satellite breaks up, hundreds of thousands of space debris are generated. They continue to drift in space, and thus debris removal for the constellation is necessary. This study investigates the effectiveness of Passive Debris Removal.

Collins R. A.   Duchek M. E.   Abrams J. L.

Drag and Solar Sail for Earth Return (DISPOSER) [#6191]
The Drag and Solar Sail for Earth Return (DISPOSER) system is a combined solar/drag sail solution to deorbit from altitudes up to 2000 km with ballistic coefficient modulation to perform precision targeted reentry by controlling the area of the sail.

Hari Shankar R. L.

Space Debris Scavenging [#6175]
The target is to capture space debris in LEO of wreckage size between 0.1mm-10cm. Snake arm technology has been suggested to capture debris.The captured debris get collected in the junk box and then the system switches to its disposal mechanism.

Hoying M.   Craig G.   Dorfner N.   Sutton K.   Evans A.   Hoydick J.   Aley P.   Weitzel S.   Steen A.   Perez S.   Joiner P.   Kuhn E.

Solar Orbital Logistics Forecasting and Radiation Module (SOLFARM) [#6171]
SOLFARM is a Mission of Opportunity to take advantage of the Gateway as an existing platform to study various aspects of space weather, as well as provide a platform for monitoring space debris via a unique vantage point from the Earth-Sun L4 point.

Gagliano L.   MacLeod T.   Hovater M.

Marshall Space Flight Center Technology Capabilities for Use in Space Situational Awareness Activities [#6155]
Overview of Marshall’s technologies that benefit three grouped areas of SSA, to include Orbital Debris:  database/analyses/visualization, detection/tracking, and mitigation/removal.

 

Wednesday, December 11, 2019

SSA, OPERATION RISKS AND ANOMALIES

4:00 p.m.   Sugar Land Ballroom I–IV

Chairs:  Darren McKnight and Andrew Ratcliffe

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Times

Authors (*Denotes Presenter)

Abstract Title and Summary

4:00 p.m.

Pastor A. *   Escobar D.   Sanjurjo-Rivo M.   Agueda A.

Correlation Techniques for Catalogue Build-Up and Maintenance with Radar and Optical Survey Measurements [#6098]
This paper focuses on correlation techniques for both radar and optical measurements involved in the build-up and maintenance of a catalogue of resident space objects.

4:20 p.m.

Harris T.   Memon K. *

In-Orbit Risk Assessment in the Era of New Space [#6204]
The UK Space Agency is currently developing a new in-house risk assessment capability, with the goal of better understanding both the likelihood and the consequences of unexpected in-orbit events, and provide evidence based capability for both licensing decisions and policy development.

4:40 p.m.

Peterson G. E. *   Sorge M. E.   McVey J. P.

Forensic Analysis of Debris-Generating Events:  Orbcomm FM 16 [#6024]
The Orbcomm FM 16 satellite experienced a debris generating event. Numerous pieces of debris were cataloged, and a forensic analysis of the observed debris was performed using techniques developed to evaluate debris-generating events.

5:00 p.m.

Williamsen J. *   Pechkis D.   Balakrishnan A.   Ouelette S.

Characterizing the Orbital Debris Environment Using Satellite Perturbation Anomaly Data [#6065]
This paper describes a method for correlating observed satellite orbital changes to small orbital debris impacts, and means for detecting anomalous orbit and attitude changes in individual satellites and satellite constellations.

5:20 p.m.

Kunstadter C. *

Space Insurance:  Fostering Innovation and Responsible Behavior in Space [#6150]
Space insurance is an enabler of innovation and investment in the space economy, as well as acting as a driver to change behavior. The space insurance market mitigates risk, protects assets, and enables business continuity.

5:40 p.m.

Cunio P. M. *   Flewelling B. R.   Bantel M.   Hendrix D.   Therien W.

Remote Sensing-Enabled Methods for Attributing Energetic On-Orbit Anomalies to Natural or Artificial Causes [#6160]
Detailed observations and analysis of recent satellite anomalies at GEO is presented with some assessment of data needs for feasible incident analysis and recommendations for evolving best practices in geosynchronous satellite anomaly attribution.

6:00 p.m.

