Annual Meeting of the Lunar Exploration Analysis Group

October 28-30, 2019

 

Program and Abstracts

 

Monday, October 28, 2019

8:30 a.m.

Columbia Ballroom 6–12

The Decadal Survey I:  Process, Perspectives, Previous, and Positing Priorities

10:30 p.m.

Columbia Ballrooms TBD

Breakout Groups for Decadal Preparations

3:15 p.m.

Columbia Ballroom 6–12

The Decadal Survey II:  Community-Centered Collaborations

5:00–7:00 p.m.

Columbia North

Poster Session:  Mission Concepts

 

Tuesday, October 29, 2019

8:30 a.m.

Columbia Ballroom 6–12

Return to the Moon I:  Programs to Get Us There

1:00 p.m.

Columbia Ballroom 6–12

Return to the Moon II:  Partners to Get Us There

4:00 p.m.

Columbia North

Commercial Networking

5:00–7:00 p.m.

Columbia North

Poster Session:  ISRU on the Moon

5:00–7:00 p.m.

Columbia North

Poster Session:  Instrumentation Concepts

 

Wednesday, October 30, 2019

8:30 a.m.

Columbia Ballroom 6–12

The Moon in the 2020s:  Beyond Artemis-3

 

 

Monday, October 28, 2019

THE DECADAL SURVEY I:  PROCESS, PERSPECTIVES, PREVIOUS, AND POSITING PRIORITIES

8:30 a.m.   Columbia Ballroom 6–12

Chairs:  Barbara Cohen and Samuel Lawrence

BACK TO TOP

Times

Authors (*Denotes Presenter)

Abstract Title and Summary

8:30 a.m.

Lawrence S. *

Meeting Introduction and Recognition of Travel Awardees Recording

8:50 a.m.

Hartman C. *

Overview of the Decadal Survey Process Recording

9:05 a.m.

Glaze L. *

Perspectives:  Planetary Science Division Recording

9:20 a.m.

Niebur C. *

Perspectives:  New Frontiers Recording

9:35 a.m.

Cohen B *

Perspectives:  Visions and Voyages in Planetary Science, the 2013 Decadal Survey' Recording

9:50 a.m.

Denevi B. *

Perspectives:  Preparing for the Upcoming Decadal Survey

10:05 a.m.

 

Community Discussion, Questions, and Clarification

10:15 a.m.

 

Break

 

Monday, October 28, 2019

BREAKOUT GROUPS FOR DECADAL PREPARATIONS

10:30 a.m.   Specific Breakout Topics and Locations will be Announced at a Later Date

BACK TO TOP

Times

Breakout Discussions

10:30 a.m.

Group Breakout Discussions

12:00 p.m.

Lunch

1:30 p.m.

Breakout Group Discussions Continued

3:00 p.m.

Break

 

Monday, October 28, 2019

THE DECADAL SURVEY II:  COMMUNITY-CENTERED COLLABORATIONS

3:15 p.m.   Columbia Ballroom 6–12

Chairs:  Barbara Cohen and Brett Denevi

BACK TO TOP

Times

Authors (*Denotes Presenter)

Abstract Title and Summary

3:15 p.m.

Representatives Selected from Breakout Groups

Presentations of Breakout Group Summaries Recording

4:15 p.m.

 

Community Discussion and Feedback

4:45 p.m.

Prem P. *

Overview of Mission Posters and Preview for Tuesday’s Agenda

 

Monday, October 28, 2019

POSTER SESSION:  MISSION CONCEPTS

5:00–7:00 p.m.   Columbia North

BACK TO TOP

Authors (*Denotes Presenter)

Abstract Title and Summary

Hurley D. M.   Prem P.   Stickle A.   Hibbitts C. A.   Deutsch A.   Colaprete A.   Elphic R. C.   Li S.   Lucey P. G.   Liu Y.   Hosseini S.   Retherford K. D.   Zacny K.   Atkinson J.   Benna M.   Farrell W. M.   Needham D.   Gertsch L.   Delitsky M.   Hayne P. O.

Science Objectives of a Mission to the Lunar Permanently Shadowed Regions [#5004]
Significant progress continues on understanding volatiles on airless bodies; yet this remains a topic of high scientific priority for the foreseeable future. A mission to a lunar permanently shadowed region (PSR) can achieve compelling science regarding solar system evolution and processes in cryogenic environments including 1) ground truthing, 2) distribution and abundance, 3) composition and chemistry, 4) activity and transport, and 5) thermophysical and geotechnical properties of PSR. To achieve these objectives, it is critical to have mobility on the surface, access to the subsurface, and instrumentation to assess both the volatile contents and environmental parameters. This mission is complementary to improved remote sensing data and to a rover mission in polar sun-lit areas or small PSR.

Clark P. E.   Farrell W.   Collier M.   Hurley D.   Killen R.   Li S.   Bugby D.   Livengood T.

The Global Lunar Organized Water In-Situ Network:  Multi-Platform Concept for Understanding the Lunar Water Cycle [#5024]
Global Lunar Organized Water In-Situ Network (GLOWIN) is a multi-lander mission concept that would provide simultaneous globally distributed lunar in situ spectral and particle measurements essential for wholistic understanding of volatile processes resulting from high energy particle/surface/subsurface/exosphere interactions. The concept builds on and enhances current largely spectral and remote (orbital or ground-based) data-based understanding of lunar water. The nature of in situ regolith interactions that make its apparently ubiquitous distribution possible, even below mid-latitudes, is lacking. Incorporation of a network of surface in situ measurements would provide the basis for a high-fidelity global water model, by incorporating distributed long-term observations at landing sites. Such an investigation has implications for space weathering as well as the role of volatiles in the evolution of the solar system.

Hibbitts C. A.   Blewett D.   Hurley D.   Klima R.   Lawrence D.   Plescia J.   Sunshine J.

The Lunar WATER Mission:  A Small Sat Mission to Characterize Water on the Moon [#5063]
The Lunar Water Assessment, Transport, Evolution, and Resource (WATER) mission is a small mission to characterize water on the surface of the Moon including its chemical form, distribution, abundance. The rideshare concept is a trajectory directly to the Moon from Earth orbit. Upon entering lunar orbit, the spacecraft spirals in to a low-altitude perilune of < 15 km and distant apolune of 1000 km. The close perilune enables the characterization of both surficial and near-surface water at unprecedented spatial resolution. The high apolune enables a distant perspective to obtain both a global perspective of the Moon with a wide range of terrains seen at one time at different local times of day. A neutron spectrometer measures near surface hydrogen deposits at high resolution and signal to noise in the south pole, and a multispectral mid-IR imager characterizes the distribution, abundance, and temporal variation of water in the upper surface.

Lucey P. G.   Petro N. E.   Cable M. L.   Hurley D.   Barker M.   Benna M.   Dyar M. D.   Farrell W. M.   Fisher E. A.   Green R. O.   Hayne P. O.   Hibbitts C.   Honniball C. I.   Li S.   Malaret E.   Mandt K.   Mazarico E.   McCanta M. C.   Orlando T. M.   Pieters C. M.   Prem P.   Sun X.   Thompson D. R.

The Lunar Volatiles Orbiter [#5034]
The Lunar Volatiles Orbiter (LVO) will answer fundamental questions about the evolution of water and other volatiles on airless objects in the solar system using the Moon as a natural laboratory. It will answer longstanding issues regarding the ages, sources, and history of volatiles on the Moon and use these to gain key insight regarding volatile sources, transport, sequester and loss throughout the inner solar system. LVO will reveal the effects of processes acting to chemically process or destroy volatile deposits in the extremely cold environment of the persistently shadowed regions near the lunar poles, which are applicable widely through the solar system. LVO will meet critical measurement challenges posed by the Decadal Survey using a unique set of high-heritage, volatile-sensing instruments characterizing surface and exospheric volatiles operating from a high-heritage spacecraft and mission architecture based on the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter.

Barber S. J.   Sheridan S.   Jones G. H.   Church P. D.   Perkinson M.-C.   Bowles N. E.   Murray N. J.

L-DART:  Instrumented Penetrators for Determining Occurrence and Accessibility of Volatile Resources in PSRs [#5042]
L-DART addresses knowledge gaps on lunar volatiles and PSRs, providing relevant in-situ ground truth data to calibrate remote sensing data. Instrumented penetrator systems are released from a lunar orbiter, and autonomously de-orbit and orientate before impacting polar landing sites at ~300 m/s. A pair of 3-axis accelerometers record the impact event enabling reconstruction of regolith structure and penetration path and final depth (~a few m). A mass spectrometer analyses the volatiles released in the impact and in the subsequent thermal soak into surrounding regolith. Temperature sensors enable deduction of regolith thermal properties. Pre- and post-impact imagery provides geologic context. Each penetrator completes its science and data relay to Earth within 1–2 hours, minimizing system power (battery) and mass requirements. L-DART builds on UK expertise in testing penetrators for the Moon and Europa and international partners are sought to further develop and implement the mission.

Ehlmann B. L.   Klima R.   Blaney D.   Bowles N.   Calcutt S.   Dickson J.   Donaldson Hanna K.   Edwards C.   Evans R.   Frazier W.   Green R.   Greenberger R.   House M. A.   Howe C.   Miura J.   Pieters C.   Sampson M.   Schindhelm R.   Scheller E.   Seybold C.   Thompson D. R.   Warren T.   Weinberg J.

