Abstract Title and Summary
Hurley D. M. Prem P. Stickle A. Hibbitts C. A. Deutsch A. Colaprete A. Elphic R. C. Li S. Lucey P. G. Liu Y. Hosseini S. Retherford K. D. Zacny K. Atkinson J. Benna M. Farrell W. M. Needham D. Gertsch L. Delitsky M. Hayne P. O.
Objectives of a Mission to the Lunar Permanently Shadowed Regions [#5004]
Significant progress continues on
understanding volatiles on airless bodies; yet this remains a topic of high
scientific priority for the foreseeable future. A mission to a lunar
permanently shadowed region (PSR) can achieve compelling science regarding
solar system evolution and processes in cryogenic environments including 1) ground
truthing, 2) distribution and abundance, 3) composition and
chemistry, 4) activity and transport, and 5) thermophysical and geotechnical
properties of PSR. To achieve these objectives, it is critical to have
mobility on the surface, access to the subsurface, and instrumentation to
assess both the volatile contents and environmental parameters. This mission
is complementary to improved remote sensing data and to a rover mission in
polar sun-lit areas or small PSR.
Clark P. E. Farrell W. Collier M. Hurley D. Killen R. Li S. Bugby D. Livengood T.
The Global Lunar
Organized Water In-Situ Network: Multi-Platform
Concept for Understanding the Lunar Water Cycle [#5024]
Global Lunar Organized Water In-Situ
Network (GLOWIN) is a multi-lander mission concept that would provide
simultaneous globally distributed lunar in situ spectral and particle
measurements essential for wholistic understanding of volatile processes
resulting from high energy particle/surface/subsurface/exosphere
interactions. The concept builds on and enhances current largely spectral and
remote (orbital or ground-based) data-based understanding of lunar water. The
nature of in situ regolith interactions that make its apparently ubiquitous
distribution possible, even below mid-latitudes, is lacking. Incorporation of
a network of surface in situ measurements would provide the basis for a
high-fidelity global water model, by incorporating distributed long-term observations
at landing sites. Such an investigation has implications for space weathering
as well as the role of volatiles in the evolution of the solar system.
Hibbitts C. A. Blewett D. Hurley D. Klima R. Lawrence D. Plescia J. Sunshine J.
Lunar WATER Mission: A Small Sat
Mission to Characterize Water on the Moon [#5063]
The Lunar Water Assessment, Transport,
Evolution, and Resource (WATER) mission is a small mission to characterize water
on the surface of the Moon including its chemical form, distribution,
abundance. The rideshare concept is a trajectory directly to the Moon from
Earth orbit. Upon entering lunar orbit, the spacecraft spirals in to a
low-altitude perilune of < 15 km and distant apolune of 1000 km. The close
perilune enables the characterization of both surficial and near-surface
water at unprecedented spatial resolution. The high apolune enables a distant
perspective to obtain both a global perspective of the Moon with a wide range
of terrains seen at one time at different local times of day. A neutron
spectrometer measures near surface hydrogen deposits at high resolution and
signal to noise in the south pole, and a multispectral mid-IR imager
characterizes the distribution, abundance, and temporal variation of water in
the upper surface.
Lucey P. G. Petro N. E. Cable M. L. Hurley D. Barker M. Benna M. Dyar M. D. Farrell W. M. Fisher E. A. Green R. O. Hayne P. O. Hibbitts C. Honniball C. I. Li S. Malaret E. Mandt K. Mazarico E. McCanta M. C. Orlando T. M. Pieters C. M. Prem P. Sun X. Thompson D. R.
Volatiles Orbiter [#5034]
The Lunar Volatiles Orbiter (LVO) will
answer fundamental questions about the evolution of water and other volatiles
on airless objects in the solar system using the Moon as a natural
laboratory. It will answer longstanding issues regarding the ages, sources,
and history of volatiles on the Moon and use these to gain key insight
regarding volatile sources, transport, sequester and loss throughout the
inner solar system. LVO will reveal the effects of processes acting to
chemically process or destroy volatile deposits in the extremely cold
environment of the persistently shadowed regions near the lunar poles, which
are applicable widely through the solar system. LVO will meet critical
measurement challenges posed by the Decadal Survey using a unique set of
high-heritage, volatile-sensing instruments characterizing surface and
exospheric volatiles operating from a high-heritage spacecraft and mission
architecture based on the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter.
Barber S. J. Sheridan S. Jones G. H. Church P. D. Perkinson M.-C. Bowles N. E. Murray N. J.
L-DART: Instrumented Penetrators for Determining
Occurrence and Accessibility of Volatile Resources in PSRs [#5042]
L-DART addresses knowledge gaps on lunar
volatiles and PSRs, providing relevant in-situ ground truth data to calibrate
remote sensing data. Instrumented penetrator systems are released from a
lunar orbiter, and autonomously de-orbit and orientate before impacting polar
landing sites at ~300 m/s. A pair of 3-axis accelerometers record the impact
event enabling reconstruction of regolith structure and penetration path and
final depth (~a few m). A mass spectrometer analyses the volatiles released
in the impact and in the subsequent thermal soak into surrounding regolith.
Temperature sensors enable deduction of regolith thermal properties. Pre- and
post-impact imagery provides geologic context. Each penetrator completes its
science and data relay to Earth within 1–2 hours, minimizing system power
(battery) and mass requirements. L-DART builds on UK expertise in testing
penetrators for the Moon and Europa and international partners are sought to
further develop and implement the mission.
Ehlmann B. L. Klima R. Blaney D. Bowles N. Calcutt S. Dickson J. Donaldson Hanna K. Edwards C. Evans R. Frazier W. Green R. Greenberger R. House M. A. Howe C. Miura J. Pieters C. Sampson M. Schindhelm R. Scheller E. Seybold C. Thompson D. R. Warren T. Weinberg J.
Lunar Trailblazer: A Pioneering SmallSat for Lunar Water and
Lunar Geology [#5032]
Lunar Trailblazer, a SIMPLEx mission, was
selected in June 2019 to conduct a 12 mo. mission study leading to a
Preliminary Design Review and evaluation for flight. A Ball smallsat in
100-km lunar polar orbit will carry the JPL High-resolution Volatiles and
Minerals Moon Mapper (HVM3) shortwave infrared imaging spectrometer and the
UK-contributed, University of Oxford/STFC RAL Space-built thermal infrared
multispectral imager, which simultaneously measure composition, temperature,
and thermophysical properties. Lunar Trailblazer will detect and map water on
the lunar surface at key targets to (1) determine its form (OH, H2O
or ice), abundance, and local distribution as a function of latitude, soil
maturity, and lithology; (2) assess possible time-variation in lunar
water on sunlit surfaces; and (3) use terrain-scattered light to
determine the form and abundance of exposed water in permanently shadowed
regions. Trailblazer will also map lithological diversity at candidate
Blewett D. T. Halekas J. Greenhagen B. T. Anderson B. J. Denevi B. W. Hurley D. M. Klima R. L. Cahill J. T. S. Colaprete A. Deca J. Ebert R. Fatemi S. Ho G. C. Hood L. L. Jahn J.-M. Jozwiak L. M. Lucey P. G. Mandt K. E. Nunez J. I. Paranicas C. P. Plescia J. B. Tikoo S. M. Vines S. K. Wieczorek M.
for a Robotic Mission to a Lunar Magnetic Anomaly/Swirl [#5037]
NASA’s Strategic Plan for Lunar Exploration
includes “Non-Polar Landers and Rovers” that will, by 2024, land “at a lunar
swirl and [make the] first surface magnetic measurement.” Swirls are
high-reflectance markings that overprint topography and can extend for hundreds
of kilometers across highland or mare terrain. Remote-sensing data have
contributed to knowledge of swirls, but a full explanation of their origin
remains elusive. Hypotheses include impact of cometary material, atypical
space weathering, and unusual behavior of levitated dust. The latter two
mechanisms invoke the magnetic fields (anomalies) that are present at all
swirls. The origin of magnetic anomalies is a separate unsolved mystery. A
surface mission to one of these unique natural laboratories would provide key
data for testing hypotheses for the origin of swirls and for the origin of
magnetic anomalies. We will discuss instrument options for lander or rover
missions and the science return from each mission type.
Robinson M. S. Thangavelautham J. Anderson B. J. Lawrence S. J.
