Lunar Surface Science Workshop XIV:

Heliophysics Applications Enabling and Enabled by Human Exploration of the Lunar Surface

February 17, 2022





Times listed in program are Eastern Standard Time (EST).  Time Zone Converter

8:00 a.m. PST

9:00 a.m. MST

10:00 a.m. CST

11:00 a.m. EST

5:00 p.m. CEST


Thursday, February 17, 2022

11:00 a.m. EST

Introduction and Surface Science and Technologies I

12:30 p.m. EST

Surface Science and Technologies II

1:30 p.m. EST

Poster Session

2:30 p.m. EST

Surface-Supporting Science and Technologies I

3:45 p.m. EST

Surface-Supporting Science and Technologies II


Oral presentations include time at the end of each talk to Q&A (Invited: 3 minutes; Contributed: 2 minutes)


Thursday, February 17, 2022


11:00 a.m. EST

The first of two sessions aiming to address aspects of Heliophysics science from the lunar surface that enable or are enabled by human presence on the moon.


Authors (*Presenter)

Abstract Title and Summary

11:00 a.m.



11:15 a.m.

Futaana Y. *   Dandouras I.   Bamford R. A.   Bergman J.   Beth A.   Chaufray J. Y.   Constantinescu D.   Della Corte V.   Grison B.   Jarvinen R.   Nakamura R.   Postberg F.   Ranvier S.   Roussos E.   Vorburger A. H.   Götz C.   McDonald F.   Taylor M.

Space Plasma Physics Science Opportunities from the Moon Surface [#1035]
In preparation for the scientific opportunities offered by the Deep Space Gateway, including from the Moon surface, we have formed an ESA topical team to prepare and to support the definition of payload studies in the field of space plasma physics.

11:30 a.m.

Dobynde M. I. *   Guo J.

The REDMoon Model:  Radiation Environment and Dose Rates on the Lunar Surface and Subsurface [#1012]
We present a recently developed and validated model of the radiation environment at the surface and subsurface of the Moon created with the Galactic Cosmic Rays and Solar Energetic Particles. The model provides angular and energy differential spectra of primary space radiation particles and secondary particles induced in the lunar soil. The model covers the range of depths from the surface down to 10 m and provides information on the directionality of radiation particles. Also, the model provides spectra of the albedo radiation from the lunar surface. Particle-matter interaction is calculated using the GEANT4 Monte-Carlo code. The model is built using the concept of response function and allows calculation of the radiation environment for any input GCR or SEP spectrum without running time-consuming modelling. We have used the predicted radiation environment during the last two solar cycles to create a schedule of lunar expeditions that would allow a persistent presence of humans on the Moon. We give the number of crews and flights required in scenarios with different depths, aluminum extra-shielding, and exposure limits.

11:40 a.m.

Freeman R. H. *

Artemis Base Camp:  Resilience Engineering to Enable Lunar Surface Operations [#1021]
This paper explores current shielding and sensor technologies needed to protect and monitor the health of lunar missions involving astronauts, autonomous rovers, mobile habitats, ISRU equipment, and facilities. Exposed to solar wind plasma, GCRs, and secondary radiation due to the lack of a magnetosphere or a dense atmosphere. Sparse regional mini-magnetospheres don’t spare the intense space weathering of the Moon’s regolith-covered surface nor exposure risk to mission operations. The paper further considers low gravity and levitated dust particles in how resilience engineering of lunar material science may be developed. The combination of small dust particles, electric potentials plus micrometeorites can lead to lunar regolith being levitated, and levitation is likely to increase with human activity on the Moon. Levitated dust particles may settle and accumulate on hardware which may result in potential degradation of radiative heat transfer and optical components through the fouling of surfaces, visibility reduction during extravehicular activities, dust contamination of equipment, and prevention of effective sealing.

11:50 a.m.

Iles G. N. *   Ng M. X. J.   Moshovelis L. D.   Auld M.   Currie J.   Carter B.

“RADICAL-S” an Active Radiation Shield Flying on the Swedish Space Corporation Sub-Orbital Express [#1003]
NASA’s Artemis program aims to establish a long-term human presence on the Moon by 2024, in preparation for further space exploration to Mars. However, for this to be possible, suitable materials for spacecrafts and planetary habitats need to be developed to shield humans against the harmful radiation in space. The Space Physics Research Group at RMIT is researching radiation shielding for use on the Artemis missions. We have built shielding prototypes utilizing both passive and active shielding. The 1U payload, “RADICAL-S” (Radiation Deflector of Ionising Charges using a Lorentz Shield) consists of an electromagnetic shield and an instrument suite of sensors. Bench testing and modelling of the shield have been conducted in-house and the instrument suite comprised of a magnetometer, Geiger counter, and GPS receiver have been successfully connected and programmed. The payload will be launched by the Swedish Space Corporation late 2022 on the Sub-Orbital Express sounding rocket to test the effectiveness of the shield at 250km altitude.