Lunar Trailblazer:  A Pioneering SmallSat for Lunar Water and Lunar Geology [#5032]
Lunar Trailblazer, a SIMPLEx mission, was selected in June 2019 to conduct a 12 mo. mission study leading to a Preliminary Design Review and evaluation for flight. A Ball smallsat in 100-km lunar polar orbit will carry the JPL High-resolution Volatiles and Minerals Moon Mapper (HVM3) shortwave infrared imaging spectrometer and the UK-contributed, University of Oxford/STFC RAL Space-built thermal infrared multispectral imager, which simultaneously measure composition, temperature, and thermophysical properties. Lunar Trailblazer will detect and map water on the lunar surface at key targets to (1) determine its form (OH, H2O or ice), abundance, and local distribution as a function of latitude, soil maturity, and lithology; (2) assess possible time-variation in lunar water on sunlit surfaces; and (3) use terrain-scattered light to determine the form and abundance of exposed water in permanently shadowed regions. Trailblazer will also map lithological diversity at candidate landing sites.

Blewett D. T.   Halekas J.   Greenhagen B. T.   Anderson B. J.   Denevi B. W.   Hurley D. M.   Klima R. L.   Cahill J. T. S.   Colaprete A.   Deca J.   Ebert R.   Fatemi S.   Ho G. C.   Hood L. L.   Jahn J.-M.   Jozwiak L. M.   Lucey P. G.   Mandt K. E.   Nunez J. I.   Paranicas C. P.   Plescia J. B.   Tikoo S. M.   Vines S. K.   Wieczorek M.

Options for a Robotic Mission to a Lunar Magnetic Anomaly/Swirl [#5037]
NASA’s Strategic Plan for Lunar Exploration includes “Non-Polar Landers and Rovers” that will, by 2024, land “at a lunar swirl and [make the] first surface magnetic measurement.” Swirls are high-reflectance markings that overprint topography and can extend for hundreds of kilometers across highland or mare terrain. Remote-sensing data have contributed to knowledge of swirls, but a full explanation of their origin remains elusive. Hypotheses include impact of cometary material, atypical space weathering, and unusual behavior of levitated dust. The latter two mechanisms invoke the magnetic fields (anomalies) that are present at all swirls. The origin of magnetic anomalies is a separate unsolved mystery. A surface mission to one of these unique natural laboratories would provide key data for testing hypotheses for the origin of swirls and for the origin of magnetic anomalies. We will discuss instrument options for lander or rover missions and the science return from each mission type.

Robinson M. S.   Thangavelautham J.   Anderson B. J.   Lawrence S. J.

Swirl Mission Concept:  Unraveling the Enigma [#5052]
The Swirl mission has one focused observational objective:  characterize the magnetic field associated with Reiner Gamma Swirl (RGS) at sub-km spatial sampling, 1.0 nTesla accuracy, and spatial precision of 50 m. After delivery to a near-equatorial (11° inclination) orbit, a series of maneuvers will place the spacecraft in a low orbit that with a periapse of 5–10 km for ten orbits passing over RGS. During these low passes Swirl will acquire high resolution vector magnetic field measurements and monochrome navigation imaging.From these measurements the Swirl team will determine the magnetization source structure(s) consistent with the near-surface fields of RGS and establish the relation to the RGS albedo patterns. The scientific outcome of the Swirl investigation will benefit future surface science investigations of magnetic anomalies and swirls by informing decisions regarding future target locations and required measurements [Robinson et al. 2018, PSS, 162, pp.73–88].

Bassett N.   Burns J. O.   Rapetti D.   Tauscher K.

Opening a New Epoch of the Universe Using Low Radio Frequency Observations from the Farside of the Moon [#5009]
The highly redshifted 21-cm transition of neutral Hydrogen provides a powerful method for studying the early universe and can be observed today at low radio frequencies between ~10–100 MHz. Ground-based astronomical observations at these frequencies are distorted by both ionospheric effects and human generated Radio Frequency Interference (RFI). In order to mitigate these effects, observations must be performed from the radio quiet environment on the lunar farside. Two separate proposed missions will take advantage of this unique environment. The Dark Ages Polarimeter PathfindER (DAPPER) is a SmallSat carrying a single antenna that will observe at 17–107 MHz, providing new constraints on the standard cosmological model and cooling of the Hydrogen by dark matter. The Farside Array for Radio Science Investigations of the Dark Ages and Exoplanets (FARSIDE) will place 128 dipole antennas directly on the lunar surface and observe down to 200 kHz.

Greenhagen B. T.   Stickle A. M.   Sunshine J. M.   23 Additional Members of the LDLE Team

Long-Duration Lunar Explorer:  Moscoviense Basin Mission Concept [#5038]
The Moscoviense Basin on the lunar farside provides access to highly compelling geologic settings, with broad applicability to lunar and planetary science, all accessible within a single ~150-km traverse. This approximately 650-km diameter multi-ringed basin exhibits a complex morphology and compositionally diverse volcanism, spanning a significant portion of lunar geologic history. Previously evaluated as a priority science target for consideration by the Constellation Program, the size and location of Moscoviense make it an unlikely target for human exploration in the near future. Moscoviense is well beyond the lunar limb with no direct communication to Earth, and the distances required to explore the geologic settings would require a lengthy human presence. These qualities, combined with the wide variety of geologic settings that can be investigated at Moscoviense, require a versatile and capable rover, and therefore, make it an ideal study case for a long-duration, non-polar rover.

Runyon K. D.   Moriarty D.   Denevi B. W.   Greenhagen B. T.   Morgan G.   Young K. E.   Cohen B. A.   van der Bogert C. H.   Hiesinger H.   Jozwiak L. M.

Impact Melt Facies in the Moon’s Crisium Basin:  Identifying, Characterizing, and Future Radiogenic Dating [#5020]
Both Earth and the Moon share a common history regarding the epoch of large basin formation, though only the lunar geologic record preserves any appreciable record of this Late Heavy Bombardment (LHB). The emergence of Earth’s first life is approximately contemporaneous with the LHB. While the relative formation time of most of the Moon’s large basins is known, the absolute timing is not. The timing of Crisium Basin’s formation is one of many important events that must be constrained and would require identifying and dating impact melt formed in the Crisium event. We determined that the rim and central peaks of the partially lava-flooded Yerkes Crater likely contain the most pure and intact Crisium impact melt. It is here where future robotic and/or human missions could confidently date the formation time of Crisium and add a key missing piece to the puzzle of the combined issues of early Earth-Moon bombardment and the emergence of life.

Stopar J. D.   Lawrence S. J.   Graham L.   Hamilton J.   Denevi B.   John K. K.   Meyer H. M.   Gruener J. E.

IMPEL:  A Small Lander Concept for Big Science [#5064]
We discuss a spacecraft configuration that employs two ESPA modules; one is used to deliver up to 9 kg of payload to the lunar surface. The lander design is highly capable of achieving high-priority science at the Ina formation. The Ina irregular mare patch is an exposure of uncommon volcanic materials of uncertain physical properties and age. A small, focused mission to this location can affordably ground-truth the composition of the Ina deposits, search for pyroclastics and vesicles, and determine the type of volcanism or other geologic activity responsible. We performed high-resolution site and visibility assessments for a lander capable of handling uneven terrain. The IMPEL (Irregular Mare Patch Exploration Lander) mission concept has the potential to confirm or refute the existence of young volcanism on the Moon, a high-priority science objective. The implementation of this lander system is complementary to NASA’s other surface exploration initiatives.

Kerber L.   Denevi B.   Colaprete A.   Anderson R.   Ashley J.   Burgess K. D.   Donaldson Hanna K.   Elder C. M.   Gellert R.   Hamilton C. W.   Haruyama J.   Hayne P. O.   Head J. W.   Heverly M. C.   Isaacson P.   Jackson C.   Joy K. H.   Jozwiak L. M.   Kestay L.   Klima R. L.   Needham D. H.   Nesnas I. A.   Parcheta C.   Pieters C. M.   Prissel T. C.   Scott D. R.   Sellar R. G.   Shearer C. K.   Stickle A. M.   Brown T. L.   Paton M.   McGarey P.

Moon Diver:  Descent into the Ancient Lavas of the Moon [#5045]
The lunar mare basalt deposits serve as natural probes into the lunar interior. Studies of the morphologies, chemistries, and spectral properties of impact-exposed and regolith-mantled surface basalts have yielded major insights into the thermal history and chemical composition of the Moon. Recent images from the Kaguya and LRO missions have revealed the presence of deep mare pits containing meter-scale layer stratigraphy exposed in their walls, providing unprecedented access to in-place mare bedrock stratigraphy. A mission to such an exposure would address numerous top priority lunar science goals, including understanding mare stratigraphy, exploring the regolith/bedrock interface, and accessing lava samples in context. Lava morphology and layer thicknesses (provided by context imagers), mineralogy and texture (provided by a multispectral microimager), and elemental chemistry (provided by an APXS) would reveal the workings of flood basalts on one-plate bodies like the Moon.

Robinson M. S.   Thangavelautham J.   Wagner R. V.