Swirl Mission Concept: Unraveling the Enigma [#5052]
The Swirl mission has one focused
observational objective: characterize
the magnetic field associated with Reiner Gamma Swirl (RGS) at sub-km spatial
sampling, 1.0 nTesla accuracy, and spatial precision of 50 m. After delivery
to a near-equatorial (11° inclination) orbit, a series of maneuvers will
place the spacecraft in a low orbit that with a periapse of 5–10 km for ten
orbits passing over RGS. During these low passes Swirl will acquire high
resolution vector magnetic field measurements and monochrome navigation
imaging.From these measurements the Swirl team will determine the
magnetization source structure(s) consistent with the near-surface fields of
RGS and establish the relation to the RGS albedo patterns. The scientific
outcome of the Swirl investigation will benefit future surface science
investigations of magnetic anomalies and swirls by informing decisions
regarding future target locations and required measurements [Robinson et al.
2018, PSS, 162, pp.73–88].
Bassett N. Burns J. O. Rapetti D. Tauscher K.
a New Epoch of the Universe Using Low Radio Frequency Observations from the
Farside of the Moon [#5009]
The highly redshifted 21-cm transition of
neutral Hydrogen provides a powerful method for studying the early universe
and can be observed today at low radio frequencies between ~10–100 MHz.
Ground-based astronomical observations at these frequencies are distorted by
both ionospheric effects and human generated Radio Frequency Interference
(RFI). In order to mitigate these effects, observations must be performed
from the radio quiet environment on the lunar farside. Two separate proposed
missions will take advantage of this unique environment. The Dark Ages
Polarimeter PathfindER (DAPPER) is a SmallSat carrying a single antenna that
will observe at 17–107 MHz, providing new constraints on the standard
cosmological model and cooling of the Hydrogen by dark matter. The Farside
Array for Radio Science Investigations of the Dark Ages and Exoplanets
(FARSIDE) will place 128 dipole antennas directly on the lunar surface and
observe down to 200 kHz.
Greenhagen B. T. Stickle A. M. Sunshine J. M.
23 Additional Members of the LDLE Team
Explorer: Moscoviense Basin
Mission Concept [#5038]
The Moscoviense Basin on the lunar farside
provides access to highly compelling geologic settings, with broad
applicability to lunar and planetary science, all accessible within a single
~150-km traverse. This approximately 650-km diameter multi-ringed basin
exhibits a complex morphology and compositionally diverse volcanism, spanning
a significant portion of lunar geologic history. Previously evaluated as a
priority science target for consideration by the Constellation Program, the
size and location of Moscoviense make it an unlikely target for human exploration
in the near future. Moscoviense is well beyond the lunar limb with no direct
communication to Earth, and the distances required to explore the geologic
settings would require a lengthy human presence. These qualities, combined
with the wide variety of geologic settings that can be investigated at
Moscoviense, require a versatile and capable rover, and therefore, make it an
ideal study case for a long-duration, non-polar rover.
Runyon K. D. Moriarty D. Denevi B. W. Greenhagen B. T. Morgan G. Young K. E. Cohen B. A.
van der Bogert C. H. Hiesinger H. Jozwiak L. M.
Melt Facies in the Moon’s Crisium Basin:
Identifying, Characterizing, and Future Radiogenic Dating [#5020]
Both Earth and the Moon share a common
history regarding the epoch of large basin formation, though only the lunar
geologic record preserves any appreciable record of this Late Heavy
Bombardment (LHB). The emergence of Earth’s first life is approximately
contemporaneous with the LHB. While the relative formation time of most of
the Moon’s large basins is known, the absolute timing is not. The timing of
Crisium Basin’s formation is one of many important events that must be
constrained and would require identifying and dating impact melt formed in
the Crisium event. We determined that the rim and central peaks of the
partially lava-flooded Yerkes Crater likely contain the most pure and intact
Crisium impact melt. It is here where future robotic and/or human missions
could confidently date the formation time of Crisium and add a key missing
piece to the puzzle of the combined issues of early Earth-Moon bombardment
and the emergence of life.
Stopar J. D. Lawrence S. J. Graham L. Hamilton J. Denevi B. John K. K. Meyer H. M. Gruener J. E.
IMPEL: A Small Lander Concept for Big Science [#5064]
We discuss a spacecraft configuration that
employs two ESPA modules; one is used to deliver up to 9 kg of payload to the
lunar surface. The lander design is highly capable of achieving high-priority
science at the Ina formation. The Ina irregular mare patch is an exposure of
uncommon volcanic materials of uncertain physical properties and age. A
small, focused mission to this location can affordably ground-truth the
composition of the Ina deposits, search for pyroclastics and vesicles, and
determine the type of volcanism or other geologic activity responsible. We
performed high-resolution site and visibility assessments for a lander
capable of handling uneven terrain. The IMPEL (Irregular Mare Patch
Exploration Lander) mission concept has the potential to confirm or refute
the existence of young volcanism on the Moon, a high-priority science
objective. The implementation of this lander system is complementary to
NASA’s other surface exploration initiatives.
Kerber L. Denevi B. Colaprete A. Anderson R. Ashley J. Burgess K. D. Donaldson Hanna K. Elder C. M. Gellert R. Hamilton C. W. Haruyama J. Hayne P. O. Head J. W. Heverly M. C. Isaacson P. Jackson C. Joy K. H. Jozwiak L. M. Kestay L. Klima R. L. Needham D. H. Nesnas I. A. Parcheta C. Pieters C. M. Prissel T. C. Scott D. R. Sellar R. G. Shearer C. K. Stickle A. M. Brown T. L. Paton M. McGarey P.
Diver: Descent into the Ancient Lavas
of the Moon [#5045]
The lunar mare basalt deposits serve as
natural probes into the lunar interior. Studies of the morphologies,
chemistries, and spectral properties of impact-exposed and regolith-mantled
surface basalts have yielded major insights into the thermal history and
chemical composition of the Moon. Recent images from the Kaguya and LRO
missions have revealed the presence of deep mare pits containing meter-scale
layer stratigraphy exposed in their walls, providing unprecedented access to
in-place mare bedrock stratigraphy. A mission to such an exposure would
address numerous top priority lunar science goals, including understanding
mare stratigraphy, exploring the regolith/bedrock interface, and accessing
lava samples in context. Lava morphology and layer thicknesses (provided by
context imagers), mineralogy and texture (provided by a multispectral
microimager), and elemental chemistry (provided by an APXS) would reveal the
workings of flood basalts on one-plate bodies like the Moon.
Robinson M. S. Thangavelautham J. Wagner R. V.
ARNE — Exploring the
Mare Tranquillitatis Pit [#5051]
The Mare Tranquillitatis pit (8.335°N,
33.222°E) reveals a sublunarean void at least 20-meters in extent. A key
remaining task is determining pit subsurface extents, and thus fully
understanding their exploration and scientific value. We propose Arne, a
simple and cost effective reconnaissance of the MTP using a lander (<130
kg), which carries three flying pit-bots. Key measurement objectives include
dm scale characterization of pit walls, 5-cm scale imaging of the floor,
determination of the topology (50-cm scale) of the sublunarean void(s), and
measurement of the magnetic and thermal environment. The pit-bots are 30-cm
flying robots equipped with stereo cameras, temperature sensors, and
navigation sensors. Each pit-bot can fly for 2 min at 2 m/s for >100
cycles. Arne will carry a magnetometer, thermometer, 2 high resolution
cameras, and 6 wide angle cameras and obstacle avoidance sensors enabling
detailed characterization of MTP [Robinson et al., LEAG 2014, Abs.
Cohen B. A. Young K. E. Zacny K. Yingst R. A. Swindle T. D. Robbins S. J. Grier J. A. Grant J. A. Fassett C. I. Farley K. A. Ehlmann B. L. Dyar M. D. van der Bogert C. H. Arevalo R. D. Jr. Anderson F. S.
for the Next Decade [#5027]
Major advances in lunar and planetary
science can be driven by absolute geochronology in the next decade.
Bombardment flux constrains models of solar system and extrasolar planet
dynamics; ages of magmatic products constrain the evolution of interior heat
engines; and absolute dating relates planetary habitability to the timescale
of life on Earth. Previous Decadal Surveys assumed sample return was needed
for reliable and interpretable geochronology. Now, instruments using
complementary radiogenic isotopic systems will be TRL 6 by the time of the
next Decadal Survey. The time is right to consider how in situ geochronology
can advance science in missions to the Moon and other destinations. Rovers or
hoppers carrying complementary geochronology instruments and contextual
measurements could visit multiple well-characterized provinces on the Moon.