12:00 p.m.

Xu S. *   Poppe A. R.   Harada Y.   Halekas J. S.   Chamberlin P. C.

Lunar Photoemission Yields Inferred from ARTEMIS Measurements [#1027]
Photoemission yield (the number of emitted electrons per incoming photon) is one of the fundamental properties of solid materials but is not yet well constrained for the lunar surface for photon energies >~20 eV. In this study, we constrain this yield for incident photons with energies of ~10 - 500 eV with data from the ARTEMIS mission along with solar irradiance spectra from Version 2 of the Flare Irradiance Spectral Model (FISM2). We also report the first oxygen Auger electron observations at the Moon by the ARTEMIS spacecraft, which provides a unique feature to identify photoelectrons emitted from the lunar surface. With lunar photoelectron observations identified in both Earth’s magnetotail lobes and the solar wind for four selected days, we infer a lower bound of 10–3 in yield for photon energies >~20 eV. However, our investigation also reveals uncertainty over ~4 orders of magnitude in derived yields with a sensitivity study, owing to a poorly constrained photoelectron energy probability function. This uncertainty motivates future experiments on lunar samples to better characterize the lunar surface charging environment.

12:10 p.m.




Thursday, February 17, 2022


12:30 p.m. EST

The second of two sessions aiming to address aspects of Heliophysics science from the lunar surface that enable or are enabled by human presence on the moon.



Authors (*Presenter)

Abstract Title and Summary

12:30 p.m.

Farrell W. M. *   Zimmerman M. I.   Rhodes D. J.   Killen R. M.   Sarantos M.   Halekas J. S.   Stubbs T. J.   Poppe A. R.

The Complex Plasma Environment at the Wake Formation Region Along the Terminator [#1008]
The Moon is an obstacle in the solar wind, creating a downstream wake region. The wake initiation region is located along the terminator annulus that belts the Moon. In this region, a plasma-vacuum discontinuity forms in association with flow obstruction by local topography (mountains, craters). The discontinuity evolves downstream via an ambipolar (E-driven) plasma expansion that includes a reduction in near-surface plasma flux, negative plasma potentials, and large negative surface potentials in shadowed regions adjacent to the terminator. This ambipolar region has been directly measured by orbiting spacecraft. However, there are no surface measurements where the discontinuity first forms. Analytical and PIC models of the discontinuity evolution have been developed by the SSERVI/DREAM2 and LEADER teams, and these will be reviewed herein. One consequence of the low plasma flux expected in downstream shadowed regions is that systems walking, roving, or drilling may develop a charge build-up due to triboelectric contact with the regolith. We emphasize the need for landed electron and ion spectrometers at the terminator/poles to quantify the flux levels associated with wake formation.

12:45 p.m.

Kallio E. *   Jarvinen R.   Nyman L.   Knuuttila O.

On the Properties and Effects of the Near Lunar Surface Plasma, Electric and Magnetic Fields, and Charged Dust Particles [#1013]
Lunar surface is under a continuous impact by the solar wind, i.e., electrically charged particles from the Sun. The impacting charged particles have many consequences on the surface and above it. Especially, the particle precipitation, together with Sun’s extreme ultraviolet radiation, charges the lunar surface, as well as man-made devices on it, electrically. The formed electric field can, in turn, accelerate electrically charged dust particles near the surface, which can cause hazards for manned missions and the malfunction of human-operated and robotic systems. Other detrimental effects on thermo-optical coatings and systems utilizing thin-film membranes could occur. In this presentation, we describe different numerical simulations developed and used at the Aalto University, to investigate lunar electric, plasma and dust environment at various spatial and temporal scales, different phases of the Moon, at different latitudes and longitudes on the lunar surface, as well as magnetized and non-magnetized regions. We also address the issue of how risks of the lunar dust on humans and man-made devices can be reduced by appropriate technological design.

12:55 p.m.

Xu Z. *   Guo J.   Wimmer-Schweingruber R. F.   Dobynde M. I.