ARNE — Exploring the Mare Tranquillitatis Pit [#5051]
The Mare Tranquillitatis pit (8.335°N, 33.222°E) reveals a sublunarean void at least 20-meters in extent. A key remaining task is determining pit subsurface extents, and thus fully understanding their exploration and scientific value. We propose Arne, a simple and cost effective reconnaissance of the MTP using a lander (<130 kg), which carries three flying pit-bots. Key measurement objectives include dm scale characterization of pit walls, 5-cm scale imaging of the floor, determination of the topology (50-cm scale) of the sublunarean void(s), and measurement of the magnetic and thermal environment. The pit-bots are 30-cm flying robots equipped with stereo cameras, temperature sensors, and navigation sensors. Each pit-bot can fly for 2 min at 2 m/s for >100 cycles. Arne will carry a magnetometer, thermometer, 2 high resolution cameras, and 6 wide angle cameras and obstacle avoidance sensors enabling detailed characterization of MTP [Robinson et al., LEAG 2014, Abs. # 3025].

Cohen B. A.   Young K. E.   Zacny K.   Yingst R. A.   Swindle T. D.   Robbins S. J.   Grier J. A.   Grant J. A.   Fassett C. I.   Farley K. A.   Ehlmann B. L.   Dyar M. D.   van der Bogert C. H.   Arevalo R. D. Jr.   Anderson F. S.

Geochronology for the Next Decade [#5027]
Major advances in lunar and planetary science can be driven by absolute geochronology in the next decade. Bombardment flux constrains models of solar system and extrasolar planet dynamics; ages of magmatic products constrain the evolution of interior heat engines; and absolute dating relates planetary habitability to the timescale of life on Earth. Previous Decadal Surveys assumed sample return was needed for reliable and interpretable geochronology. Now, instruments using complementary radiogenic isotopic systems will be TRL 6 by the time of the next Decadal Survey. The time is right to consider how in situ geochronology can advance science in missions to the Moon and other destinations. Rovers or hoppers carrying complementary geochronology instruments and contextual measurements could visit multiple well-characterized provinces on the Moon. These could give the next Decadal Survey viable alternatives (or additions to) sample return for geochronology goals.

Neal C. R.   Webber R.   LGN Team

Establishing a Long-Lived, Global Lunar Geophysical Network (LGN) [#5067]
Understanding the structure and composition of the lunar interior has been designated a high priority for lunar science in two National Academies studies and the LEAG Roadmap. The LGN concept is a named mission in NF-5. We have developed this concept through new instrumentation and delivery concepts, and risk-reduction strategies through CLPS opportunities. Power remains TBD, but nuclear power is enabling for ~10 year lifetime and minimization of mass, such that the LGN stations would form the nodes of an International Lunar Network that other countries could add to over time. Solar power is also being considered, although there will be a mass trade. Each station will carry at least one of the following:  broad band seismometer, heat flow probe, laser retroreflector (nearside only), and an electromagnetic sounding package. Other payloads related to the geophysics mission as well as secondary science are being considered (e.g., dust detector, gravimeter), mass and power permitting.

Lawrence S. J.   Klima R. L.   Denevi B. W.   ISOCHRON Science Team

The Inner SOlar System Chronology (ISOCHRON) Discovery Mission:  Revealing the Recent Geologic History of the Solar System [#5046]
Returned Moon samples have provided the basis on which the models of solar system bombardment, planetary thermal evolution, and regolith evolution are built. However, many fundamental precepts are interpolated because all existing volcanic samples are from areas more than 3 billion years old. The Inner Solar System Chronology (ISOCHRON) lunar sample return mission will close long-standing gaps in our understanding of the middle 2 billion years of lunar and solar system history with a sample return from the youngest significant emplacement of mare basalts on the Moon, directly south of the Aristarchus plateau. ISOCHRON leverages an efficient sampling system and high-heritage components to safely return 150 g of young lunar basalt rocklets to Earth where it can be analyzed with state-of-the-art equipment. ISOCHRON will provide critical information to address significant unknowns regarding the timing of major planetary events across the inner solar system.

Jolliff B. L.   Shearer C. K.

South Pole-Aitken Basin Sample Return is Still a High-Priority Science Mission! [#5061]
Returning samples from South Pole-Aitken basin (SPA) remains a high priority for solar system science as articulated in the 2013 Planetary Science Decadal Survey and would address major cross-cutting planetary science themes. The SPA event completely resurfaced much of the southern farside of the Moon and reset ages over an enormous area. As such, SPA anchors the lunar impact-basin chronology. This chronology is critical to testing current models of early solar system dynamics; impact-melt rocks from SPA, including materials from younger basins within SPA, will provide a record of the Moon’s late heavy bombardment far distant from the Imbrium-dominated nearside Apollo zone. Samples from SPA will provide information about the differentiation of the SPA impact-melt sea, the farside mantle (via basalts), and possibly direct samples of the mantle excavated by the SPA impact. The age of SPA may also help explain the locus of lunar crustal rock and zircon ages around 4.27 and 4.35 Ga.

Moriarty D. P. III   Petro N. E.   Valencia S. N.   Watkins R. N.   Shearer C.   Zellner N.   Joy K.   Cohen B. A.   Elardo S.   Gross J.   Jolliff B. J.

LEAPFROG:  Robotic Lunar Sample Collection from Multiple Sites via Hopping [#5022]
The Lunar Explorer for Assessing Properties of Farside RegOlith Geochemistry (LEAPFROG) is a robotic mission concept for sample return from multiple sites via hopping. The concept offers a number of enhanced capabilities that could not be achieved from a stationary lander or traditional rover. The most notable advantage is the capability to collect samples over a range of tens-to-thousands of km, rather than the meters-to-kilometers range of traditional rovers.The primary goal of LEAPFROG is to enable an improved understanding of the nature and evolution of the lunar crust and mantle via sample return. Currently, all Apollo and Luna samples are associated with the Procellarum KREEP Terrane. While these have offered excellent insight into lunar geochemistry and evolution, it is essential for the progression of lunar science to return samples from the Moon’s other major terranes:  South Pole-Aitken (SPA) and the feldspathic highlands (FHT).

Osinski G. R.   Marion C.   Cloutis E.   Morse Z.   Newman J.   Caudill C.   Christoffersen P.   Cross M.   Hill P.   Pilles E.   Simpson S.   Tornabene L. L.   Xie T.

The Role of Analogue Missions in Preparing to Return to the Moon:  Lessons and Recommendations from CanMoon [#5018]
Simulated missions carried out in terrestrial analogue environments are critical for ensuring the success of future lunar missions. Here, we provide recommendations and lessons learned from the 2019 CanMoon lunar sample return analogue mission, which featured a mission control in London, Canada, and a field team in Lanzarote. The mission control was split into three teams:  planning, science tactical, and science interpretation. The operations objectives of CanMoon were to:  1) Compare the accuracy of selecting lunar samples remotely from mission control versus a traditional human field party; 2) Test the efficiency of remote science operations including the use of pre-planned strategic traverses; 3) Evaluate the utility of real-time automated data analysis approaches for lunar missions; 4) Explore the mission control operations structure for 24/7 lunar science operations; 5) Test how Virtual Reality technology can be used to help with enhancing the situational awareness in mission control.

Newman J. D.   Pilles E. A.   Morse Z. R.   Marion C. L.   Osinski G. R.   Cloutis E. A.   Caudill C. M.   Christoffersen P. A.   Hill P. J. A.   Simpson S. L.   Tornabene L. L.   Xie T.

Planning Team Operational Structure for the 2019 CanMoon Lunar Sample Return Analogue Mission [#5041]
CanMoon was a two-week lunar sample return analogue mission conducted in August 2019 (see Osinski et al., this conference for an overview). The Planning Team was one of three teams stationed in mission control during CanMoon operations. The primary responsibility of the Planning Team was to translate Tactical Science decisions and intended actions into rover readable commands and then send those command sequences directly to the rover. After the rover completed its activities, the Planning Team was first to receive the data acquired by the rover and relayed the data directly back to the Tactical Science Team for validation and processing. Nine roles comprised the Planning Team, and each role contributed various components that enabled communication within mission control and to the rover. Planning Team roles included a Planning Lead, Data Manager, Documentarian, Long Term Planner, GIS/Localization, Rover Operator, Rover Sequencer, Science/Planning Integrator, and Traverse Plan Monitor.

Tornabene L. L.   Osinski G. R.   Cloutis E. A.   Andres C. N.   Choe B-H.   Christoffersen P.   Hill P. J. A.   Marion C. L.   Morse Z. R.   Sacks L. E.   Yingling W.   Zanetti M. R.

Remote Sensing Analysis of the Landing Sites for the CanMoon Lunar Analogue Mission [#5043]
CanMoon was a two-week lunar sample return analogue mission (see Osinski et al., this conf.). Terrestrial-based and lunar-analogous orbital remote sensing datasets were gathered and used for a pre-mission geological assessment of two pre-selected sites. The results of our multispectral analysis, based on Landsat 8 and ASTER of the NW flow field on Lanzarote, were synthesized with other datasets providing information on the morphology, topography and basic physical properties of the spectrally-defined surface units. Several distinct spectral units where identified including various Fe-oxides, basaltic surfaces, amorphous or fine-grained Si-bearing materials, and possibly an evolved or altered volcanic endmember. Variations in apparent thermal inertia suggest that both intimate and physical mixtures may explain spectral characteristics. The synthesis yielded insights into the geologic materials present, the sampling opportunities, and the general geologic history of the two sites.