These could give the next Decadal Survey viable alternatives (or additions
to) sample return for geochronology goals.
Neal C. R. Webber R. LGN Team
Long-Lived, Global Lunar Geophysical Network (LGN) [#5067]
Understanding the structure and composition
of the lunar interior has been designated a high priority for lunar science
in two National Academies studies and the LEAG Roadmap. The LGN concept is a
named mission in NF-5. We have developed this concept through new
instrumentation and delivery concepts, and risk-reduction strategies through
CLPS opportunities. Power remains TBD, but nuclear power is enabling for ~10
year lifetime and minimization of mass, such that the LGN stations would form
the nodes of an International Lunar Network that other countries could add to
over time. Solar power is also being considered, although there will be a
mass trade. Each station will carry at least one of the following: broad band seismometer, heat flow probe,
laser retroreflector (nearside only), and an electromagnetic sounding
package. Other payloads related to the geophysics mission as well as
secondary science are being considered (e.g., dust detector, gravimeter),
mass and power permitting.
Lawrence S. J. Klima R. L. Denevi B. W. ISOCHRON Science Team
Inner SOlar System Chronology (ISOCHRON) Discovery Mission: Revealing the Recent Geologic History of
the Solar System [#5046]
Returned Moon samples have provided the
basis on which the models of solar system bombardment, planetary thermal evolution,
and regolith evolution are built. However, many fundamental precepts are
interpolated because all existing volcanic samples are from areas more than 3
billion years old. The Inner Solar System Chronology (ISOCHRON) lunar sample
return mission will close long-standing gaps in our understanding of the
middle 2 billion years of lunar and solar system history with a sample return
from the youngest significant emplacement of mare basalts on the Moon,
directly south of the Aristarchus plateau. ISOCHRON leverages an efficient
sampling system and high-heritage components to safely return 150 g of young
lunar basalt rocklets to Earth where it can be analyzed with state-of-the-art
equipment. ISOCHRON will provide critical information to address significant unknowns
regarding the timing of major planetary events across the inner solar system.
Jolliff B. L. Shearer C. K.
Basin Sample Return is Still a High-Priority Science Mission! [#5061]
Returning samples from South Pole-Aitken
basin (SPA) remains a high priority for solar system science as articulated
in the 2013 Planetary Science Decadal Survey and would address major
cross-cutting planetary science themes. The SPA event completely resurfaced
much of the southern farside of the Moon and reset ages over an enormous
area. As such, SPA anchors the lunar impact-basin chronology. This chronology
is critical to testing current models of early solar system dynamics;
impact-melt rocks from SPA, including materials from younger basins within
SPA, will provide a record of the Moon’s late heavy bombardment far distant
from the Imbrium-dominated nearside Apollo zone. Samples from SPA will
provide information about the differentiation of the SPA impact-melt sea, the
farside mantle (via basalts), and possibly direct samples of the mantle
excavated by the SPA impact. The age of SPA may also help explain the locus
of lunar crustal rock and zircon ages around 4.27 and 4.35 Ga.
Moriarty D. P. III Petro N. E. Valencia S. N. Watkins R. N. Shearer C. Zellner N. Joy K. Cohen B. A. Elardo S. Gross J. Jolliff B. J.
LEAPFROG: Robotic Lunar Sample Collection from
Multiple Sites via Hopping [#5022]
The Lunar Explorer for Assessing Properties
of Farside RegOlith Geochemistry (LEAPFROG) is a robotic mission concept for
sample return from multiple sites via hopping. The concept offers a number of
enhanced capabilities that could not be achieved from a stationary lander or
traditional rover. The most notable advantage is the capability to collect
samples over a range of tens-to-thousands of km, rather than the
meters-to-kilometers range of traditional rovers.The primary goal of LEAPFROG
is to enable an improved understanding of the nature and evolution of the
lunar crust and mantle via sample return. Currently, all Apollo and Luna
samples are associated with the Procellarum KREEP Terrane. While these have
offered excellent insight into lunar geochemistry and evolution, it is
essential for the progression of lunar science to return samples from the
Moon’s other major terranes: South
Pole-Aitken (SPA) and the feldspathic highlands (FHT).
Osinski G. R. Marion C. Cloutis E. Morse Z. Newman J. Caudill C. Christoffersen P. Cross M. Hill P. Pilles E. Simpson S. Tornabene L. L. Xie T.
The Role of Analogue
Missions in Preparing to Return to the Moon:
Lessons and Recommendations from CanMoon [#5018]
Simulated missions carried out in
terrestrial analogue environments are critical for ensuring the success of
future lunar missions. Here, we provide recommendations and lessons learned
from the 2019 CanMoon lunar sample return analogue mission, which featured a
mission control in London, Canada, and a field team in Lanzarote. The mission
control was split into three teams: planning,
science tactical, and science interpretation. The operations objectives of
CanMoon were to: 1) Compare the
accuracy of selecting lunar samples remotely from mission control versus a traditional
human field party; 2) Test the efficiency of remote science operations
including the use of pre-planned strategic traverses; 3) Evaluate the
utility of real-time automated data analysis approaches for lunar missions;
4) Explore the mission control operations structure for 24/7 lunar science
operations; 5) Test how Virtual Reality technology can be used to help
with enhancing the situational awareness in mission control.
Newman J. D. Pilles E. A. Morse Z. R. Marion C. L. Osinski G. R. Cloutis E. A. Caudill C. M. Christoffersen P. A. Hill P. J. A. Simpson S. L. Tornabene L. L. Xie T.
Team Operational Structure for the 2019 CanMoon Lunar Sample Return
Analogue Mission [#5041]
CanMoon was a two-week lunar sample return
analogue mission conducted in August 2019 (see Osinski et al., this
conference for an overview). The Planning Team was one of three teams
stationed in mission control during CanMoon operations. The primary
responsibility of the Planning Team was to translate Tactical Science
decisions and intended actions into rover readable commands and then send
those command sequences directly to the rover. After the rover completed its
activities, the Planning Team was first to receive the data acquired by the
rover and relayed the data directly back to the Tactical Science Team for
validation and processing. Nine roles comprised the Planning Team, and each
role contributed various components that enabled communication within mission
control and to the rover. Planning Team roles included a Planning Lead, Data
Manager, Documentarian, Long Term Planner, GIS/Localization, Rover Operator,
Rover Sequencer, Science/Planning Integrator, and Traverse Plan Monitor.
Tornabene L. L. Osinski G. R. Cloutis E. A. Andres C. N. Choe B-H. Christoffersen P. Hill P. J. A. Marion C. L. Morse Z. R. Sacks L. E. Yingling W. Zanetti M. R.
Remote Sensing Analysis
of the Landing Sites for the CanMoon Lunar Analogue Mission [#5043]
CanMoon was a two-week lunar sample return
analogue mission (see Osinski et al., this conf.). Terrestrial-based and
lunar-analogous orbital remote sensing datasets were gathered and used for a
pre-mission geological assessment of two pre-selected sites. The results of
our multispectral analysis, based on Landsat 8 and ASTER of the NW flow field
on Lanzarote, were synthesized with other datasets providing information on
the morphology, topography and basic physical properties of the spectrally-defined
surface units. Several distinct spectral units where identified including
various Fe-oxides, basaltic surfaces, amorphous or fine-grained Si-bearing
materials, and possibly an evolved or altered volcanic endmember. Variations
in apparent thermal inertia suggest that both intimate and physical mixtures
may explain spectral characteristics. The synthesis yielded insights into the
geologic materials present, the sampling opportunities, and the general
geologic history of the two sites.
Morse Z. R. Hill P. J. A. Osinski G. R. Cloutis E. A. Caudill C. M. Christoffersen P. Marion C. L. Newman J. D. Pilles E. A. Simpson S. L. Tornabene L. L. Xie T.
CanMoon Tactical Science Team: Real-Time
Instrument Use and Coordination During a Lunar Sample Return
Analogue Mission [#5047]
CanMoon was a real-time two-week lunar
sample return analogue mission conducted in August 2019 (see Osinski et al.,
this conf. for an overview). One of the 3 teams in mission control was the
Tactical Science team, which consisted of several sub-teams, each responsible
for one instrument on the rover. A camera team operated the panoramic, zoom,
and real-time cameras as well as a Remote Micro Imager (RMI). Three
additional teams supported a suite of SuperCam instruments, including a
Vis-NIR spectrometer, a Raman spectrometer, and a Laser Induced Breakdown
Spectrometer (LIBS). These teams were responsible for targeting the
instruments and performing quality assessments on all instrument data
returned from the rover. These teams worked under the Science Team Lead to
characterize the geology of the remote field site and meet overall CanMoon
science objectives. The Tactical Science team successfully identified and
collected several geologic samples including basalts and
Hill P. J. A. Simpson S. L. Xie T. Osinski G. R. Cloutis E. A. Caudill C. M. Christoffersen P. Marion C. L. Morse Z. R. Newman J. D. Pilles E. A. Tornabene L. L.