Primary and Albedo Protons Measured by the Chang’E 4 Lunar Lander Neutron and Dosimetry (LND) Experiment on the Lunar Far Side [#1010]
The Lunar Lander Neutron and Dosimetry (LND) Experiment aboard the Chang’E-4 Lander on the lunar far side surface measures energetic charged particles and monitors the corresponding radiation level. The charged particles have two main sources, solar energetic particles (SEPs) and galactic cosmic rays (GCR), which dominate during solar quiet times. We present LND measurements of GCR primary and secondary protons. Apart from the GCR primary protons, LND also measures the albedo protons from a limited field of view. These albedo protons are secondary particles that are generated when the GCR interacts with the lunar regolith. LND provides measurements of the upward-directed albedo protons between 64.7 MeV and 76.0 MeV. The average albedo to primary ratio of proton fluxes in this energy channel from 2019.7 (the 7th lunar day after Chang’E-4’s landing) to 2020.6 (the 20th lunar day) is around 0.64+-0.09, and the averaged albedo flux is about (1.12+-0.14)×10-4 cm-2sr-1 s-1 Mev-1. These results are consistent with the albedo flux predicted from the Lunar Subsurface Radiation Model (Dobynde et al 2021).

1:05 p.m.

Tucker O. J. *   McLain J. L.   Morrissey L. S.   Farrell W. M.   Killen R. M.   Honniball C. I.   Hurley D. M.

Investigations on Solar Wind Implantation in the Lunar Regolith and Volatile Stability [#1016]
Solar wind implantation (SWI) is an important source of volatiles for planetary bodies without significant outgassing such as the Moon. However, the surface chemistry of minerals induced by SWI, and the degassing of newly formed volatiles is not understood. Lunar based experiments offer a unique vantage point needed to constrain surface properties for porous silicate minerals. Of special interest is SWI leading to the chemical formation of OH, H2, H2O, and CH4, observed in the regolith and exosphere. Hydrogenated species are predicted to vary with SWI, but direct observations linking SWI to the variability of H-bearing molecules are sparse. A goal of the Lunar Environment And Dynamics for Exploration Research (LEADER) center is to understand the effect of SWI on the Moon’s surface and volatile stability. I will review SWI [4] and recent work by LEADER scientists on models [1–2] and experiments [3] used to examine H diffusion and H-bearing molecules in the exosphere, including discussion of potential lunar experiments to constrain this process. 1)Farrell, W.M. et al. JGR, 2017. 2)Tucker, O.J. et al. JGR, 2021. 3)McLain, J.L. et al. JGR, 2021.4)Starukhina, L.V. Adv. Sp. Res, 2006.

1:15 p.m.

Morrissey L. S. *   Killen R. M.   Tucker O. J.   Savin D. W.

Solar-Wind Induced Sputtering on the Lunar Surface:  Quantifying Mineral Specific Surface Binding Energies [#1018]
Lunar surface sputtering by solar wind (SW) ion irradiation is important for understanding the Moon’s surface and exosphere compositions. A fundamental physical parameter for theoretical sputtering models is the surface binding energy (SBE) of atoms in the substrate. Despite the clear importance of the SBE in simulating sputtering, its actual value is not well understood for many substrates. For single component substrates, the SBE is often approximated as the heat of sublimation for the atoms in the substrate. However, there is no universal approach to estimating the SBE for multicomponent substrates, with studies often assuming the SBE is constant regardless of the substrate composition. We use molecular dynamics (MD) simulations to quantify the SBE Na and O from various silicates and demonstrate that the elemental SBE is instead a mineral specific value. The MD SBE values are ~8 times larger than mono-elemental cohesive energies. This has a significant effect on the predicted SW ion sputtering yield and energy distribution of sputtered atoms. Therefore, future studies on the contributions of SW-surface interactions should instead be using mineral specific SBEs.

1:25 p.m.




Thursday, February 17, 2022


1:30 p.m. EST



Abstract Title and Summary

Goswami V. K.

Development of Lunar Mass-Energy Equation to Study Dynamics of Lunar Environment to Explore Life on Moon Through the Detoxification of Lunar Toxins [#1001]

Schorghofer N.

Constraints on the Past Solar Constant from Lunar Borehole Temperatures [#1004]
Accurately measured borehole temperatures provide constraints on past surface temperatures. On Earth, borehole temperatures have been used to reconstruct the surface temperature history over the past several centuries [1]. Implementation on the Moon would provide constraints on the history of the total solar irradiance (TSI). Direct measurements of the TSI are available only since 1978. Miyahara et al. [2] have explored this method for the lunar surface. A difference of 0.1% in TSI during the Maunder minimum would correspond to a 0.01 K deviation at about 10 m depth [2]. Such a measurement should be feasible and could be combined with an experiment for the geothermal heat flux. The temperature sensitivity is greatest at the equator and smallest at polar latitudes [2]. Borehole temperatures from multiple latitudes can potentially reduce uncertainties. Caves provide access to greater depths. Thermometers can be inserted into horizontal borings to reach undisturbed rock temperatures, as has been done in underground mines [1]. Works Cited:  [1] Pollack HN & Huang S (2000) Ann. Rev. Earth Planet. Sci. 28, 339. [2] Miyahara H et al. (2008) Geophys. Res. Lett. 35, L02716.