 

Discussion

 

Wednesday, December 11, 2019

MITIGATION II

4:00 p.m.   Sugar Land Ballroom V

Chairs:  Heiner Klinkrad and Walter Everetts

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Times

Authors (*Denotes Presenter)

Abstract Title and Summary

4:00 p.m.

Everetts W. M. *   Iovanov M.   Rock K. M.

Iridium’s Deorbit Strategy, Execution, and Results [#6190]
Responsible space operational posture includes an actionable plan for satellite disposal. Iridium recently completed a deorbit program for their entire fleet of operational “Block 1” LEO assets. This paper provides status on this successful project.

4:20 p.m.

Tarabini Castellani L. *   Ortega A.   Gimenez A.   Urgoiti E.   Sánchez-Arriaga G.   Borderes Motta G.   Lorenzini E. C.   Tajmar M.   Wätzig K.   Post A.   Plaza J. F.

Low Work-Function Tether Deorbit Kit [#6173]
The Low Work-Function Tether Deorbit Kit is a completely autonomous propellantless de-orbit system designed for satellites in orbit of up to 1200 km altitude.

4:40 p.m.

Rhatigan J. L. *   Lan W. D.

Drag-Enhancing Deorbit Devices for Spacecraft Self-Disposal:  A Review of Progress and Opportunities [#6124]
A review of drag-enhancing deorbit devices for spacecraft self-disposal is overdue. We provide an overview of recent progress and opportunities for mid-sized and smaller spacecraft.

5:00 p.m.

Petit A. *   Rossi A.   McKnight D.

Examining Short-Term Space Safety Effects from LEO Constellations and Clusters [#6010]
The analysis will quantify the level of mitigation/remediation actions needed to manage the risk due to large satellite constellations and clusters of massive derelict objects in a restricted region of space, providing a means to compare these cases.

5:20 p.m.

Rossi A. *   Alessi E. M.   Schaus V.

Assessing the Effectiveness of Resonant Corridors in Passive Debris Disposal [#6022]
Long-term simulations show how the resonance corridors resulting from resonances involving gravitational and non-gravitational perturbations, coupled with area augmentation devices, are effective in removing the objects at the end-of-life in high LEO.

5:40 p.m.

Sweetser T. H. *   Braun B. M.   Acocella M.   Vincent M. A.

Quantitative Assessment of a Threshold for Risk Mitigation Actions [#6157]
Earth orbit missions often adopt an action threshold, above which action is taken to reduce the risk of collision with large orbital debris. We give an algorithm for estimating how much risk is mitigated as a function of the action threshold value.

6:00 p.m.

 

Discussion

 

Thursday, December 12, 2019

OPTICAL MEASUREMENTS I

9:00 a.m.   Sugar Land Ballroom I–IV

Chairs:  Heather Cowardin and Thomas Schildknecht

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Times

Authors (*Denotes Presenter)

Abstract Title and Summary

9:00 a.m.

Lederer S. M. *   Buckalew B. B.   Hickson P.

NASA’s Orbital Debris JAO/ES-MCAT Optical Telescope Facility on Ascension Island [#6039]
NASA’s orbital debris telescope, MCAT, is now well on track to reach Full Operational Capability (FOC) in 2019 for its survey, TLE, and rate-track capabilities. A full overview of MCAT’s operational state, capabilities, and mission will be discussed.

9:20 a.m.

Schildknecht T. *   Flohrer T.   Vananti A.   Cordelli E.

ESA Optical Surveys to Characterize Recent Fragmentation Events in GEO and HEO [#6016]
Several major fragmentation events in GEO and HEO were observed in 2018 and 2019. AIUB and ESA are using sensors of the Zimmerwald Observatory, Switzerland, complemented by the ESA 1-m telescope at the OGS, Tenerife, to characterize these events.

9:40 a.m.

Silha J. *   Krajcovic S.   Zigo M.   Toth J.   Kornos L.   Zigo P.   Simon J.   Setty S. J.   Flohrer T.   Jilete B.

AGO70 Telescope, Slovak Optical System for Space Debris Research, Surveillance, and SLR Tracking Support [#6034]
The Slovak 70cm Newton design telescope with primary focus on the space debris research, space surveillance, and tracking. System has several scientific programs aiming toward object’s characterization and real-time astrometric data acquisition.