Morse Z. R.   Hill P. J. A.   Osinski G. R.   Cloutis E. A.   Caudill C. M.   Christoffersen P.   Marion C. L.   Newman J. D.   Pilles E. A.   Simpson S. L.   Tornabene L. L.   Xie T.

2019 CanMoon Tactical Science Team:  Real-Time Instrument Use and Coordination During a Lunar Sample Return Analogue Mission [#5047]
CanMoon was a real-time two-week lunar sample return analogue mission conducted in August 2019 (see Osinski et al., this conf. for an overview). One of the 3 teams in mission control was the Tactical Science team, which consisted of several sub-teams, each responsible for one instrument on the rover. A camera team operated the panoramic, zoom, and real-time cameras as well as a Remote Micro Imager (RMI). Three additional teams supported a suite of SuperCam instruments, including a Vis-NIR spectrometer, a Raman spectrometer, and a Laser Induced Breakdown Spectrometer (LIBS). These teams were responsible for targeting the instruments and performing quality assessments on all instrument data returned from the rover. These teams worked under the Science Team Lead to characterize the geology of the remote field site and meet overall CanMoon science objectives. The Tactical Science team successfully identified and collected several geologic samples including basalts and mantle xenoliths.

Hill P. J. A.   Simpson S. L.   Xie T.   Osinski G. R.   Cloutis E. A.   Caudill C. M.   Christoffersen P.   Marion C. L.   Morse Z. R.   Newman J. D.   Pilles E. A.   Tornabene L. L.

2019 CanMoon Science Interpretation Team:  Insights into Volcanic Flows in Lanzarote, Spain [#5048]
CanMoon was a two-week lunar sample return analogue mission conducted in August 2019 (see Osinski et al., this conf. for an overview). There were 4 primary science objectives:  investigate the diversity of rocks in the landing site region; identify and collect the best samples for age dating; identify and collect the most volatile-rich rocks; and explore for crustal and mantle material. We will summarize the results from the images and data collected by the scientific instruments. Given that the team was only allowed 4 samples from the 2 sample sites, the interpretations that led the science team to sample is explored. Various green inclusions were identified within several basalts with Raman, LIBS, and VIS-NIR spectrometry leading the team to interpret the inclusions to be mantle-derived, olivine xenoliths. To identify volatile-rich rocks, VIS-NIR spectrometry was instrumental in identifying a potential Si-OH or Al-OH bond that led to the direct sampling of a glassy basalt sample.

Glotch T. D.   Carter L. M.   Clark P. E.   Denevi B. W.   Greenhagen B. T.   Patterson G. W.   Petro N. E.   Retherford K. D.   Valencia S. N.   Watkins R. N.   Cahill J. T.   Cohen B. A.   Donaldson Hanna K. L.   Elder C. M.   Hiesinger H.   Kramer G. Y.   Livengood T. A.   Meyer H. M.   Ostrach L. R.   Poston M. J.   Shusterman M. L.   Siegler M. A.   Speyerer E. J.   Stickle A. M.   van der Bogert C. H.

An Advanced LRO-Class Orbiter for Lunar Science and Exploration [#5017]
A next generation lunar orbiter would support multiple goals of the lunar science community, as defined by the Lunar Exploration Roadmap, the Next Steps on the Moon Specific Action Team, and the Advancing Science of the Moon Specific Action Team. Science goals addressed by the orbiter would include, but not be limited to (1) understanding the bombardment history of the inner solar system through detailed study of crater populations, (2) furthering our understanding of the diversity of lunar crustal rocks, including lithologies that are rare in or absent from the Apollo sample collection (e.g., highly silicic lithologies and potential mantle material), (3) investigation of the lunar poles and the volatile resources they hold, (4) refining our knowledge of lunar volcanism to better understand the thermal and compositional evolution of the Moon, and (5) investigation of space weathering and regolith development processes to understand how airless body surfaces evolve over time.

Seibert M. A.   Levi A.   Paradis M.

Lunar Orbiting CubeSat Sensor Transport System [#5040]
The Lunar Orbiting CubeSat Sensor Transport (LOCuST) System concept was developed as part of a graduate design course in the Space Resources Program at the Colorado School of Mines. The concept evolved from a 2018 Lunar Polar Prospecting Workshop recommendation for “swarms” of CubeSats in lunar orbit.

The LOCuST system design consists of a carrier spacecraft that is capable of deploying sensor CubeSats once settled into the target lunar orbit. Mission designs may allow for the carrier to optimize the deployment of the CubeSats by adjusting the orbit between deployments. The number of CubeSats on each LOCuST carrier will vary with CubeSat size (3U, 6U, or 12U).

After CubeSat deployment, the LOCuST carrier spacecraft will serve as a communication relay for the deployed CubeSats allowing for higher return data rates. This will allow for each CubeSat to employ a concept of operations similar to Earth orbit missions by not needing to include dedicated deep space communications.

Stubbs T. J.   Purucker M. E.   Hudeck J. D.   Hoyt R. P.   Malphrus B. K.   Espley J. R.   Mesarch M. A.   Folta D.   Johnson T. E.   Cruz-Ortiz G. E.   Stoneking E. T.   Bakhtiari-nejad M.   Vondrak R. R.

Lunar Tethered Resource Explorer (Lunar T-REx):  Prospecting with Magnetics [#5014]
Lunar T-REx is a SmallSat mission concept to measure magnetic fields at very low altitudes (<5-20 km) to search for mineral resources. On Earth, economic mineralization at impact craters and igneous features can often be identified by magnetic signatures observed near the surface. On the Moon, many large Nectarian-aged impacts have prominent magnetic features that could reveal signatures of economic mineralization — if measured at very low altitudes. Lunar T-REx would use two SmallSat buses connected by a tether that orbit in a vertically-aligned gravity gradient formation. The advantages of this architecture include very low altitude measurements from stable orbits that provide long mission lifetimes. The primary payload would be mini-magnetometers making dual-point (high and low altitude) measurements enabling more accurate crustal field determinations. Only modest investments are required to advance the game-changing technologies needed for tethered lunar missions.

Firefly Aerospace

Firefly Genesis Lander [#5056]
We present summary information on the Firefly Aerospace Genesis Lunar Lander, including payload capacity, payload services, payload environments, and possible landing sites.

Martin T. D.

Intuitive Machines 2021 Lunar Mission [#5008]
In 2018, Intuitive Machines was awarded one of the nine NASA CLPS contracts. As part of CLPS, earlier this year, IM was chosen to fly 5 NASA payloads to the moon in 2021. IM is currently building the IM Nova-C lunar lander spacecraft. The Nova-C can carry 100 kg of payload to anywhere on the lunar surface. Up to 300 kg of payload can be deployed into LLO. The Nova-C provides power, data and thermal control for each of the payloads. The first mission will also carry two additional non-NASA payloads. There is an additional 50kg unallocated payload space available on this first mission, and IM is actively looking to fill this manifest. The spacecraft is designed to make a quick trip from the Earth to the moon and lands at a lunar mid-latitude landing site only a few days after launch. In addition to our small lander capability provided by the Nova-C, IM is actively pursuing a mid-size and large size landers.

Robinson M. S.   Blewett D. T.   Frank E.   Illsley P.   Lawrence S. J.   Mahanti P.   Rampe E. B.   Speyerer E. J.   Stopar J. D.   Tikoo S.   Vorhees C.   Wagner R. V.   Wettergreen D. S.   Denevi B. W.   Fong T.   Graham L. D.   Jolliff B. L.   Lawrence D. J.   Meyer H. M.   Spence H. E.   Fitzgerald M. B.

Intrepid:  The Next Generation of Lunar Exploration [#5049]
We propose a highly mobile rover, Intrepid, which will investigate at least six key lunar terrain types over the course of a four-year mission. The Intrepid mission concept and proposed traverse are specifically designed to address key outstanding science questions related to Decadal Survey goals and to strengthen interpretations of remotely sensed datasets collected over the past 25 years.

Intrepid has twelve core goals requiring a traverse over 1800 kilometers, and the acquisition of thousands of chemical, reflectance, imaging, magnetic, radiation, and solar wind observations. This ambitious concept requires detailed planning of stops and a disciplined science and operations team to stay on schedule and keep costs manageable. Measurement objectives are carried out with a suite of instruments selected to reach the goals while minimizing rover complexity [Robinson et al. (2014), LEAG 2014, abstract # 3026].

Speyerer E. J.   Lawrence S. J.   Stopar J. D.   Glaser P.   Robinson M. S.   Jolliff B. L.

Traversing the Lunar Poles with Solar! [#5058]
Near perpetual sunlight close to the lunar poles is one of its unique features as well as key resources for future human and robotic explorers. Observations collected by the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera along with illumination models derived from Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter topography enable the identification of regions that receive extended illumination (up to 81% near the South Pole) as well as craters and local depressions in a range of sizes that are in permanent shadow. We have developed a tool (R-Traverse) to examine traverse opportunities that require minimal movement but further enhance the availability of solar energy. In one example, we designed a traverse along the ridge between Shackleton and de Gerlache craters that increase the amount of time the explorer is illuminated to 94% of the year with the longest eclipse lasting only 101 hours. A solar powered rover could follow this path over several years and characterize multiple nearby regions in permanent shadow.

Lewis R.   Toups L.   Hoffman S.   Gruener J.   Jagge A.   Deitrick S.   Hinterman E.   Lawrence S.