Kroupa M.

Advanced, Modular, Scalable, Space-Time Agnostic, Continuous Power Generation for Mobility and Derivative Applications [SP] [#1009]
NASA seeks solutions for low-cost lunar exploration and maximizing resource utilization while minimizing energy use and mass of equipment required to be transported to the Moon. Same holds true for inner and outer planet exploration and beyond, all of which share common hurdles [as missions will show]. The common underlying challenge of first order is the supply of energy which ℕ𝔽𝕋𝔾 solves in a simple, readily available solution by leveraging current technologies, physics and ℕ𝔽𝕋𝔾’s innovations. The groundbreaking concept gives rise to high efficiency power system [300-500% increase] solutions for low-cost power generation and structure or equipment operation including long range lunar terrain vehicles (LTV) and atmospheric mobility systems (LAV). The versatility and scalability of the modular high ‘specific power and energy’ components allows relatively unconstrained exploration of the surface or sub-surface despite geographic location or solar energy flux. The derivative components and constellation of synergistic systems are rapidly implemented anywhere early on in missions with no supporting infrastructure required.

Vines S. K.   Anderson B. J.   Regoli L.   Harden B.   Hood L.   Tikoo S.   Weiczorek M.   Blewett D. T.   Halekas J.   Ho G. C.   Greenhagen B.

Lunar Vertex Vector Magnetometers:  Revealing the Surface Magnetic Structure of the Lunar Magnetic Anomaly at Reiner Gamma [#1014]
The first Payloads and Research Investigations on the Surface of the Moon (PRISM-1a) lander mission (flight in 2024) targets the Reiner Gamma (RG) swirl and magnetic anomaly. To study the anomaly and the relationship of the “mini-magnetosphere” to albedo variations, the Lunar Vertex investigation will carry a suite of science-grade and commercial fluxgate magnetometers on the lander (VML) and on a rover (VMR). Measurements during descent by VML and during surface operations by both VML and VMR will characterize the altitudinal variation and surface magnetic field across contrasting albedo regions of a strong magnetic anomaly. These measurements will constrain the orientation, strength, and depth of the source of the RG magnetic anomaly, allowing us to infer its most likely origin and also determine the relationship between the magnetic field, the swirl, and surface space weathering. Characterization of the surface strength and structuring of the RG anomaly by VML and VMR is also vital for understanding interactions with the space plasma environment and electromagnetic processes occurring on and near the lunar surface which may impact future surface activities.

Jahn J.-M.   Halekas J. S.   Ho G. C.   Kollmann P.   Fatemi S.   Hood L. L.   Vines S. K.   Blewett D. T.   Mokashi P. S.   Focia R. J.   Gomez R. G.

Lunar Vertex Magnetic Anomaly Particle Spectrometer (MAPS) — Studying the Charged Particle Impact on the Lunar surface Inside the Reiner Gamma Magnetic Anomaly [#1015]
The Reiner Gamma (RG) magnetic anomaly is the target for the first Payloads and Research Investigations on the Surface of the Moon (PRISM) lander delivery (PRISM-1a), planned for 2024. As part of the PRISM-1a Lunar Vertex investigation, the MAPS plasma spectrometer measures the energy, flux, and direction of thermal to supra-thermal (10eV to ~20keV) ions and electrons from the impinging solar wind that reach the lunar surface. MAPS determines how effectively the surface is shielded from this plasma by quantifying the amount of flux that is excluded (reflected or deflected) from the surface in strongly magnetized regions. This differentiates between a protective mini-magnetosphere where the solar wind is largely excluded, and an extended boundary layer where the solar wind is merely decelerated close to the surface. MAPS data are used to deduce the relative roles of electrostatic fields and wave-particle interactions, and electron pitch angles are used to diagnose the anomaly’s magnetic topology. MAPS measurements of the shielding from impinging plasma inside Reiner Gamma will have implications for our understanding of surface weathering and the formation of lunar swirls.

Vidmachenko A. P.   Steklov A. F.

The Moon Needs to be Turned into a Testing Ground for Development of Thermal and Gravitational Adaptation Systems for Terraforming Planets [#1006]
Humanity needs to work out method of habitation and long-term life of people on planets, planetoids, and in space in general. Due to significant radiation, habitation bases must be located below surface, or in massive planetoid structures [Morozhenko, Vidmachenko (2004) JAIS, 36(11), 27]. We propose that it is necessary to place person under Moon surface. It is there that most suitable option in order to protect astronauts from extreme temperatures and radiation [Steklov & Vidmachenko (2020) 22 ISC ASYS, Kyiv, 84]. For this, it is necessary to develop a special technology for rapid construction of premises directly below surface for housing and industrial purposes [Steklov et al. (2019) Lunar ISRU 2019, 2152, id. 5107]. It is necessary to develop projects to turn Moon into special testing ground for the deployment and testing of systems for gravitational and thermal adaptation and terraforming of planets and planetoids of different scales. Such systems are required to provide reliable thermal and gravitational adaptation for long-term residence of people there. In case of successful adaptation to the Moon, terraforming Mars, Mercury, and other planetoids will be much easier task.