10:00 a.m.

Grosse D. *   Korkiakoski V.   Lingham M.   Bennet F.   d’Orgeville C.   Copeland M.   Travouillon T.   Gao Y.   Blundell M.   Smith C.   Gilbert J.   Sharp R.   Jah M.

Space Situational Awareness at the Australian National University [#6176]
This paper presents Space Situational Awareness capabilities of the Australian National University focusing on satellite imaging in low Earth orbits using adaptive optics and tracking of satellites in Geostationary orbit using lucky imaging.

10:20 a.m.

Buzzoni A.   Guichard J.   Altavilla G.   Figer A.   Alessi E. M.   Tommei G.

Toward a Physical Characterization of the Soviet/Russian Constellation of Molniya Satellites [#6067]
We report on the extended 2014–17 observing campaign of the 43 surviving Soviet/Russian spacecraft Molniya. Spectrophotometry and astrodynamical analysis have been carried out for all the dead payloads now in uncontrolled HEO orbit.

10:40 a.m.

Kucharski D. *   Kirchner G.   Flegel S. K.   Jah M. K.   Bennett J. C.

High-Definition Photometry — An Optical Method for Remote Detection of MMOD Impacts on Satellites [#6075]
The High-definition Photometry is an optical method for the remote detection of the MMOD impacts on the satellites; it analyzes the solar reflections off the satellite and detects the reflectivity anomalies that can indicate the surface damage.

 

Thursday, December 12, 2019

ENVIRONMENT MODELING I

9:00 a.m.   Sugar Land Ballroom V

Chairs:  Mark Matney and Hugh Lewis

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Times

Authors (*Denotes Presenter)

Abstract Title and Summary

9:00 a.m.

Matney M. *   Manis A.   Anz-Meador P.   Gates D.   Seago J. H.   Vavrin A.   Xu Y.-L.

The NASA Orbital Debris Engineering Model 3.1:  Development, Verification, and Validation [#6134]
The newest version of the NASA Orbital Debris Engineering Model, ORDEM 3.1, has been developed, incorporating the latest and highest fidelity datasets available to build and validate representative orbital debris populations for LEO to GEO altitudes.

9:20 a.m.

Manis A. *   Matney M.   Anz-Meador P.   Cowardin H.

The Updated GEO Population for ORDEM 3.1 [#6139]
The newest version of the NASA Orbital Debris Engineering Model, ORDEM 3.1, includes improved methods for building the GEO population, both in the assessment of fragmentation debris in the data and assignment of orbital elements within the model.

9:40 a.m.

Horstmann A. *   Krag H.   Stoll E.

Providing Flux Uncertainties in ESA-MASTER:  The Accuracy of the 1cm Population [#6015]
Since MASTER is an event-based model, each on-orbit fragmentation event is simulated individually and calibrated on dedicated measurement campaigns. This validation procedure shapes the uncertainties which are provided as direct output in the tool.

10:00 a.m.

Lewis H. G. *

Understanding Long-Term Orbital Debris Population Dynamics [#6097]
DAMAGE was used to understand the evolution of the LEO orbital debris population over a 1000-year period. The results suggest additional mitigation measures may be required, with special attention given to the 1200-1500 km altitude region.

10:20 a.m.

Mains D. L. *   Sorge M. E.

Integrated Breakup Modeling Solutions from DebriSat Analysis [#6025]
Specific components of the fragmentation model, IMPACT, such as mass and shape distributions as functions of material with respect to DebriSat data and relative to on-orbit data, are evaluated in the context of integration into a cohesive model.

10:40 a.m.

 

Discussion

 

Thursday, December 12, 2019

OPTICAL MEASUREMENTS II

11:00 a.m.   Sugar Land Ballroom I–IV

Chairs:  Susan Lederer and Zachary Slatton

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Times

Authors (*Denotes Presenter)

Abstract Title and Summary

11:00 a.m.

Yoshimura Y. *   Matsushita Y.   Arakawa R.   Hanada T.

Combining Photometric Data Formulation with Attitude Model of a Spinning Solar Sail Spacecraft [#6082]
This paper combines a light curve formulation and dynamics of a solar sail using spin averaging. The method enables not only reducing the number of state variables, but also relating the surface properties to the attitude dynamics of space objects.