Site Planning and Design to Enable Lunar and Mars Human Exploration [#5062]
NASA is taking a unique systems view requiring contrast and comparison of lunar and Mars environmental and operational characteristics to inform Moon-specific and testbed-specific aspects of site design; specific characterization of candidate reference sites; and an understanding of the interplay of the surface elements, resources, and environment. Site planning is an integrating process that aligns allocated functions with efficient utilization of natural resources and terrain. When the character of the site(s) is emphasized and studied, it influences the site selection and highlights wise construction and assembly to support surface operations. An informed site plan expresses relationships between built elements (e.g. structures, transportation, etc.) and the natural environment. This includes orientation and potential temporal variations, as well as the degree of sustainability, over the lifecycle of the utilization of the site, or sites, individually and as a system.

 

Tuesday, October 29, 2019

RETURN TO THE MOON I:  PROGRAMS TO GET US THERE

8:30 a.m.   Columbia Ballroom 6–12

Chairs:  Ryan Watkins and Benjamin Greenhagen

BACK TO TOP

Times

Authors (*Denotes Presenter)

Abstract Title and Summary

8:30 a.m.

Lawrence S. *

Morning Introduction of the Day’s Agenda Recording

8:40 a.m.

Morhard J. * (Deputy Administrator)

 

9:00 a.m.

Smith M. *

Artemis Overview and Human Lunar Exploration Programs Recording

9:15 a.m.

Connolly J. *

Perspectives:  Artemis Architecture Recording

9:30 a.m.

Werkheiser N. *

Perspectives:  Space Technology Mission Directorate (STMD) Recording

9:45 a.m.

 

Discussion and Community Input Recording

10:00 a.m.

 

Break

10:30 a.m.

Chavers G. *

Perspectives:  Human Landing Systems Recording

10:45 a.m.

Neal C. R. *

ISRU Workshop Findings Recording

11:00 a.m.

 

Morning Session Discussion and Community Input Recording

11:30 a.m.

 

Lunch

 

Tuesday, October 29, 2019

RETURN TO THE MOON II:  PARTNERS TO GET US THERE

1:00 p.m.   Columbia Ballroom 6–12

Chairs:  Klaus Kurt and Renee Weber

BACK TO TOP

Times

Authors (*Denotes Presenter)

Abstract Title and Summary

1:00 p.m.

Clarke S. *

Lunar Discovery and Exploration Program (LDEP) Update Recording

1:20 p.m.

Petro N *

Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) Update Recording

1:35 p.m.

Noble S. *

Planetary Science Division Community Updates Recording

1:45 p.m.

 

Discussion and Community Input

2:00 p.m.

Representatives from European Space Agency, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, and Canadian Space Agency

Perspectives:  International Partners Panel Recording
Moderator:  Tim Glotch

2:45 p.m.

 

Community Discussion and Input

3:00 p.m.

 

Break

3:15 p.m.

Bussey B.  *   Representatives from Astrobotic, Intuitive Machines

Commercial Lunar Payload Services:  Overview, Panel, and Discussion Recording

4:00 p.m.

Klaus K. *   Representatives from Commercial Partners

Perspectives:  Commercial Partners and the Cis-Lunar Economy Panel and Discussion Recording

4:45 p.m.

Klaus K. *   Denevi B. *   Sanders G. *

Overview of Instrumentation and ISRU Posters and Commercial Networking Event Recording

 

Tuesday, October 29, 2019

POSTER SESSION AND COMMERCIAL NETWORKING EVENT

5:00–7:00 p.m.   Columbia North

 

Commercial Providers will be Available to Discuss Product Information and Possibilities.

 

ISRU ON THE MOON

 

BACK TO TOP

Authors (*Denotes Presenter)

Abstract Title and Summary

Guzey V. I.

Diffusion of Hydrogen from the Mantle of Planets into Space [#5002]
A new concept of water formation in the depths of the planets, based on the release of protons (hydrogen ions) during the radioactive decay of elements in the region of the planetary core, is proposed. Hydrogen recovers metals in the mantle magma, forming a metallic core and water vapor that diffuses to the surface of the planet. The adoption of this concept allows astronauts to search for inexhaustible sources of artesian water on other planets.

The full text of the article is located at:  http://www.sciteclibrary.ru/eng/catalog/pages/9064.html.

Kring D. A.   Siegler M. A.

Dichotomy of Science and ISRU Targets [#5007]
Science objectives for exploration of the Moon (NRC 2007) are targeting polar volatile compositions and sources; transport, retention, alteration, and loss processes in permanently shadowed regions (PSRs); host regolith physical properties; and a measure of the ancient solar environment. Volatile species are also being targeted for in situ resource utilization (ISRU). While science and ISRU objectives are often discussed in the context of the same lunar surface sites, a dichotomy between them may exist. Science objectives require surveys of sites with different environmental conditions, including the coldest PSRs where the most volatile species may exist. In contrast, ISRU operations may favor warmer PSRs where water is uncontaminated with other volatile species (e.g., NH3 and CO2), making it easier to process any ice into components for crew consumption and rocket propellant. Warmer conditions may relax requirements for rovers and other assets devoted to ISRU.

Zacny K.   Quinn J.   Kleinhenz J.   Smith J.   Captain J.   Mank Z.   Vendiola V.   Paulsen G.

TRIDENT and PVEx Drilling Systems for Delivery of Regolith and Volatiles [#5033]
TRIDENT (The Regolith and Ice rill for the Exploration of New Terrains) and PVEx (Planetary Volatiles Extractor) are rotary-percussive, 1 m class drilling systems developed for the lunar exploration. TRIDENT is designed to deliver regolith to the surface where it can be analyzed by non-contact instruments such as Near Infrared Spectrometer or NIRVSS from NASA Ames. In addition, volatiles escaping from the cone of cuttings make your way to an inlet of a nearby mass spectrometer, MSolo from NASA KSC. As such, we can learn mineral and volatiles distribution as a function of depth. PVEx is a coring drill with heaters on the inside. Once the corer penetrates to a target depth, heaters are turned on and volatiles are sublimed up the corer, through a swivel and out towards MSolo. As such, PVEx can be used for more controlled volatiles analysis since the corer can be heater to a target temperatures. PVEx will be able to provide volatile concentration as a function of depth.

Horanyi M.   Sternovsky Z.   Kempf S.   Szalay J. R.   Pokorny P.

In Orbit Exploration of the Available Resources in Permanently Shadowed Lunar Polar Regions [#5006]
In Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) is a key to establishing human habitats on the Moon. The availability of water ice, and other volatiles, in Permanently Shadowed Regions (PSR) makes the lunar poles of prime interest. However, the relative strengths of the sources, sinks, and transport mechanisms of water into and out of PSRs remain largely unknown. Dust detector and analyzer instruments on a polar or near-polar orbiting lunar spacecraft can provide two critical measurements:  (1) The quantitative characterization of the temporal and spatial variability of the influx of Interplanetary Dust Particles (IDP) to the polar regions is vital to the understanding the evolution of volatiles. (2) By analyzing the composition ejecta particles released from the lunar surface, a dust analyzer instrument can assess from orbit the availability and accessibility of water ice in PSRs.

Indyk S.   Benaroya H.

Structural Members Produced from Unrefined Lunar Regolith Simulant [#5066]
The potential of utilizing lunar regolith as the raw material for manufacturing structural members is appealing for future exploration of the Moon. Future lunar missions will depend on ISRU for structural components. Manufacturing structural components directly from unrefined lunar regolith would have the advantage of needing less specialized material processing equipment in comparison with refining the lunar regolith for its raw elements. Sintering can be a highly variable process and only with the material constants can a structure be designed from this material. Two batches of sintered lunar regolith simulant, JSC-1A samples with porosities 1.44% and 11.78% underwent compression testing. Analysis of the data sets were evaluated based on the comparative material density. Compressive strength compared to the shows two clear classes of material quality. The average compressive strengths of the 1.44% porosity material were 219 MPa, and 85 MPa for the 11.78% porosity material.

Roux V. G.   Roth M. C.   Roux E. L.   Cook A. M.   Colaprete A.

Testing the Near Infrared Volatile Spectrometer Subsystem (NIRVSS) with OPRFLCROSS Lunar Icy Regolith Simulants [#5028]
In April 2019, the engineering model of the Near Infrared Volatile Spectrometer Subsystem (NIRVSS) was tested at Off Planet Research using OPRFLCROSS icy regolith simulants. Some of the images and results of these tests are presented in this poster. NIRVSS was developed by Dr. Anthony Colaprete and Dr. Amanda Cook at NASA Ames Research Center and was selected to fly aboard CLPS missions to the lunar surface to gather IR spectral data and visible-wavelength imagery of lunar volatiles as well as temperature data.

OPRFLCROSS lunar icy regolith simulants were developed for these tests to mimic cryogenic vapor deposition of the nine components observed in the LCROSS impact plume. This is believed to have been the natural formation process of actual lunar polar ices. The ice components used were water, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, ammonia, hydrogen sulfide, sulfur dioxide, methane, ethane, and methanol, which were frozen onto super-cooled OPRH2N lunar Highland regolith simulant.

Cheuvront D.   Masten D.   Campbell N.   Mahoney S.   Cembrinski T.   Blair B.