2019 CanMoon Science
Interpretation Team: Insights into Volcanic
Flows in Lanzarote, Spain [#5048]
CanMoon was a two-week lunar sample return
analogue mission conducted in August 2019 (see Osinski et al., this conf. for
an overview). There were 4 primary science objectives: investigate the diversity of rocks in the
landing site region; identify and collect the best samples for age dating;
identify and collect the most volatile-rich rocks; and explore for crustal
and mantle material. We will summarize the results from the images and data
collected by the scientific instruments. Given that the team was only allowed
4 samples from the 2 sample sites, the interpretations that led the science
team to sample is explored. Various green inclusions were identified within
several basalts with Raman, LIBS, and VIS-NIR spectrometry leading the team
to interpret the inclusions to be mantle-derived, olivine xenoliths. To
identify volatile-rich rocks, VIS-NIR spectrometry was instrumental in
identifying a potential Si-OH or Al-OH bond that led to the direct sampling of
a glassy basalt sample.
Glotch T. D. Carter L. M. Clark P. E. Denevi B. W. Greenhagen B. T. Patterson G. W. Petro N. E. Retherford K. D. Valencia S. N. Watkins R. N. Cahill J. T. Cohen B. A. Donaldson Hanna K. L. Elder C. M. Hiesinger H. Kramer G. Y. Livengood T. A. Meyer H. M. Ostrach L. R. Poston M. J. Shusterman M. L. Siegler M. A. Speyerer E. J. Stickle A. M. van der Bogert C. H.
Advanced LRO-Class Orbiter for Lunar Science and Exploration [#5017]
A next generation lunar orbiter would
support multiple goals of the lunar science community, as defined by the
Lunar Exploration Roadmap, the Next Steps on the Moon Specific Action Team,
and the Advancing Science of the Moon Specific Action Team. Science goals
addressed by the orbiter would include, but not be limited to (1) understanding
the bombardment history of the inner solar system through detailed study of
crater populations, (2) furthering our understanding of the diversity of
lunar crustal rocks, including lithologies that are rare in or absent from
the Apollo sample collection (e.g., highly silicic lithologies and potential
mantle material), (3) investigation of the lunar poles and the volatile
resources they hold, (4) refining our knowledge of lunar volcanism to
better understand the thermal and compositional evolution of the Moon, and
(5) investigation of space weathering and regolith development processes
to understand how airless body surfaces evolve over time.
Seibert M. A. Levi A. Paradis M.
CubeSat Sensor Transport System [#5040]
The Lunar Orbiting CubeSat Sensor Transport
(LOCuST) System concept was developed as part of a graduate design course in
the Space Resources Program at the Colorado School of Mines. The concept evolved
from a 2018 Lunar Polar Prospecting Workshop recommendation for “swarms” of
CubeSats in lunar orbit.
The LOCuST system design consists of a
carrier spacecraft that is capable of deploying sensor CubeSats once settled
into the target lunar orbit. Mission designs may allow for the carrier to
optimize the deployment of the CubeSats by adjusting the orbit between
deployments. The number of CubeSats on each LOCuST carrier will vary with
CubeSat size (3U, 6U, or 12U).
After CubeSat deployment, the LOCuST carrier
spacecraft will serve as a communication relay for the deployed CubeSats
allowing for higher return data rates. This will allow for each CubeSat to
employ a concept of operations similar to Earth orbit missions by not needing
to include dedicated deep space communications.
Stubbs T. J. Purucker M. E. Hudeck J. D. Hoyt R. P. Malphrus B. K. Espley J. R. Mesarch M. A. Folta D. Johnson T. E. Cruz-Ortiz G. E. Stoneking E. T. Bakhtiari-nejad M. Vondrak R. R.
Tethered Resource Explorer (Lunar T-REx):
Prospecting with Magnetics [#5014]
Lunar T-REx is a SmallSat mission concept
to measure magnetic fields at very low altitudes (<5-20 km) to search for
mineral resources. On Earth, economic mineralization at impact craters and igneous
features can often be identified by magnetic signatures observed near the
surface. On the Moon, many large Nectarian-aged impacts have prominent
magnetic features that could reveal signatures of economic mineralization —
if measured at very low altitudes. Lunar T-REx would use two SmallSat buses
connected by a tether that orbit in a vertically-aligned gravity gradient
formation. The advantages of this architecture include very low altitude
measurements from stable orbits that provide long mission lifetimes. The
primary payload would be mini-magnetometers making dual-point (high and low
altitude) measurements enabling more accurate crustal field determinations.
Only modest investments are required to advance the game-changing
technologies needed for tethered lunar missions.
Genesis Lander [#5056]
We present summary information on the
Firefly Aerospace Genesis Lunar Lander, including payload capacity, payload
services, payload environments, and possible landing sites.
Martin T. D.
Machines 2021 Lunar Mission [#5008]
In 2018, Intuitive Machines was awarded one
of the nine NASA CLPS contracts. As part of CLPS, earlier this year, IM was
chosen to fly 5 NASA payloads to the moon in 2021. IM is currently building
the IM Nova-C lunar lander spacecraft. The Nova-C can carry 100 kg of payload
to anywhere on the lunar surface. Up to 300 kg of payload can be deployed
into LLO. The Nova-C provides power, data and thermal control for each of the
payloads. The first mission will also carry two additional non-NASA payloads.
There is an additional 50kg unallocated payload space available on this first
mission, and IM is actively looking to fill this manifest. The spacecraft is
designed to make a quick trip from the Earth to the moon and lands at a lunar
mid-latitude landing site only a few days after launch. In addition to our
small lander capability provided by the Nova-C, IM is actively pursuing a
mid-size and large size landers.
Robinson M. S. Blewett D. T. Frank E. Illsley P. Lawrence S. J. Mahanti P. Rampe E. B. Speyerer E. J. Stopar J. D. Tikoo S. Vorhees C. Wagner R. V. Wettergreen D. S. Denevi B. W. Fong T. Graham L. D. Jolliff B. L. Lawrence D. J. Meyer H. M. Spence H. E. Fitzgerald M. B.
Intrepid: The Next Generation of
Lunar Exploration [#5049]
We propose a highly mobile rover, Intrepid,
which will investigate at least six key lunar terrain types over the course
of a four-year mission. The Intrepid mission concept and proposed traverse
are specifically designed to address key outstanding science questions
related to Decadal Survey goals and to strengthen interpretations of remotely
sensed datasets collected over the past 25 years.
Intrepid has twelve core goals requiring a
traverse over 1800 kilometers, and the acquisition of thousands of chemical,
reflectance, imaging, magnetic, radiation, and solar wind observations. This
ambitious concept requires detailed planning of stops and a disciplined
science and operations team to stay on schedule and keep costs manageable.
Measurement objectives are carried out with a suite of instruments selected
to reach the goals while minimizing rover complexity [Robinson et al. (2014),
LEAG 2014, abstract # 3026].
Speyerer E. J. Lawrence S. J. Stopar J. D. Glaser P. Robinson M. S. Jolliff B. L.
the Lunar Poles with Solar! [#5058]
Near perpetual sunlight close to the lunar
poles is one of its unique features as well as key resources for future human
and robotic explorers. Observations collected by the Lunar Reconnaissance
Orbiter Camera along with illumination models derived from Lunar Orbiter
Laser Altimeter topography enable the identification of regions that receive
extended illumination (up to 81% near the South Pole) as well as craters and
local depressions in a range of sizes that are in permanent shadow. We have
developed a tool (R-Traverse) to examine traverse opportunities that require
minimal movement but further enhance the availability of solar energy. In one
example, we designed a traverse along the ridge between Shackleton and de
Gerlache craters that increase the amount of time the explorer is illuminated
to 94% of the year with the longest eclipse lasting only 101 hours. A solar
powered rover could follow this path over several years and characterize
multiple nearby regions in permanent shadow.