Abdelaal M. E.   Zakharov A. V.   Kuznetsov I.   Inna   Anton   Lyash A.

Investigate the Dynamics of Dust Particles Under the Airless Bodies’ Conditions to Study the Lunar Horizon Glow [#1007]
The aim of this research was to investigate and improve the measurement technique for determining the trajectory parameters of dust particles. One of the benefits of this technique is that it can accommodate limited optical access to the investigation volume by using low-speed cameras and lasers with limited power. The developed technique was used to visualize dust particle levitation with particles of various sizes and materials. The ability to measure particle velocities and charges was facilitated by the ability to determine 3D trajectories of levitated particles. These parameters will be useful in future experiments involving the modeling of dust plasma levitation. The previous experiments in the same area and the numerical findings from these experiments agree well. The use of a stereo camera device, on the other hand, represents a significant advancement in assessing 3D particle levitation trajectories. This method increases the measurement precision of quantitative values, allowing the theoretical models of the near-surface dynamics of atmosphereless bodies to be refined. Our method will be used to analyze data collected during future lunar missions.

de Nolfo G.-A.   Bruno A.   Daehn M.   Dumonthier J.   Legere J.   Messner R.   Mitchell J.-G.   Ryan J.-M.   Suarez G.   Tatoli T.   Williams L.

Neutron Measurements on the Moon [#1011]
Lunar scientific outposts offer an opportunity to advance human exploration of space, while serving as both a platform for industrial and scientific research and a gateway to more distant locations. Neutrons can play a significant role in lunar exploration and the science of the Moon and Sun. Specifically, fast neutrons are an egregious form of radiation for crew and avionics. Broadband neutron spectroscopy (covering thermal, epithermal, and fast neutrons) can also serve as an effective probe of regolith composition and in situ resource utilization, including the localization of water-ice. A lunar platform is invaluable for measuring neutrons originating from the Sun. Neutrons constitute a critical missing piece in understanding the production mechanisms of energetic particles at the Sun and the harmful space weather events spawned by such particles. A lunar-based solar neutron observatory would benefit from the long lunar day, with uninterrupted extended observations of the Sun, resulting in an excellent duty cycle for solar measurements. Key benefits of neutron spectroscopy on the Moon and a review several neutron spectrometers currently being developed by our team is discussed.

Waller C. D.   Cahill J. T. S.   Meyer H. M.

Modeling Temporal Variations in Solar Wind Conditions at Reiner Gamma:  Preparations for Lunar Vertex [#1022]
While the Moon presently lacks a dynamo, the crust contains localized magnetic anomalies (MAs), many of which are correlated with lunar swirls. The swirl Reiner Gamma and its associated MA will be visited in 2024 by the Lunar Vertex (LVx) mission, carrying two vector magnetometers. Similar to Earth’s magnetosphere, MAs are compressed by the dynamic solar wind ram pressure which establishes “mini-magnetospheres” where crustal magnetic pressure is equal to or greater than the ram pressure. The targeted LVx landing site and traverse path were not optimized to sample the MA, but rather to examine spectral signatures thought to be a result of the MA influence. Based on current launch and orbital estimates, LVx will cross the bow shock and magnetopause boundaries once, observing lunar MA interactions with Earth’s magnetosphere and lunar mini-magnetosphere formation. LVx will observe the MA under varying ram pressure and record the surface field responses and we predict the lander and MAPP-C rover will operate beneath a potential mini-magnetosphere. Understanding this dynamic environment will inform future exploration as well as improve surface models from orbital magnetic data inversion.

Wu X.

Mini.PAN:  Real-Time Penetrating Particle Analyzer for ARTEMIS [#1032]
Mini.PAN is an innovative energetic particle detector to precisely measure and monitor the flux and composition of highly penetrating particles (> ~100 MeV/nucleon) in the lunar orbit and on the lunar surface in the framework of the ARTEMIS program.

Rahmanifard F. R.   Schwadron N. A.   Wilson J. K.   Jordan A. P.   Spence H. E.   de Wet W. C.

Realtime Monitoring of Ionizing Radiation on the Lunar Surface in the Upcoming Worsening Space Environment [#1034]
The unprecedented decline in the strength of solar cycles has been persisting over a decade, indicating that we are at the beginning of a secular solar minimum. We use data from CRaTER to investigate the radiation environment throughout cycle 25.