Systems Design of an ISRU-Enabled Robotic Lunar Hopper [#5059]
A technical concept will be presented for early lunar ISRU that could lead to low-cost human and robotic lunar exploration, as well as a measurable reduction in technical, business and operational risks for a commercial partnership. The basic concept of operations will be to use early ISRU to supply-hop-repeat from nearby to more distant sunlit regions of economic and scientific exploration interest, and then extend that mission into progressively colder levels of natural volatile traps in permanent shadow. As reported in NASA ISRU plans, oxygen from regolith can be incorporated into the architecture from the start with low to moderate risk, providing 75 to 80% of chemical propulsion propellant mass. Risk due to resource uncertainty and the operational complexity of LH2 systems represent a barrier to using water from the start. Thus, the current work considers how O2 extraction can meet near term needs, while technology to utilize water can be pursued for longer-term sustainability.

Blair B.   Masten D.   Davidson H.

Value Proposition for Lunar ISRU-Hopper Demo Campaign [#5065]
Multiple classes of value for lunar ISRU can be demonstrated through a reusable robotic hopper. Iron oxide in warm polar regolith is a reliable source of Oxygen and leverages three decades of prior NASA ISRU technology development. A hopper mission would generate exploration-related scientific value that would grow with the number of visited sample sites. Value could also result from test of hardware and instruments as well as demonstration of multiple flights. In addition, an early ISRU demonstration path could test elements of a commercial procurement model, reducing business and investment risk for public and private partners. Finally, a cryogenically-capable ISRU-supplied hopper could collect valuable scientific data from cold traps that lie progressively more distant from the polar peak of operation in an extended mission. This activity could also collect proprietary resource-related prospecting data, further reducing business risk for a commercial lunar mining operator.

Zacny K.   Chu P.   Spring J.   Mueller R.   Schuler J.   Townsend I.   Bergman D.   Hovik W.

PlanetVac:  Sample Acquisition and Delivery System for Instruments and Sample Return [#5011]
PlanetVac is a pneumatic sample acquisition and delivery system ideally suited for low cost, small lunar landers such as those developed under CLPS program. PlanetVac is mounted on or close to the footpad. A set of nozzles strategically placed close to the ground, agitates and loft the regolith material through a transfer tube and directly into an instrument cup or a sample return container. Hence this system can deliver a sample in a fraction of a second. There are numerous iterations of PlanetVac related to the sample mass, particle size distribution as well as sample cup shape and size. PlanetVac has been selected under LSITP to go to the Moon on one of the CLPS landers.

Chandrachud R. A.

Development of Lunar Structures on the Surface of the Moon with ISRU Units [#5030]
In this paper, I describe the advantages of solar panels for ISRU units and detailed analysis of Water processing ISRU units having no solar panels which extends to the details of metals which could be extracted profitably from selected regions with techniques involved. Basically this paper propounds use of ISRU units on the lunar surface in a new way along with new extraction work techniques. It is very important for the ISRU Units to proliferate on the lunar surface as they will drastically meet all the energy needs of the structures installed on lunar surface. These ISRUs will be powered with solar panels along with fuel cells as back-up plan. Carefully chosen isotopes of Uranium could power these ISRU units. Another type of ISRU units is water processing ISRU units powered by U-233 fission reactor which run a 10MeV S-CO2 Cycle.Metal refining units be installed at Oceanus Procellarum. For Helium-3 Extraction the power required would be very low compared to the other operations.

 

INSTRUMENTATION CONCEPTS

 

BACK TO TOP

Authors (*Denotes Presenter)

Abstract Title and Summary

Bale S. D.   Bonnell J. W.   Burns J.   Goetz K.   Halekas J. S.   Malaspina D. M.   Page B.   Pulupa M.   Poppe A. R.   MacDowall R. J.   Maksimovic M.   Zaslavsky A.

The Lunar Surface Electromagnetics Experiment (LuSEE) for LSITP [#5010]
The Lunar Surface Electromagnetics Experiment (LuSEE) suite consists of flight spare electronics from the FIELDS experiment on the recently-launched Parker Solar Probe (PSP) spacecraft, deployable flight spare voltage sensors from the STEREO/WAVES and Van Allen Probes (VAP)/EFW experiments, and a flight fluxgate magnetometer from the NASA/GSFC group. The LuSEE suite will measure the DC electric and magnetic fields, plasma waves, electrostatic signatures of dust impacts, and radio emissions from the Sun, Earth, and outer planets. Surface DC electric potentials will be measured using voltage signals from a pair of STEREO/WAVES electric antennas and a VAP axial antenna, giving a baseline of more than five meters. Dust particles passing within the Debye sheath of the lander will produce small voltage impulses measured by LuSEE. LuSEE will measure low frequency radio emission (< 20 MHz) as a path-finder to a future lunar radio array.

Grava C.   Retherford K. D.   Greathouse T. K.   Mandt K. E.   Gladstone G. R.   Raut U.   Hurley D. M.   Cahill J. T. S.   Hendrix A. R.   Byron B. D.

The LAMP Spectrograph on the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter:  10 Years of Lunar Exploration with Ultraviolet Eyes [#5031]
The Lyman-Alpha Mapping Project (LAMP) ultraviolet (UV) imaging spectrograph on board the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO), by exploiting the polar orbit of LRO and the light from UV-bright stars and interstellar H atoms glowing at Lyman-alpha (121.6 nm), has demonstrated an innovative nightside observing technique, ushering a new era in the exploration of Permanently Shaded Regions (PSRs).

LAMP detected H2O ice in the PSRs and widespread hydration in the dayside, examined relative increases in porosity within the PSRs, trends in space weathering and global distribution of lunar swirls, and confirmed newly formed craters.

LAMP detected species in the lunar exosphere, such as H2 and He, and species, such as Ca and Hg, ejected by the LCROSS impact in Cabeus crater, proving to be a valuable tool to study migration and distribution of volatiles. Finally, LAMP proved that the Moon is a special location to perform heliophysics studies.We discuss 10 years of lunar exploration in the UV.

Fraeman A. A.   Blaney D. L.   Chen W.   Eastwood M. L.   Ehlmann B. L.   Green R. O.   Haag J. M.   McKinley I. M.   Sandford M.   Thompson D. R.   Mouroulis P.   Petro N. E.   Pieters C. M.

UCIS-Moon:  A Compact Imaging Spectrometer for the Lunar Surface [#5035]
We are developing the Ultra-Compact Imaging Spectrometer (UCIS) for future landed lunar mission under the Development and Advancement of Lunar Instrumentation (DALI) program. UCIS-Moon expands original UCIS capabilities in spectral range, FOV, and environmental tolerance to achieve lunar science goals while limiting mass and power resources. UCIS-Moon will observe from 600–3600 nm to map the type, abundance, distribution, and time variability of lunar volatiles and minerals. This range also enables detection of organics that may have been delivered by impacts. With a 600-pixel cross-track field, UCIS-Moon will offer enhanced capability to map the composition and geologic context of lunar materials at cm- to m-scale. UCIS-Moon can operate in ~40-350 K lunar thermal environment. It will use on-board analysis to maximize the science yield of restricted bandwidth downlinks. Government sponsorship acknowledged.

Denevi B. W.   Turtle Z. P.   Boldt J. D.   Ernst C. M.

EIS at the Moon:  Meter-Scale Multispectral and Stereo Imaging for Science and Exploration [#5053]
Panchromatic images from LROC enable the study of features and processes at a scale (0.5–2 m/p) relevant to future landed human and robotic missions. However, multispectral imaging is not available at the exploration scale and spacecraft slewing restrictions limit stereo coverage. A narrow-angle camera (NAC) based on the Europa Imaging System (EIS) NAC would, with minimal adaptation, provide substantial improvements in capability that naturally follow from the LROC results:  1) imaging in ≥3 colors and 2) native geometric stereo. The EIS NAC was designed for color imaging during fast flybys, making it ideal for lunar imaging from a 50-km orbit (GSD of 0.5 m over a 2-km swath). The key to such high-resolution color is a custom detector with a high-speed, flexible arbitrary-row readout that enables the spatial oversampling required for digital time-delay integration. As configured for EIS, stripe filters provide 6 bandpasses from 350–1150 nm and stereo is achieved through use of a gimbal.

Sun X.   Smith D. E.   Hoffman E. D.   Wake S. W.   Cremons D. R.   Mazarico E.   Lauenstein J. M.   Zuber M. T.   Aaron E. C.

Miniature Laser Retro-Reflector Arrays (LRA) as Fiducial Markers on Lunar Landers [#5021]
Small and lightweight laser retro-reflector arrays (LRA) were made as payloads for lunar landers under NASA’s Commercial Lunar Payload Service (CLPS) program. Each LRA contains eight 1.27-cm diameter corner cubes on a dome-shaped aluminum structure, which is 5.0 cm in diameter at the base and 1.6 cm in height, and weighs 21 grams. They can be ranged to from an orbiting lidar from a few hundred kilometers and serve as a calibrated reflective optical surface on the lander and as permanent fiducial markers. The LRAs were tested over a wide temperature range from 85 K to 385 K, a vibration level of 26 g, and a total ionization radiation dose of 17.8 Mrad(Si). They showed near diffraction-limited optical performance based on our test data using an optical interferometer and a long-focal-length collimator at both 532 nm and 1064 nm laser wavelengths. These LRAs are expected to function day and night on the lunar surface, and serve as fiducial markers for many decades to come.

Núñez J. I.   Klima R. L.   Murchie S. L.   Warriner H. E.   Boldt J. D.   Lehtonen S. J.   Greenberg J. M.   Anderson K. L.   Palmer T. W.   Maas B. J.   McFarland E. L.