Lewis R. Toups L. Hoffman S. Gruener J. Jagge A. Deitrick S. Hinterman E. Lawrence S.
Site Planning and
Design to Enable Lunar and Mars Human Exploration [#5062]
NASA is taking a unique systems view
requiring contrast and comparison of lunar and Mars environmental and
operational characteristics to inform Moon-specific and testbed-specific aspects
of site design; specific characterization of candidate reference sites; and
an understanding of the interplay of the surface elements, resources, and
environment. Site planning is an integrating process that aligns allocated
functions with efficient utilization of natural resources and terrain. When
the character of the site(s) is emphasized and studied, it influences the
site selection and highlights wise construction and assembly to support
surface operations. An informed site plan expresses relationships between
built elements (e.g. structures, transportation, etc.) and the natural
environment. This includes orientation and potential temporal variations, as
well as the degree of sustainability, over the lifecycle of the utilization
of the site, or sites, individually and as a system.
Abstract Title and Summary
Guzey V. I.
of Hydrogen from the Mantle of Planets into Space [#5002]
A new concept of water formation in the
depths of the planets, based on the release of protons (hydrogen ions) during
the radioactive decay of elements in the region of the planetary core, is
proposed. Hydrogen recovers metals in the mantle magma, forming a metallic
core and water vapor that diffuses to the surface of the planet. The adoption
of this concept allows astronauts to search for inexhaustible sources of
artesian water on other planets.
The full text of the
article is located at: http://www.sciteclibrary.ru/eng/catalog/pages/9064.html.
Kring D. A. Siegler M. A.
Dichotomy of Science
and ISRU Targets [#5007]
Science objectives for exploration of the
Moon (NRC 2007) are targeting polar volatile compositions and sources;
transport, retention, alteration, and loss processes in permanently shadowed
regions (PSRs); host regolith physical properties; and a measure of the
ancient solar environment. Volatile species are also being targeted for in
situ resource utilization (ISRU). While science and ISRU objectives are often
discussed in the context of the same lunar surface sites, a dichotomy between
them may exist. Science objectives require surveys of sites with different
environmental conditions, including the coldest PSRs where the most volatile
species may exist. In contrast, ISRU operations may favor warmer PSRs where
water is uncontaminated with other volatile species (e.g., NH3 and
CO2), making it easier to process any ice into components for crew
consumption and rocket propellant. Warmer conditions may relax requirements
for rovers and other assets devoted to ISRU.
Zacny K. Quinn J. Kleinhenz J. Smith J. Captain J. Mank Z. Vendiola V. Paulsen G.
and PVEx Drilling Systems for Delivery of Regolith and Volatiles [#5033]
TRIDENT (The Regolith and Ice rill for the
Exploration of New Terrains) and PVEx (Planetary Volatiles Extractor) are
rotary-percussive, 1 m class drilling systems developed for the lunar
exploration. TRIDENT is designed to deliver regolith to the surface where it
can be analyzed by non-contact instruments such as Near Infrared Spectrometer
or NIRVSS from NASA Ames. In addition, volatiles escaping from the cone of
cuttings make your way to an inlet of a nearby mass spectrometer, MSolo from
NASA KSC. As such, we can learn mineral and volatiles distribution as a
function of depth. PVEx is a coring drill with heaters on the inside. Once
the corer penetrates to a target depth, heaters are turned on and volatiles
are sublimed up the corer, through a swivel and out towards MSolo. As such,
PVEx can be used for more controlled volatiles analysis since the corer can
be heater to a target temperatures. PVEx will be able to provide volatile
concentration as a function of depth.
Horanyi M. Sternovsky Z. Kempf S. Szalay J. R. Pokorny P.
In Orbit Exploration
of the Available Resources in Permanently Shadowed Lunar Polar Regions [#5006]
In Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) is a
key to establishing human habitats on the Moon. The availability of water
ice, and other volatiles, in Permanently Shadowed Regions (PSR) makes the
lunar poles of prime interest. However, the relative strengths of the
sources, sinks, and transport mechanisms of water into and out of PSRs remain
largely unknown. Dust detector and analyzer instruments on a polar or
near-polar orbiting lunar spacecraft can provide two critical measurements: (1) The quantitative characterization
of the temporal and spatial variability of the influx of Interplanetary Dust
Particles (IDP) to the polar regions is vital to the understanding the
evolution of volatiles. (2) By analyzing the composition ejecta
particles released from the lunar surface, a dust analyzer instrument can
assess from orbit the availability and accessibility of water ice
Indyk S. Benaroya H.
Members Produced from Unrefined Lunar Regolith Simulant [#5066]
The potential of utilizing lunar regolith
as the raw material for manufacturing structural members is appealing for
future exploration of the Moon. Future lunar missions will depend on ISRU for
structural components. Manufacturing structural components directly from
unrefined lunar regolith would have the advantage of needing less specialized
material processing equipment in comparison with refining the lunar regolith
for its raw elements. Sintering can be a highly variable process and only
with the material constants can a structure be designed from this material.
Two batches of sintered lunar regolith simulant, JSC-1A samples with
porosities 1.44% and 11.78% underwent compression testing. Analysis of the
data sets were evaluated based on the comparative material density.
Compressive strength compared to the shows two clear classes of material
quality. The average compressive strengths of the 1.44% porosity material
were 219 MPa, and 85 MPa for the 11.78% porosity material.
Roux V. G. Roth M. C. Roux E. L. Cook A. M. Colaprete A.
Testing the Near
Infrared Volatile Spectrometer Subsystem (NIRVSS) with OPRFLCROSS Lunar Icy
Regolith Simulants [#5028]
In April 2019, the engineering model of the
Near Infrared Volatile Spectrometer Subsystem (NIRVSS) was tested at Off
Planet Research using OPRFLCROSS icy regolith simulants. Some of the images
and results of these tests are presented in this poster. NIRVSS was developed
by Dr. Anthony Colaprete and Dr. Amanda Cook at NASA Ames Research Center and
was selected to fly aboard CLPS missions to the lunar surface to gather IR
spectral data and visible-wavelength imagery of lunar volatiles as well as
OPRFLCROSS lunar icy regolith simulants
were developed for these tests to mimic cryogenic vapor deposition of the
nine components observed in the LCROSS impact plume. This is believed to have
been the natural formation process of actual lunar polar ices. The ice
components used were water, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, ammonia,
hydrogen sulfide, sulfur dioxide, methane, ethane, and methanol, which were
frozen onto super-cooled OPRH2N lunar Highland
Cheuvront D. Masten D. Campbell N. Mahoney S. Cembrinski T. Blair B.
Design of an ISRU-Enabled Robotic Lunar Hopper [#5059]
A technical concept will be presented for
early lunar ISRU that could lead to low-cost human and robotic lunar
exploration, as well as a measurable reduction in technical, business and
operational risks for a commercial partnership. The basic concept of
operations will be to use early ISRU to supply-hop-repeat from nearby to more
distant sunlit regions of economic and scientific exploration interest, and
then extend that mission into progressively colder levels of natural volatile
traps in permanent shadow. As reported in NASA ISRU plans, oxygen from
regolith can be incorporated into the architecture from the start with low to
moderate risk, providing 75 to 80% of chemical propulsion propellant mass.
Risk due to resource uncertainty and the operational complexity of LH2
systems represent a barrier to using water from the start. Thus, the current
work considers how O2 extraction can meet near term needs, while
technology to utilize water can be pursued for
Blair B. Masten D. Davidson H.
Value Proposition for
Lunar ISRU-Hopper Demo Campaign [#5065]
Multiple classes of value for lunar ISRU
can be demonstrated through a reusable robotic hopper. Iron oxide in warm
polar regolith is a reliable source of Oxygen and leverages three decades of
prior NASA ISRU technology development. A hopper mission would generate
exploration-related scientific value that would grow with the number of
visited sample sites. Value could also result from test of hardware and
instruments as well as demonstration of multiple flights. In addition, an
early ISRU demonstration path could test elements of a commercial procurement
model, reducing business and investment risk for public and private partners.
Finally, a cryogenically-capable ISRU-supplied hopper could collect valuable
scientific data from cold traps that lie progressively more distant from the
polar peak of operation in an extended mission. This activity could also
collect proprietary resource-related prospecting data, further reducing
business risk for a commercial lunar mining operator.
Zacny K. Chu P. Spring J. Mueller R. Schuler J. Townsend I. Bergman D. Hovik W.