Saxena P.

Tracking Evolution of the Sun Using Multiple Lines of Evidence that are Accessible on the Lunar Surface [#1024]
How the Sun may have varied over time is key to understanding how the solar system evolved. Evidence from solar analogues suggests the Sun likely had a changing rotation rate and consequently changing properties over time. These properties include flux, space weather properties, and the morphology of the heliosphere. These are fundamental to understanding how atmospheres, surfaces, and habitability of bodies in the solar system may have been effected by the Sun over time. Future human presence on the lunar surface as part of exploration efforts offers a powerful means by which to potentially constrain the evolution of the Sun. Multiple lines of evidence accessible from the lunar surface through both spatial variations and stratigraphy are key to this understanding. Variations in chemical abundances, isotopic fractionation and other proxies can put limits on space weather properties, UV flux, and GCR flux — all of which will inform the extent to which the Sun changed over time.

Poppe A. R.   Fillingim M. O.   Xu S.   Halekas J. S.   Barani M.

Distinguishing Atomic and Molecular Terrestrial Ionospheric Fluxes to the Lunar Surface with HERMES [#1025]
Previous measurements by the THEMIS-ARTEMIS spacecraft in orbit around the Moon were suggested to be outflowing terrestrial ionospheric molecular ions (e.g., N2+, NO+, O2+). However, the THEMIS-ARTEMIS ElectroStatic Analyzers lack ion composition discrimination and thus, a definitive identification of these events as either atomic O+ or molecular ions was not possible. The HERMES SPAN-ion electrostatic analyzer has moderate mass resolution capable of distinguishing atomic versus molecular species. Monitoring and investigation of these outflows, including comparison with concurrent THEMIS-ARTEMIS measurements, will reveal the true composition of these ions. Compositional knowledge of these outflowing terrestrial ionospheric fluxes is critical for lunar surface science, including accurate calculations of surface weathering and sputtering rates, and the implantation–and potential archiving–of terrestrial ionospheric material within lunar regolith that can be accessed and returned to Earth for study by astronauts on the lunar surface.

Vandegriff J. D.   Weigel R. S.   Candey R.   Roberts D. A.   Thomas B.

Using Heliophysics Data Environment Technologies and Standards for Lunar Research Data [#1028]
NASA’s lunar push will generate new datasets relevant for Heliophysics and understanding space weather impacts in lunar environments is critical for the success of human exploration. Integrating new data within the Heliophysics data environment will simplify the use of this data for space weather studies. Many communities contributing to lunar missions come from planetary or commercial space realms and may not be familiar with Heliophysics data practices. We give an overview of techniques that could make lunar data accessible to both planetary and Heliophysics research. Three items are important for interoperability:  metadata, data format, and data access protocols. The SPASE metadata model allows all Heliophysics datasets to be registered uniformly. The Common Data Format (CDF, see is approved for use at both Heliophysics and planetary archives. The Heliophysics Application Programmer’s Interface (HAPI, see Weigel, 2021, do:10.1029/2021JA029534) is a standard for serving time series data. Finally, there are emerging cloud-based analysis systems within Heliophysics that can assist with data-model comparisons for large volume datasets.

Traore D. S.

Real-Time Electromagnetic Radiation Sensor [#1019]
We are presenting the preliminary result of the CLuS’N spacecraft optical system accessible at Your dashboard is equipped with a Real-time Electromagnetic Radiation Sensor that calculates and mirrors the percentage of photons as a function of time relevant to the angle of view. You may position your camera to your telescope eyepiece and plug in the camera to your computer USB port, or just connect your telescope-cam for the use of Eee Vision to study your favorite light source.


Thursday, February 17, 2022


2:30 p.m. EST

The first of two sessions aiming to address aspects of Heliophysics science that support lunar surface activities and enable or are enabled by human presence on the moon.



Authors (*Presenter)

Abstract Title and Summary

2:30 p.m.

Y. Collado-Vega *

Moon-to-Mars Space Weather Analysis Office [Invited]

As NASA plans for human missions beyond Low-Earth Orbit (LEO), the need for improvements in space weather environment modeling capabilities, communication of radiation risks, and real-time space weather analysis support is essential for mission success. These future missions will be flying in deep space and no longer have the Earth's protective magnetic field shielding them from radiation in space. The Space Radiation Analysis Group (SRAG) at Johnson Space Center and the Community Coordinated Modeling Center (CCMC) at Goddard Space Flight Center have worked on the Integrated Solar Energetic Particle (ISEP) Warning System project which is a collaboration that expands SRAG's current space weather monitoring capabilities beyond LEO. Last year, NASA established an interface of communications with SRAG to improve science and prediction capabilities both for lunar and Mars missions in support of crewed missions beyond LEO. The Moon to Mars (M2M) Space Weather Analysis Office located at Goddard Space Flight Center will provide SRAG with additional expert-based analysis of the space radiation environment in support of human exploration activities. The M2M Office will analyze state-of the-art space weather model output tailored to SRAG’s needs as part of the ISEP project and the collaboration with CCMC. The M2M Office will also support NASA robotic missions with space weather assessments and anomaly analysis. The goal between CCMC and M2M is to create an effective NASA in-house R2O2R pipeline for space radiation environment predictive capabilities in support of human missions beyond LEO. One key element of the partnership is the transition of ISEP models/software from CCMC to M2M. We will present the M2M Office's goals, infrastructure, and activities to support SRAG and NASA missions in collaboration with CCMC.