Exploring the Moon at the Microscale with the Advanced Multispectral Infrared Microimager (AMIM) [#5054]
NASA’s Strategic Plan for Lunar Exploration for “Lunar Science by 2024” includes multiple robotic precursor missions to explore for polar volatiles and lunar ice for potential ISRU in the Moon’s South Pole, understanding the geology of the South-Pole Aitken basin, exploring lunar swirls, and investigating volcanic regions. We have developed the Advanced Multispectral Infrared Microimager (AMIM), a compact microscopic imager, for future landed missions to the Moon, to provide in situ spatially-correlated mineralogical and microtextural information of rocks and soils at the microscale for improving our understanding of the Moon and for prospecting for potential lunar resources. AMIM combines the capabilities commonly associated with orbital instruments such as M3 on Chandrayaan 1, but at a size and mass comparable to current microscopic imagers for landed science - a capability unmatched by any current microimaging instrument for lunar exploration.

Anderson F. S.   Whitaker T. J.   Levine J.   Alexander A.   Rogers J.

New In-Situ Rb-Sr Dating Results Using Femtosecond Ablation and CDEX [#5050]
Missions to provide improved dates from the surface of the Moon are critical to constrain billion year uncertainties in the history of the Moon and inner solar system. The Chemistry and Dating EXperiment (CDEX) is a portable Rb-Sr geochronology and elemental abundance instrument that uses a combination of laser ablation, resonance ionization, and mass spectrometry techniques. CDEX measures hundreds of locations on a sample for geologic context, and produces dates with precision <±200 Ma. The precision of CDEX is limited by the process of nanosecond laser ablation. By using femtosecond ablation pulses, we have now demonstrated new dates with precision as good as ±70 Ma for a range of samples, including Zagami, the Duluth Gabbro, Sudbury impactites, the Boulder Creek Granite, and the Pikes Peak Granite. In this presentation, we will discuss the implications for improving lunar and solar system chronology, and the prospects for new lunar missions.

Cohen B. A.   Barber S. J.   Farrell W. M.   Wright I. P.

Ion-Trap Mass Spectrometers for Lunar Volatile Analysis [#5055]
We describe our ion-trap mass spectrometer, which is being developed for flight on ESA’s PROSPECT package for prospecting for lunar volatiles on board the Roscosmos Luna-27 lander and within NASA’s Commercial Lunar Payloads Services (CLPS) program. The ITMS has heritage from the successful Ptolemy ITMS on Rosetta. It is mechanically compact and lightweight (~1 kg/15 cm) and tuneable up to m/z 150, suitable for small landers or coupled to more complex payloads. The CLPS ITMS will monitor the near-surface lunar exosphere in response to natural and artificial stimuli (e.g., diurnal cycle, lander activities), with detection limits ~1E-10 mbar, orders of magnitude better than the LACE experiment. In PROSPECT, the ITMS will quantify gases evolved by heating samples drilled from the lunar sub-surface. Investigations using this instrument can significantly improve our knowledge of the abundance and behavior of volatiles on the Moon, informing robotic and human mission system design.

Colaprete A.   Benton J.   Bielawski R.   Cook A.   Forgione J.   Jin F.   McMurry W.   Middour C.   Roush T.   White B.

The Near InfraRed Volatiles Spectrometer System (NIRVSS) [#5057]
The Near InfraRed Volatiles Spectrometer System (NIRVSS) is an integrated set of sensors meant to identify volatiles, especially water, and characterize the scene environments relevant to volatile retention or form. NIRVSS consists of three main subsystems including 1) a Near InfraRed (NIR) point spectrometer and lamp that measures reflectance between 1300 to 4000 nm with a spectral resolution ranging from about 15Nm to 30nm, 2) a 4 Mpxl Science Context Imager, integrated with seven sets of LEDs ranging in wavelengths from 340 nm to 940 nm, and 3) the Longwave Calibration Sensor (LCS), a four-channel thermal radiometer that measures scene temperatures between <100K and 400K. Currently a flight unit is being built for flight on Astrobotic’s maiden flight (Mission 1) to Lacos Mortis in July 2021. NIRVSS is also part of the Volatiles Investigating Polar Exploration Rover (VIPER) payload suite, making measurements while roving and of subsurface drill cuttings.

Grimm R.   Stillman D.   Phillips M.   Delory G.   Turin P.   Espley J.   Sheppard D.   Mackie R.   Johnson C.   Garrick-Bethel I.   Neal C.

Lunar Magnetotelluric Sounder [#5026]
The electrical conductivity of the Moon is sensitive to temperature and composition, and can be determined by electromagnetic sounding. Previous constraints obtained by the magnetic transfer function between the surface magnetometer at Apollo 12 and the distantly orbiting Explorer 35 were bandwidth-limited and sensitive to plasma artifacts. A surface measurement of both electric and magnetic fields — the magnetotelluric method — eliminates both of these shortcomings, without needing a reference orbiter. Furthermore, the Apollo 12 site was within PKT; comparison to a site in FHT would reveal differences in these terranes in the upper mantle. The experiment has been selected for flight ca. 2022 by LSITP; improved versions on a Lunar Geophysical Network will place fundamental constraints on the vertical differentiation and lateral heterogeneity of the Moon.

Chi P. J.   Horchler A. D.   Provenzano M.   Russell C. T.

MagRover:  A Mobile Magnetometer System for Lunar Landing Missions [#5044]
We propose a small mobile magnetometer system called “MagRover” that can easily be deployed by future commercial landers and other landed missions to the Moon. MagRover integrates the UCLA fluxgate magnetometer on the Astrobotic CubeRover and is capable of conducting magnetic surveys on the Moon. MagRover can address unanswered questions in multiple areas, including, but not limited to, 1) the spatial variations of lunar magnetic anomalies on the surface and the magnetic field environment at potential human habitats, 2) the interaction between crustal magnetic fields and plasma and waves in the lunar exosphere, 3) the electrical conductivity profile of the lunar interior through magnetic sounding, 4) the intensity and orientation of the paleomagnetic field for understanding the Moon’s evolution, and 5) prospecting minerals and metals on the lunar surface. MagRover’s capability in (5) can help identify ISRU and address the SKG in Technologies for Beneficiation of Lunar Resources.

Nagihara S.   Zacny K.   Ngo P.   Sanigepalli V.   Sanasarian L.

The Lunar Instrumentation for Subsurface Thermal Exploration with Rapidity (LISTER) [#5005]
LISTER is an instrument to measure the endogenic heat flow of the Moon. It has been selected as one of the payload instruments on upcoming flights under the Commercial Lunar Payload Services program. LISTER deploys a hot-wire needle probe that penetrates 2 to 3 m into lunar regolith and measures temperature and thermal conductivity at multiple depths on the way down. Heat flow is obtained from these two sets of measurements. LISTER, with its probe stowed, is of shoe-box size. It can be mounted on either the lander’s leg or belly pan. Its deployment mechanism spools out a boom made of glass fiber and Kapton in a manner similar to a steel tape measure. The boom terminates in a penetrating cone. The needle probe for thermal measurements is attached to the cone tip. To advance, the boom uses the torque from the motor, while a gas jet, fed through the boom and emitted from the cone tip, blows regolith out of the hole. After landing, LISTER can complete its operation in 10 to 14 hours.

Weber R.   Bailey H.   DellaGiustina D.   Bray V.   Otterbacher S.   Burke K.   Avenson B.   Schmerr N.   Benna M.   Siegler M.   Zacny K.   Marusiak A.   Neal C.

Tilt-Insensitive Optical Seismometer for the Lunar Geophysical Network [#5013]
Apollo-era seismic data have provided an important glimpse of the Moon’s structure, which has bearing on its thermal, petrological, and rotational history. Further investigation hinges on the development of a global Lunar Geophysical Network (LGN), including advanced seismic sensors and deployment systems.

The Seismometer for a Lunar Network (SLN) is a NASA/DALI-funded effort to develop a seismometer based on a COTS device manufactured by Silicon Audio Inc. It is a novel combination of a geophone and a laser interferometer that enables detection of submicron-scale motions. SLN is a small, sensitive, tilt-tolerant, broadband instrument competitive with state of the art planetary seismometers. It will be deployed via burial using a gas-jet pneumatic drilling technique developed by Honeybee Robotics.

Here we report on the progress underway to develop SLN in preparation for LGN. SLN is also baselined as the seismometer on the DALI-funded Lunar Environment Monitoring Station (LEMS).

Hayne P. O.   Osterman D. P.   Donaldson Hanna K. L.   Paige D. A.   Greenhagen B. T.   Siegler M. A.   Bandfield J. L.

The Lunar Compact Infrared Imaging System (L-CIRiS) [#5015]
Orbital infrared mapping by the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter’s Diviner Lunar Radiometer has revealed fundamental properties of the lunar surface materials and the Moon’s geologic history. However, these orbital measurements have also pointed to the importance of small-scale variations in composition, thermophysical properties, and shadowing, which remain spatially unresolved from orbit. The Lunar Compact Infrared Imaging System (L-CIRiS) is a thermal infrared imaging radiometer selected by NASA to be deployed on the Moon through the Commercial Lunar Payload Services (CLPS) program. L-CIRiS will obtain the first thermal infrared images from the lunar surface, achieving <1 cm spatial resolution, with a field of view spanning from just a few meters from the lander, all the way to the horizon. L-CIRiS has both science and exploration objectives, including mapping regolith porosity and grain size, rock abundance, and determining mineral composition at small spatial scales.