PlanetVac: Sample Acquisition and Delivery System for
Instruments and Sample Return [#5011]
PlanetVac is a pneumatic sample acquisition
and delivery system ideally suited for low cost, small lunar landers such as
those developed under CLPS program. PlanetVac is mounted on or close to the
footpad. A set of nozzles strategically placed close to the ground, agitates
and loft the regolith material through a transfer tube and directly into an
instrument cup or a sample return container. Hence this system can deliver a
sample in a fraction of a second. There are numerous iterations of PlanetVac
related to the sample mass, particle size distribution as well as sample cup
shape and size. PlanetVac has been selected under LSITP to go to the Moon on
one of the CLPS landers.
Chandrachud R. A.
Development of Lunar Structures
on the Surface of the Moon with ISRU Units [#5030]
In this paper, I describe the advantages of
solar panels for ISRU units and detailed analysis of Water processing ISRU
units having no solar panels which extends to the details of metals which
could be extracted profitably from selected regions with techniques involved.
Basically this paper propounds use of ISRU units on the lunar surface in a
new way along with new extraction work techniques. It is very important for
the ISRU Units to proliferate on the lunar surface as they will drastically
meet all the energy needs of the structures installed on lunar surface. These
ISRUs will be powered with solar panels along with fuel cells as back-up
plan. Carefully chosen isotopes of Uranium could power these ISRU units.
Another type of ISRU units is water processing ISRU units powered by U-233
fission reactor which run a 10MeV S-CO2 Cycle.Metal refining units
be installed at Oceanus Procellarum. For Helium-3 Extraction the power
required would be very low compared to the other operations.
Abstract Title and Summary
Bale S. D. Bonnell J. W. Burns J. Goetz K. Halekas J. S. Malaspina D. M. Page B. Pulupa M. Poppe A. R. MacDowall R. J. Maksimovic M. Zaslavsky A.
Lunar Surface Electromagnetics Experiment (LuSEE) for LSITP [#5010]
The Lunar Surface Electromagnetics
Experiment (LuSEE) suite consists of flight spare electronics from the FIELDS
experiment on the recently-launched Parker Solar Probe (PSP) spacecraft,
deployable flight spare voltage sensors from the STEREO/WAVES and Van Allen
Probes (VAP)/EFW experiments, and a flight fluxgate magnetometer from the
NASA/GSFC group. The LuSEE suite will measure the DC electric and magnetic
fields, plasma waves, electrostatic signatures of dust impacts, and radio
emissions from the Sun, Earth, and outer planets. Surface DC electric potentials
will be measured using voltage signals from a pair of STEREO/WAVES electric
antennas and a VAP axial antenna, giving a baseline of more than five meters.
Dust particles passing within the Debye sheath of the lander will produce
small voltage impulses measured by LuSEE. LuSEE will measure low frequency
radio emission (< 20 MHz) as a path-finder to a future lunar
Grava C. Retherford K. D. Greathouse T. K. Mandt K. E. Gladstone G. R. Raut U. Hurley D. M. Cahill J. T. S. Hendrix A. R. Byron B. D.
The LAMP Spectrograph
on the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter: 10
Years of Lunar Exploration with Ultraviolet Eyes [#5031]
The Lyman-Alpha Mapping Project (LAMP)
ultraviolet (UV) imaging spectrograph on board the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter
(LRO), by exploiting the polar orbit of LRO and the light from UV-bright
stars and interstellar H atoms glowing at Lyman-alpha (121.6 nm), has
demonstrated an innovative nightside observing technique, ushering a new era
in the exploration of Permanently Shaded Regions (PSRs).
LAMP detected H2O ice in the
PSRs and widespread hydration in the dayside, examined relative increases in
porosity within the PSRs, trends in space weathering and global distribution
of lunar swirls, and confirmed newly formed craters.
LAMP detected species in the lunar exosphere,
such as H2 and He, and species, such as Ca and Hg, ejected by the
LCROSS impact in Cabeus crater, proving to be a valuable tool to study
migration and distribution of volatiles. Finally, LAMP proved that the Moon
is a special location to perform heliophysics studies.We discuss 10 years of
lunar exploration in the UV.
Fraeman A. A. Blaney D. L. Chen W. Eastwood M. L. Ehlmann B. L. Green R. O. Haag J. M. McKinley I. M. Sandford M. Thompson D. R. Mouroulis P. Petro N. E. Pieters C. M.
UCIS-Moon: A Compact Imaging Spectrometer for the
Lunar Surface [#5035]
We are developing the Ultra-Compact Imaging
Spectrometer (UCIS) for future landed lunar mission under the Development and
Advancement of Lunar Instrumentation (DALI) program. UCIS-Moon expands
original UCIS capabilities in spectral range, FOV, and environmental
tolerance to achieve lunar science goals while limiting mass and power
resources. UCIS-Moon will observe from 600–3600 nm to map the type,
abundance, distribution, and time variability of lunar volatiles and
minerals. This range also enables detection of organics that may have been
delivered by impacts. With a 600-pixel cross-track field, UCIS-Moon will
offer enhanced capability to map the composition and geologic context of
lunar materials at cm- to m-scale. UCIS-Moon can operate in ~40-350 K lunar
thermal environment. It will use on-board analysis to maximize the science
yield of restricted bandwidth downlinks. Government
Denevi B. W. Turtle Z. P. Boldt J. D. Ernst C. M.
EIS at the Moon: Meter-Scale Multispectral and Stereo
Imaging for Science and Exploration [#5053]
Panchromatic images from LROC enable the
study of features and processes at a scale (0.5–2 m/p) relevant to future
landed human and robotic missions. However, multispectral imaging is not
available at the exploration scale and spacecraft slewing restrictions limit
stereo coverage. A narrow-angle camera (NAC) based on the Europa Imaging
System (EIS) NAC would, with minimal adaptation, provide substantial
improvements in capability that naturally follow from the LROC results: 1) imaging in ≥3 colors and 2) native
geometric stereo. The EIS NAC was designed for color imaging during fast
flybys, making it ideal for lunar imaging from a 50-km orbit (GSD of 0.5 m
over a 2-km swath). The key to such high-resolution color is a custom
detector with a high-speed, flexible arbitrary-row readout that enables the
spatial oversampling required for digital time-delay integration. As
configured for EIS, stripe filters provide 6 bandpasses from 350–1150 nm and
stereo is achieved through use of a gimbal.
Sun X. Smith D. E. Hoffman E. D. Wake S. W. Cremons D. R. Mazarico E. Lauenstein J. M. Zuber M. T. Aaron E. C.
Laser Retro-Reflector Arrays (LRA) as Fiducial Markers on Lunar Landers [#5021]
Small and lightweight laser retro-reflector
arrays (LRA) were made as payloads for lunar landers under NASA’s Commercial
Lunar Payload Service (CLPS) program. Each LRA contains eight 1.27-cm
diameter corner cubes on a dome-shaped aluminum structure, which is 5.0 cm in
diameter at the base and 1.6 cm in height, and weighs 21 grams. They can be
ranged to from an orbiting lidar from a few hundred kilometers and serve as a
calibrated reflective optical surface on the lander and as permanent fiducial
markers. The LRAs were tested over a wide temperature range from 85 K to 385
K, a vibration level of 26 g, and a total ionization radiation dose of 17.8
Mrad(Si). They showed near diffraction-limited optical performance based on
our test data using an optical interferometer and a long-focal-length
collimator at both 532 nm and 1064 nm laser wavelengths. These LRAs are
expected to function day and night on the lunar surface, and serve as
fiducial markers for many decades to come.
Núñez J. I. Klima R. L. Murchie S. L. Warriner H. E. Boldt J. D. Lehtonen S. J. Greenberg J. M. Anderson K. L. Palmer T. W. Maas B. J. McFarland E. L.
Exploring the Moon at
the Microscale with the Advanced Multispectral Infrared
Microimager (AMIM) [#5054]
NASA’s Strategic Plan for Lunar Exploration
for “Lunar Science by 2024” includes multiple robotic precursor missions to
explore for polar volatiles and lunar ice for potential ISRU in the Moon’s
South Pole, understanding the geology of the South-Pole Aitken basin, exploring
lunar swirls, and investigating volcanic regions. We have developed the
Advanced Multispectral Infrared Microimager (AMIM), a compact microscopic
imager, for future landed missions to the Moon, to provide in situ
spatially-correlated mineralogical and microtextural information of rocks and
soils at the microscale for improving our understanding of the Moon and for
prospecting for potential lunar resources. AMIM combines the capabilities
commonly associated with orbital instruments such as M3 on Chandrayaan 1, but
at a size and mass comparable to current microscopic imagers for landed
science - a capability unmatched by any current microimaging instrument for
Anderson F. S. Whitaker T. J. Levine J. Alexander A. Rogers J.