2:45 p.m.

Bale S. D. *   Bonnell J. W.   Burns J.   Goetz K.   Halekas J. S.   Malaspina D. M.   Page B.   Pulupa M.   Poppe A. R.   MacDowall R. J.   Maksimovic M.   Zaslavsky A.

The Lunar Surface Electromagnetics Experiment (LuSEE) [#1030]
We will describe the Lunar Surface Electromagnetics Experiment (LuSEE), which is selected under the LSITP program to be manifested as a payload on a lunar polar lander.

2:55 p.m.

Golub L. *

Improving Space Weather Forecasting with EUV Observations [#1031]
Accurate predictions of harmful space weather effects are mandatory for the protection of astronauts at the Moon. Observation of the corona at EUV wavelengths offers the possibility of improving our forecasts of geo- and seleno-effective events.

3:05 p.m.

Wilson J. K. *   Spence H. E.   Schwadron N. A.   Case A. W.   Looper M. D.   Jordan A. P.   de Wet W.   Kasper J.

CRaTER’s SEP Index Detects Small Solar Particle Events and Maps Lunar Radiation [#1033]
Search for solar trend / Finds lunar radiation / Serendipity!

3:15 p.m.

Hegedus A. M. *   Kasper J. C.   Burns J. O.   SunRISE Science Team

Combining SunRISE and Lunar Surface Interferometer Observations of Solar Radio Bursts [#1029]
The Earth’s ionosphere limits radio measurements on its surface, blocking out any radiation below 10 MHz. Valuable insight into many astrophysical processes could be gained by having a radio interferometer in space to image the low frequency window, which has never been achieved. One application for such a system is observing type II bursts that track solar energetic particle acceleration occurring at Coronal Mass Ejection (CME)-driven shocks. A related application is localizing type III bursts during storms to determine the level of magnetic connectivity of the source region on the solar surface. These are the primary science targets for SunRISE, a 6 CubeSat interferometer to circle the Earth in a GEO graveyard orbit. SunRISE is a NASA Heliophysics Mission of Opportunity that just passed its Integrated Design Review, and plans to launch for a 12-month mission in mid-2024. In this work, we present the added benefit of combining SunRISE observations with 2 or more antenna on the lunar surface. The data added from lunar observations would help us reconstruct the sky brightness patterns of larger radio bursts, leading to a better understanding of the phenomena.

3:25 p.m.




Thursday, February 17, 2022


3:45 p.m. EST

The second of two sessions aiming to address aspects of Heliophysics science that support lunar surface activities and enable or are enabled by human presence on the moon.



Authors (*Presenter)

Abstract Title and Summary

3:45 p.m.

Paterson W. R. *   Gershman D. J.   Kanekal S. G.   Livi R. L.   Moldwin M. B.   Randol B.   Samara M.   Zesta E.   Christe S. D.   Schiff C.

Heliophysics from Lunar Orbit with HERMES on Gateway [#1026]
The Heliophysics Environmental and Radiation Measurement Experiment Suite (HERMES) is an external scientific space-weather payload set to launch with the initial Gateway modules as early as November 2024. Arrival in lunar orbit and the beginning of the science mission occurs about one year after launch. HERMES was selected by NASA’s Science Mission Directorate (SMD), and accommodation on Gateway’s Habitation and Logistics Outpost (HALO) is provided by the Human Exploration and Operations Mission Directorate (HEOMD). From its polar lunar orbit, HERMES will acquire data to address multiple Heliophysics science objectives during monthly traversals of the solar wind and the magnetotail. The measurements can additionally support studies of the lunar exosphere and surface, and the full data set will be available to all researchers through a public data center. In this presentation, we discuss the mission objectives, accommodation on Gateway, anticipated data products, and international participation for this significant collaboration between SMD and HEOMD.

4:00 p.m.