Mazarico E.   Sun X.   Torre J.-M.   Courde C.   Aimar M.   Chabé J.   Bouquillon S.   Lemoine F. G.   Mao D.   Barker M. K.   Viswanathan V.   Cremons D. R.   Zuber M. T.   Smith D. E.

2-Way Laser Ranging from the Grasse Station to LRO:  Implications for Lunar Laser Ranging [#5016]
We present the results of a successful experiment to perform 2-way laser ranging to retro-reflectors onboard the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) spacecraft. A small 650-g array of twelve 31.7mm solid corner cubes is mounted on its anti-nadir deck. The Lunar Laser Ranging (LLR) station in Grasse (France) ranged to this fast-moving target, a challenge compared to traditional ranging to surface reflectors. Grasse measured 71 returns in two 6-minute sessions on September 4, 2018. The range residuals against the reconstructed LRO trajectory (using regular S-band data) were on the order of a few centimeters in this first run (time-of-flight RMS of 0.13 and 0.16 ns). This shows the use of similar flight-proven, light arrays (LRO flight spare or rebuilds) onboard future landed payloads can support LLR lunar science goals, particularly with landing sites near the lunar limbs and poles, which would have better sensitivity to lunar orientation.

Osinski G. R.   Cross M.   Pilles E.   Sabarinathan J.   Tornabene L. L.

An Integrated Vision System for Future Lunar Surface Missions [#5019]
Our team is developing a rover-mounted Integrated Vision System (IVS) for robotic and human lunar surface missions. The IVS integrates three types of vision systems into a unified instrument to enable rapid fusion data products to enhance situational awareness for surface operations:  1) The science camera is a high definition colour camera with a built-in spectral filter wheel, which will enable capturing detailed images of the lunar surface as well as providing spectral data in the UV-VIS-NIR range; 2) The LiDAR system will capture the topography of the surrounding lunar surface in order to create a digital terrain model; 3) The imaging spectrometer is a multispectral imager in the 800 to 2500 nm range. This would enable the identification of minerals such as olivine, various pyroxenes, plagioclase, and other targets of interest found on the lunar surface. Once the data from each component has been collected, the high-definition colour and spectral images can be draped over the DTM.

Kebe F.   Gonzalez Y.

Lunar Radio Telescope Project [#5023]
Being the closest celestial body to Earth, the Moon presents advantages for establishing scientific instruments on its surface. Low-frequency radio emissions cannot be measured from Earth because of two interferences:  Human-made (Earth’s radio and television transmissions); and Earth’s ionosphere, which is ionized by solar radiation. The near side of the Moon can be affected by the terrestrial radio transmissions leaving the far side protected from this « pollution ». As its far side is not disturbed by the Earth’s radio signals, the possibility to detect low-frequency radio waves is significantly improved, which would enable us to better measure cosmic background radiation, signals coming from the formation of the Universe’s first stars, and more deeply investigate the beginning of the Universe. We introduce here, the initial steps of the Lunar Radio Telescope project.

Cross M.   Szoke-Sieswerda J.   Pascual A.   Flanagan L.   McIsaac K.

In-Situ Machine Learning for Lunar Surface Science [#5025]
Here we present results from our field deployment for demonstrating in-situ machine learning for lunar and planetary surface science and exploration. The objective is to apply machine learning techniques on computationally-constrained hardware with limited human-in-the-loop training. The field deployment will take place at the Canadian Space Agency’s analogue terrain, which features a number of diverse geologic features. A mobile robot equipped with lidar and 3D camera, is teleoperated to assess the various targets of interest. Demonstrated techniques include the following ‘Weakly Supervised Learning From Mistakes’, which uses mistakes from classification to identify new object classes; comparison of deep and shallow convolutional networks; comparison of lidar and image based classification; and multi-modal reinforcement learning. This research is intended to enable limited-data-bandwidth human-in-the-loop machine learning for outer solar system autonomous science.

Mezilis J. A.   Ridenoure R. W.   Head J. W.

Remote Camera and Sensor System for Capturing Lunar Lander Descent and Landing from the Lunar Surface [#5029]
Imaging of a lunar landing from the lunar surface has never been attempted, nor has direct measurement of regolith dispersion caused by the landing. Such data will help inform the design and operation of future lunar landers and emplaced lunar surface base/outpost infrastructure. An approach for capturing these unique data types involves deployment of one or more small imaging/sensor pods carried to the Moon by proposed commercial lunar landers. The pods eject from the host lander at ~50 m above the surface, immediately after the lander transitions from the high-speed descent phase to slow-speed/hover phase. The pods fall to the lunar surface under the influence of lunar gravity, whereas the lander descends at a slower pace, resulting in approximately 10–15 seconds for the pod to initialize and begin data capture. This poster presents the overall concept of operations for this system, notional pod design features, expected instrumentation and science/engineering value of returned data.

Yingst R. A.   Cohen B. A.   Garry W. B.   Minitti M. E.   Ravine M. A.   Watkins R. N.   Young K. E.

Heimdall:  A Flexible Camera System for Conducting Lunar Science [#5039]
The Heimdall camera system is a high flight-heritage instrument that provides data to (1) assess and map landing site geology to provide geologic context; (2) characterize geotechnical properties of the regolith; (3) record regolith/rocket plume interaction during descent; and (4) assess characteristics of potential landing/trafficability hazards and provide hazard avoidance truthing. Heimdall consists of four 5-megapixel color CMOS cameras and a DVR that acquires images of the lunar surface at meter- to millimeter-scale during descent, and at centimeter- to submillimeter-scale on the surface. Heimdall includes a wide-angle descent imager to capture near-video-speed images of interactions of the exhaust plume with the lunar regolith, a narrow-angle imager to image the regolith at ~35 µm/pixel, and two wide-angle panoramic imagers for landscape imaging and contextual geologic mapping. Flexible mounting and pointing allow Heimdall to address a broad range of objectives.

Frank E. A.   Illsley P.   Voorhees C.   Helms T.

Anticipated Challenges in Payload Integration on NASA Commercial Lunar Payload Services Missions [#5060]
During the project lifecycle for a robotic NASA mission, the spacecraft and its payload are designed concurrently. Design changes to a spacecraft can dramatically impact instrument design and operation, and vice versa. Throughout the design phase, resources are allocated and negotiated across subsystems, including scientific instruments, and requirements are deconflicted.

The NASA Commercial Lunar Payload Services (CLPS) program is a radical departure from this approach. Customers interested in sending a payload via a CLPS provider must conform to the specifications of the company’s spacecraft; the spacecraft and its payload are no longer being concurrently designed.

The First Mode team has deep experience with payload accommodation and integration on spacecraft including Mars Science Laboratory and Mars 2020. Drawing on this expertise, we identify the challenges that this new design approach may present, the potential effects on lunar science investigations, and viable solutions.

Richter L. O.   Graue R.   Hayun E.   Jaime A.   Nir M. N.   Stuffler T.

Lunar Surface Access Service (LSAS) — The OHB-IAI Collaboration on Commercial Lunar Landers [#5036]
The continued exploration of the Earth’s moon will rely on the one hand on institutional missions – such as through the US’s, China’s, India’s and Russia’s space programs – but on the other hand on a strong commercial element. Several actors are in advanced stages of developing lunar orbital and landing spacecraft for uncrewed missions. Of all the commercial lunar mission actors, SpaceIL with Israel Aerospace Industries (IAI) was the first to launch a privately funded lunar landing spacecraft, being the Beresheet lander. In January 2019, OHB System and IAI have signed a teaming agreement for offering a Lunar Surface Access Service (LSAS) based on the “Israeli Lunar Lander” ILL that is derived from Beresheet. This talk will describe the LSAS collaboration and the service offered by our consortium. The key advantage of the LSAS under the OHB-IAI collaboration is the already available flight heritage through Beresheet, providing a significant edge in terms of risk and schedule.

 

Wednesday, October 30, 2019

THE MOON IN THE 2020S:  BEYOND ARTEMIS-3

8:30 a.m.  Columbia Ballroom 6–12

Chair:  Jennifer Heldmann

BACK TO TOP

Times

Authors (*Denotes Presenter)

Abstract Title and Summary

8:30 a.m.

Robinson M. *

Morning Introduction of the Day’s Agenda and Tempe Workshop Outcomes Recording

8:45 a.m.

Macdowall R. *   Needham D. *   Sato K. *   Spence H. *

Science at the Moon Panel and Community Discussion Recording
Moderator:  Jennifer Heldmann 

9:30 a.m.

Fagan A. *

Overview of the Lunar Exploration Roadmap (LER) and its Importance to the Community Recording

9:45 a.m.

Noble S. *   Bleacher J. *   Petro A. *

Artemis Panel and Discussion:  How SMD, HEOMD, and STMD will Enable Lunar Science and Exploration Recording

Moderator:  Kelsey Young

10:30 a.m.

 

Community Discussion:  How does the Artemis Program Fit with the LER? Recording

11:00 a.m.

 

Break

11:15 a.m.

Cohen B. *

Decadal Survey:  What to Expect as We Move Forward Recording

11:45 a.m.

Lawrence S. *

LEAG Findings Recording

12:15 p.m.

 

Meeting Adjourns