In-Situ Rb-Sr Dating Results Using Femtosecond Ablation and CDEX [#5050]
Missions to provide improved dates from the
surface of the Moon are critical to constrain billion year uncertainties in
the history of the Moon and inner solar system. The Chemistry and Dating
EXperiment (CDEX) is a portable Rb-Sr geochronology and elemental abundance
instrument that uses a combination of laser ablation, resonance ionization,
and mass spectrometry techniques. CDEX measures hundreds of locations on a
sample for geologic context, and produces dates with precision <±200 Ma.
The precision of CDEX is limited by the process of nanosecond laser ablation.
By using femtosecond ablation pulses, we have now demonstrated new dates with
precision as good as ±70 Ma for a range of samples, including Zagami, the
Duluth Gabbro, Sudbury impactites, the Boulder Creek Granite, and the Pikes
Peak Granite. In this presentation, we will discuss the implications for
improving lunar and solar system chronology, and the prospects for new lunar missions.
Cohen B. A. Barber S. J. Farrell W. M. Wright I. P.
Spectrometers for Lunar Volatile Analysis [#5055]
We describe our ion-trap mass spectrometer,
which is being developed for flight on ESA’s PROSPECT package for prospecting
for lunar volatiles on board the Roscosmos Luna-27 lander and within NASA’s
Commercial Lunar Payloads Services (CLPS) program. The ITMS has heritage from
the successful Ptolemy ITMS on Rosetta. It is mechanically compact and
lightweight (~1 kg/15 cm) and tuneable up to m/z 150, suitable for small
landers or coupled to more complex payloads. The CLPS ITMS will monitor the
near-surface lunar exosphere in response to natural and artificial stimuli
(e.g., diurnal cycle, lander activities), with detection limits ~1E-10 mbar,
orders of magnitude better than the LACE experiment. In PROSPECT, the ITMS
will quantify gases evolved by heating samples drilled from the lunar
sub-surface. Investigations using this instrument can significantly improve
our knowledge of the abundance and behavior of volatiles on the Moon,
informing robotic and human mission system design.
Colaprete A. Benton J. Bielawski R. Cook A. Forgione J. Jin F. McMurry W. Middour C. Roush T. White B.
Near InfraRed Volatiles Spectrometer System (NIRVSS) [#5057]
The Near InfraRed Volatiles Spectrometer
System (NIRVSS) is an integrated set of sensors meant to identify volatiles,
especially water, and characterize the scene environments relevant to
volatile retention or form. NIRVSS consists of three main subsystems
including 1) a Near InfraRed (NIR) point spectrometer and lamp that measures
reflectance between 1300 to 4000 nm with a spectral resolution ranging from
about 15Nm to 30nm, 2) a 4 Mpxl Science Context Imager, integrated
with seven sets of LEDs ranging in wavelengths from 340 nm to 940 nm, and 3)
the Longwave Calibration Sensor (LCS), a four-channel thermal radiometer that
measures scene temperatures between <100K and 400K. Currently a flight
unit is being built for flight on Astrobotic’s maiden flight (Mission 1)
to Lacos Mortis in July 2021. NIRVSS is also part of the Volatiles
Investigating Polar Exploration Rover (VIPER) payload suite, making
measurements while roving and of subsurface drill cuttings.
Grimm R. Stillman D. Phillips M. Delory G. Turin P. Espley J. Sheppard D. Mackie R. Johnson C. Garrick-Bethel I. Neal C.
Lunar Magnetotelluric Sounder [#5026]
The electrical conductivity of the Moon is
sensitive to temperature and composition, and can be determined by
electromagnetic sounding. Previous constraints obtained by the magnetic
transfer function between the surface magnetometer at Apollo 12 and the
distantly orbiting Explorer 35 were bandwidth-limited and sensitive to plasma
artifacts. A surface measurement of both electric and magnetic fields — the
magnetotelluric method — eliminates both of these shortcomings, without needing
a reference orbiter. Furthermore, the Apollo 12 site was within PKT;
comparison to a site in FHT would reveal differences in these terranes in the
upper mantle. The experiment has been selected for flight ca. 2022 by LSITP;
improved versions on a Lunar Geophysical Network will place fundamental
constraints on the vertical differentiation and lateral heterogeneity of
Chi P. J. Horchler A. D. Provenzano M. Russell C. T.
MagRover: A Mobile Magnetometer System for Lunar
Landing Missions [#5044]
We propose a small mobile magnetometer
system called “MagRover” that can easily be deployed by future commercial
landers and other landed missions to the Moon. MagRover integrates the UCLA
fluxgate magnetometer on the Astrobotic CubeRover and is capable of
conducting magnetic surveys on the Moon. MagRover can address unanswered
questions in multiple areas, including, but not limited to, 1) the
spatial variations of lunar magnetic anomalies on the surface and the
magnetic field environment at potential human habitats, 2) the
interaction between crustal magnetic fields and plasma and waves in the lunar
exosphere, 3) the electrical conductivity profile of the lunar interior
through magnetic sounding, 4) the intensity and orientation of the
paleomagnetic field for understanding the Moon’s evolution, and
5) prospecting minerals and metals on the lunar surface. MagRover’s
capability in (5) can help identify ISRU and address the SKG in Technologies
for Beneficiation of Lunar Resources.
Nagihara S. Zacny K. Ngo P. Sanigepalli V. Sanasarian L.
Instrumentation for Subsurface Thermal Exploration with
Rapidity (LISTER) [#5005]
LISTER is an instrument to measure the
endogenic heat flow of the Moon. It has been selected as one of the payload
instruments on upcoming flights under the Commercial Lunar Payload Services
program. LISTER deploys a hot-wire needle probe that penetrates 2 to 3 m into
lunar regolith and measures temperature and thermal conductivity at multiple depths
on the way down. Heat flow is obtained from these two sets of measurements.
LISTER, with its probe stowed, is of shoe-box size. It can be mounted on
either the lander’s leg or belly pan. Its deployment mechanism spools out a
boom made of glass fiber and Kapton in a manner similar to a steel tape
measure. The boom terminates in a penetrating cone. The needle probe for
thermal measurements is attached to the cone tip. To advance, the boom uses
the torque from the motor, while a gas jet, fed through the boom and emitted
from the cone tip, blows regolith out of the hole. After landing, LISTER can
complete its operation in 10 to 14 hours.
Weber R. Bailey H. DellaGiustina D. Bray V. Otterbacher S. Burke K. Avenson B. Schmerr N. Benna M. Siegler M. Zacny K. Marusiak A. Neal C.
Optical Seismometer for the Lunar Geophysical Network [#5013]
Apollo-era seismic data have provided an
important glimpse of the Moon’s structure, which has bearing on its thermal,
petrological, and rotational history. Further investigation hinges on the
development of a global Lunar Geophysical Network (LGN), including advanced
seismic sensors and deployment systems.
The Seismometer for a
Lunar Network (SLN) is a NASA/DALI-funded effort to develop a seismometer
based on a COTS device manufactured by Silicon Audio Inc. It is a novel
combination of a geophone and a laser interferometer that enables detection
of submicron-scale motions. SLN is a small, sensitive, tilt-tolerant,
broadband instrument competitive with state of the art planetary
seismometers. It will be deployed via burial using a gas-jet pneumatic
drilling technique developed by Honeybee Robotics.
Here we report on the
progress underway to develop SLN in preparation for LGN. SLN is also
baselined as the seismometer on the DALI-funded Lunar Environment Monitoring
Hayne P. O. Osterman D. P. Donaldson Hanna K. L. Paige D. A. Greenhagen B. T. Siegler M. A. Bandfield J. L.
The Lunar Compact
Infrared Imaging System (L-CIRiS) [#5015]
Orbital infrared mapping by the Lunar
Reconnaissance Orbiter’s Diviner Lunar Radiometer has revealed fundamental
properties of the lunar surface materials and the Moon’s geologic history.