Runov A. *   Liu J.   Khurana K.   Balikhin M.   Angelopoulos V.   THEMIS/ARTEMIS Team

Towards Multi-Point Investigations of the Near-Moon Electromagnetic and Plasma Environment [#1005]
For further exploration of the Moon with potentially habitable orbital and surface stations, it is critically important to characterize the near-Moon plasma environment, including energetic particle fluxes, and understand physical processes of particle acceleration at magnetic structures in the solar wind and in the magnetotail. The two THEMIS-ARTEMIS probes have provided measurements of magnetic and electric fields, ion and electron fluxes for almost an entire Solar Cycle 24. The probes are in stable equatorial, 26-hr period orbits, of 100km × 19,000km altitude. Along with the HERMES instrument suite ARTEMIS will enable three-point measurements to study plasma characteristics, particle energy spectra in the solar wind, and in the magnetotail in a wide energy range from 10 eV to 10 MeV and their associations with magnetic field structures, such as current sheets, flux ropes, fast flow fronts. Future magnetic field and particle fluxes measurements from the Moon surface, coordinated ARTEMIS and HERMES observations will greatly advance our knowledge on the near-Moon electromagnetic and plasma environment.

4:10 p.m.

Williams M. N.   Moshovelis L. D. *   Iles G. N.

Simulations of Radiation Shielding Materials on the Lunar Gateway [#1002]
Future crewed missions beyond Earth’s magnetosphere will involve significant radiation exposure in an environment unlike anywhere else on Earth. Through the Artemis 3 mission, the Lunar Orbital Gateway will be the newest spacecraft to orbit the moon and provide vital support for a sustainable and long-term return to the lunar surface. This research explores shielding options to reduce radiation dose on a spacecraft for the safe success of future lunar missions. Monte-Carlo simulations have been conducted using the particle transport software, GEANT4. A life-size model of the Lunar Orbital Gateway was constructed in SolidWorks. Radiation modeled by a solar particle event was simulated onto the spacecraft to analyse the effectiveness of shielding materials. It can be determined that the materials — lunar regolith, polyethylene, and water all reduce the radiation dose that astronauts would be exposed to in lunar orbit. For a prosperous and safe future related to space exploration, shielding blocks should be a vital component in the structure of any spacecraft to reduce the risk of exposure from ionised particles.

4:20 p.m.

Mann I. R. *   Fedosejevs R.   Ozeke L. G.   Tiedje H.   Ball K.   Yu B.   Rowlands N.   Zheng D.   Caldwell D.   Barona D.   Yau A. W.   Miles D. M.

The Canadian SWeeping Energetic Particle Telescope (SWEPT):  Steerable Energy and Pitch Angle Resolved Energetic Particle Measurements in the Lunar Environment [#1023]
The Canadian SWeeping Energetic Particle Telescope (SWEPT) targets an assessment of the pitch angle dependence of particular space radiation, and will address and characterize the energy and directional dependence of this space radiation in the lunar environment. The project focuses on an assessment of the fundamental plasma processes which accelerate the particles to create this severe radiation hazard for astronauts in deep space, and assess radiation risk mitigation. By using an innovative sweeping look direction to determine the angular and energy dependence of the radiation at the Moon, the SWEPT can assess the temporally evolving solar energetic particle (SEP) radiation in the heliosphere, emitted in solar eruptions and accelerated at interplanetary shocks, as well as address the impacts of primary and secondary radiation hazards on the Lunar Gateway and on the lunar surface. The SWEPT will also contribute to the development of effective deep space radiation mitigation strategies, such as those based on the early arrival of solar energetic electrons in advance of SEP protons for humans on the lunar surface or in the lunar vicinity. It will also contribute to the assessment of space radiation-regolith interactions on the lunar surface.

4:30 p.m.

Green J. C.   Turner D. L.   Likar J. J. *   Parker L.   Pitchford D.   Keys C. C.

Towards the Prediction of Space Weather for Lunar Missions [#1020]
Sustained operations and/or habitation on the lunar surface, in lunar orbit, or cis-lunar space will require advances in space weather nowcasting and forecasting as well as effective and actionable means of user interface. Recently, the project “Understanding, Specification, and Prediction of Lunar Space Weather” commenced in support of a NASA Heliophysics Environmental and Radiation Measurement Experiment Suite Interdisciplinary Science Teams study. The motivating research questions include:  1. What are the particle populations that present a hazard to lunar operations? 2. How do those populations vary with time, location, and different driving conditions? 3. How does the environment translate into impacts? 4. How can we characterize and predict the environment and impacts and best convey hazards to users? Here, we plan to introduce the challenges, methods, and solutions under development as part of this project, focusing first on efforts currently underway (e.g., prior to Gateway/HERMES launch). We will describe all relevant particle populations, their variation along the lunar orbit, and translations of such populations and their intensities to expected impacts (hazards).

4:40 p.m.


Closing Remarks

5:00 p.m.