11:20 a.m.

Friedmann A.   Fan S.   Frueh C. *   Schildknecht T.

Observability of Light Curve Shape Inversion Based on Noisy Optical Data [#6195]
The paper describes a shape inversion method that is robust to deliver object shapes in the presence of significant measurement noise based on easy to measure optical light curves. Results are shown based on simulated and actually measured data.

11:40 a.m.

Sanaga R.   Frueh C. *

Method for Multi-Target Tracking Using a PHD-Filter in the Presence of Uncertain Probability of Detection [#6198]
Multi-target tracking methods heavily depend on accurate probabilistic input, such as the probability of detection, which traditionally need to be exactly known. Here, we introduce a method to represent uncertainty in the probability of detection.

12:00 p.m.

Slatton Z. M. *   Butkus A.   Bruck R.

Applications of Simultaneous Tracking with Optical Sensors [#6056]
This paper presents new tasking and search concepts for stereoscopic tracking of resident space objects with optical sensors to allow for faster processing of maneuvers and uncorrelated tracks (UCTs).

12:20 p.m.

Wagner G. *   Wagner P.   Schafer E.   Hampf D.   Riede W.

Mobile Station for Orbit Determination of Satellites and Space Debris [#6203]
Initial orbit determination of satellites and space debris is of interest for satellite operators and agencies with critical infrastructure in low earth orbit. At DLR, a mobile platform is under development for the surveillance, tracking and ranging.

12:40 p.m.

Steindorfer M. A. *   Koidl F.   Wang P.   Kirchner G.

Daylight Space Debris Laser Ranging [#6002]
A method to visualize space debris objects during daylight is presented. Inaccurate predictions are corrected in realtime, centering the target in the field of view. First space debris laser ranging results are presented.

 

Thursday, December 12, 2019

ENVIRONMENT MODELING II

11:00 a.m.   Sugar Land Ballroom V

Chairs:  Marlon Sorge and Alyssa Manis

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Times

Authors (*Denotes Presenter)

Abstract Title and Summary

11:00 a.m.

Vavrin A. *   Manis A.   Gates D.   Matney M.

Risk of Increased Fragmentation Events Due to Low Altitude Large Constellation Spacecraft [#6009]
This paper will address the lower altitude constellations and the potential risk that they impose on the future space traffic. The projected future environment is generated as the average of 100 LEGEND Monte Carlo (MC) simulation runs.

11:20 a.m.

Lewis H. G. *

Evaluation of Post-Mission Disposal Options for a Large Constellation [#6069]
The DAMAGE model was used to assess the impact of a large constellation, comprising 10440 spacecraft, on the debris population. Results showed a benefit from moving a 1800-spacecraft component from 1100 km to 550 km, but collisions still persisted.

11:40 a.m.

Henning G. A. *   Sorge M. E.   Peterson G. E.   Jenkin A. B.   Mains D.   McVey J. P.

Parameterizing Large Constellations Post-Mission Disposal Success to Predict the Impact to Future Space Environment [#6037]
Future large constellations may include hundreds to thousands of satellites. The long-term hazard posed by these new constellations is not fully understood. This study models the future environment based on different types of space activity.

12:00 p.m.

Kawamoto S. *   Nagaoka N.   Sato T.   Hanada T.

Impact on Collision Probability by Post Mission Disposal and Active Debris Removal [#6100]
Collision probabilities of objects with and without post mission disposal (PMD) devices and active debris removal (ADR) are evaluated and discussed.

12:20 p.m.

Frey S. *   Colombo C.   Lemmens S.

Application of Density-Based Propagation to Fragment Clouds Using the Starling Suite [#6089]
The Starling suite estimates the evolution of densities, such as distributions of particles modelled as a continuum, in orbit. Here, it is used to describe the propagation of a debris cloud, originating from a fragmentation in highly eccentric orbit.

12:40 p.m.

Izumizawa D. *   Furumoto M.   Yoshimura Y.   Hanada T.

Generalized Collision Flux Approximation for In-Situ Measurements [#6092]
This paper introduces two new collision flux models that are applicable to elliptical orbits. This paper builds theories of environmental model that estimates the distribution of sub-millimeter-size debris by using in-situ measurements and verifies it.