However, these orbital measurements have also pointed to the importance of
small-scale variations in composition, thermophysical properties, and
shadowing, which remain spatially unresolved from orbit. The Lunar Compact
Infrared Imaging System (L-CIRiS) is a thermal infrared imaging radiometer
selected by NASA to be deployed on the Moon through the Commercial Lunar
Payload Services (CLPS) program. L-CIRiS will obtain the first thermal
infrared images from the lunar surface, achieving <1 cm spatial
resolution, with a field of view spanning from just a few meters from the
lander, all the way to the horizon. L-CIRiS has both science and exploration
objectives, including mapping regolith porosity and grain size, rock
abundance, and determining mineral composition at small spatial scales.
Mazarico E. Sun X. Torre J.-M. Courde C. Aimar M. Chabé J. Bouquillon S. Lemoine F. G. Mao D. Barker M. K. Viswanathan V. Cremons D. R. Zuber M. T. Smith D. E.
Laser Ranging from the Grasse Station to LRO:
Implications for Lunar Laser Ranging [#5016]
We present the results of a successful
experiment to perform 2-way laser ranging to retro-reflectors onboard the
Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) spacecraft. A small 650-g array of twelve
31.7mm solid corner cubes is mounted on its anti-nadir deck. The Lunar Laser
Ranging (LLR) station in Grasse (France) ranged to this fast-moving target, a
challenge compared to traditional ranging to surface reflectors. Grasse
measured 71 returns in two 6-minute sessions on September 4, 2018. The
range residuals against the reconstructed LRO trajectory (using regular
S-band data) were on the order of a few centimeters in this first run
(time-of-flight RMS of 0.13 and 0.16 ns). This shows the use of similar
flight-proven, light arrays (LRO flight spare or rebuilds) onboard future
landed payloads can support LLR lunar science goals, particularly with
landing sites near the lunar limbs and poles, which would have better
sensitivity to lunar orientation.
Osinski G. R. Cross M. Pilles E. Sabarinathan J. Tornabene L. L.
An Integrated Vision
System for Future Lunar Surface Missions [#5019]
Our team is developing a rover-mounted
Integrated Vision System (IVS) for robotic and human lunar surface missions.
The IVS integrates three types of vision systems into a unified instrument to
enable rapid fusion data products to enhance situational awareness for
surface operations: 1) The
science camera is a high definition colour camera with a built-in spectral
filter wheel, which will enable capturing detailed images of the lunar
surface as well as providing spectral data in the UV-VIS-NIR range; 2) The
LiDAR system will capture the topography of the surrounding lunar surface in
order to create a digital terrain model; 3) The imaging spectrometer is
a multispectral imager in the 800 to 2500 nm range. This would enable the
identification of minerals such as olivine, various pyroxenes, plagioclase,
and other targets of interest found on the lunar surface. Once the data from
each component has been collected, the high-definition colour and spectral
images can be draped over the DTM.
Kebe F. Gonzalez Y.
Radio Telescope Project [#5023]
Being the closest celestial body to Earth,
the Moon presents advantages for establishing scientific instruments on its
surface. Low-frequency radio emissions cannot be measured from Earth because
of two interferences: Human-made
(Earth’s radio and television transmissions); and Earth’s ionosphere, which
is ionized by solar radiation. The near side of the Moon can be affected by
the terrestrial radio transmissions leaving the far side protected from this
« pollution ». As its far side is not disturbed by the Earth’s radio signals,
the possibility to detect low-frequency radio waves is significantly
improved, which would enable us to better measure cosmic background
radiation, signals coming from the formation of the Universe’s first stars,
and more deeply investigate the beginning of the Universe. We introduce here,
the initial steps of the Lunar Radio Telescope project.
Cross M. Szoke-Sieswerda J. Pascual A. Flanagan L. McIsaac K.
Learning for Lunar Surface Science [#5025]
Here we present results from our field
deployment for demonstrating in-situ machine learning for lunar and planetary
surface science and exploration. The objective is to apply machine learning
techniques on computationally-constrained hardware with limited
human-in-the-loop training. The field deployment will take place at the
Canadian Space Agency’s analogue terrain, which features a number of diverse
geologic features. A mobile robot equipped with lidar and 3D camera, is
teleoperated to assess the various targets of interest. Demonstrated
techniques include the following ‘Weakly Supervised Learning From Mistakes’,
which uses mistakes from classification to identify new object classes;
comparison of deep and shallow convolutional networks; comparison of lidar
and image based classification; and multi-modal reinforcement learning. This
research is intended to enable limited-data-bandwidth human-in-the-loop
machine learning for outer solar system autonomous science.
Mezilis J. A. Ridenoure R. W. Head J. W.
Camera and Sensor System for Capturing Lunar Lander Descent and Landing from
the Lunar Surface [#5029]
Imaging of a lunar landing from the lunar
surface has never been attempted, nor has direct measurement of regolith
dispersion caused by the landing. Such data will help inform the design and
operation of future lunar landers and emplaced lunar surface base/outpost
infrastructure. An approach for capturing these unique data types involves
deployment of one or more small imaging/sensor pods carried to the Moon by
proposed commercial lunar landers. The pods eject from the host lander at ~50
m above the surface, immediately after the lander transitions from the
high-speed descent phase to slow-speed/hover phase. The pods fall to the
lunar surface under the influence of lunar gravity, whereas the lander
descends at a slower pace, resulting in approximately 10–15 seconds for the
pod to initialize and begin data capture. This poster presents the overall
concept of operations for this system, notional pod design features, expected
instrumentation and science/engineering value of returned data.
Yingst R. A. Cohen B. A. Garry W. B. Minitti M. E. Ravine M. A. Watkins R. N. Young K. E.
Heimdall: A Flexible Camera System for Conducting
Lunar Science [#5039]
The Heimdall camera system is a high
flight-heritage instrument that provides data to (1) assess and map
landing site geology to provide geologic context; (2) characterize
geotechnical properties of the regolith; (3) record regolith/rocket
plume interaction during descent; and (4) assess characteristics of
potential landing/trafficability hazards and provide hazard avoidance truthing.
Heimdall consists of four 5-megapixel color CMOS cameras and a DVR that
acquires images of the lunar surface at meter- to millimeter-scale during
descent, and at centimeter- to submillimeter-scale on the surface. Heimdall
includes a wide-angle descent imager to capture near-video-speed images of
interactions of the exhaust plume with the lunar regolith, a narrow-angle
imager to image the regolith at ~35 µm/pixel, and two wide-angle panoramic
imagers for landscape imaging and contextual geologic mapping. Flexible
mounting and pointing allow Heimdall to address a broad range
Frank E. A. Illsley P. Voorhees C. Helms T.
Challenges in Payload Integration on NASA Commercial Lunar Payload
Services Missions [#5060]
During the project lifecycle for a robotic
NASA mission, the spacecraft and its payload are designed concurrently.
Design changes to a spacecraft can dramatically impact instrument design and
operation, and vice versa. Throughout the design phase, resources are allocated
and negotiated across subsystems, including scientific instruments, and
requirements are deconflicted.
The NASA Commercial Lunar
Payload Services (CLPS) program is a radical departure from this approach.
Customers interested in sending a payload via a CLPS provider must conform to
the specifications of the company’s spacecraft; the spacecraft and its payload
are no longer being concurrently designed.
The First Mode team has
deep experience with payload accommodation and integration on spacecraft
including Mars Science Laboratory and Mars 2020. Drawing on this expertise,
we identify the challenges that this new design approach may present, the
potential effects on lunar science investigations, and viable solutions.
Richter L. O. Graue R. Hayun E. Jaime A. Nir M. N. Stuffler T.
Lunar Surface Access
Service (LSAS) — The OHB-IAI Collaboration on Commercial Lunar Landers [#5036]
The continued exploration of the Earth’s
moon will rely on the one hand on institutional missions – such as through
the US’s, China’s, India’s and Russia’s space programs – but on the other
hand on a strong commercial element. Several actors are in advanced stages of
developing lunar orbital and landing spacecraft for uncrewed missions. Of all
the commercial lunar mission actors, SpaceIL with Israel Aerospace Industries
(IAI) was the first to launch a privately funded lunar landing spacecraft,
being the Beresheet lander. In January 2019, OHB System and IAI have signed a
teaming agreement for offering a Lunar Surface Access Service (LSAS) based on
the “Israeli Lunar Lander” ILL that is derived from Beresheet. This talk will
describe the LSAS collaboration and the service offered by our consortium.
The key advantage of the LSAS under the OHB-IAI collaboration is the already
available flight heritage through Beresheet, providing a significant edge in
terms of risk and schedule.