Heliophysics 2050 Poster Abstracts


The Sun and Inner Heliosphere

The Near-Earth Space Environment

Space Weather, Outer Heliosphere, and Local Interstellar Medium

Expanding the Frontiers of Heliophysics and Heliophysics as a Community in 2050





Poster Title and Abstract

Allen R. C.   Vines S. K.   Wilson L. B. III   Borovsky J.   Ho G. C.   Jian L. K.   Li G.   Lugaz N.   Maruca B.   Verscharen D.   Vievering J.   Wimmer-Schweingruber R. F.

The Need to Investigate the Variability and Multi-Scale Nature of the Solar Wind and Its Impact on Energetic Particles [#2109]
Recent missions with separations ranging from small scale, such as MMS and Cluster, to large scale, such as STEREO, demonstrate clear variability and coupling of processes and structures in the solar wind across a wide range of spatiotemporal scales. These new findings push our current understanding beyond the abilities of traditional single-point solar wind measurements. Studies using such single-point observations generally do not allow for deeper investigations of cross- and meso-scale dynamics and plasma variability of the solar wind, nor do they allow for the exploration of sub-structuring of large-scale structures and transients like the heliospheric current sheet, coronal mass ejections, and co-rotating interaction regions. The few multi-point solar wind measurements available to date either span very large scales (i.e., 10s of degrees in the case of the STEREO mission) or very small spatial scales (i.e., ion kinetic scales and below in the case of MMS and Cluster observations upstream of the Earth’s bow shock). These measurements have hinted at a dynamic solar wind consisting of complex and intertwining flux tubes that are largely responsible for the variability and cross-scale coupling of the solar wind and the dynamics and evolution of transients. However, lacking measurements at intermediate scales has prevented a clear understanding of the variability and the sub-structure of the solar wind and transients. This intermediate scale – the meso-scale – is crucial for understanding the connection of the corona to an observer anywhere within the heliosphere, as well as for revealing the currently unresolved physics regulating particle transport, magnetic field topology, and the causes for variability in composition and acceleration of solar wind plasma. To fill these outstanding gaps in our understanding of the fundamental multi-scale structure and variability of the solar wind, new missions are needed to investigate the solar wind as well as its associated suprathermal and energetic particle content, over a range of mesoscale separations which lie in-between the large-scales measured by STEREO and the small turbulent scales to be investigated by HelioSwarm. This poster will focus on the outstanding science questions currently out of reach of current and past heliospheric missions, as well as the fundamental advance that understanding these scales would present to the heliophysics community as a whole.

Alterman B. L.   Desai M. I.   Christian E. R.   de Nolfo G. A.   Ogasawara K.   Kanekal S. G.   Randol B.

Closing Our Mesoscale Knowledge Gap:  Using the Space Weather Advanced Notification System (SWANS) to Disentangle Mesoscale Temporal and Spatial Variation in the Solar Wind [#2160]
By 2050, Heliophysics needs to understand and have disentangled the spatial and temporal variability of mesoscale (100s km to 10e6 km) structures in the solar wind. This knowledge will fundamentally transform our understanding of solar wind mass, momentum, and energy transport. Furthermore it closes the knowledge gap necessary to enable high fidelity space weather prediction and forecasting. In this presentation, we discuss the Space Weather Advanced Notification System (SWANS). SWANS combines a prime carrier spacecraft with six CubeSats/SmallSats in large Distant Retrograde Orbits (DROs). The prime spacecraft carries the six CubeSats/SmallSats, Δv necessary to transport the entire mission into DRO, and the primary antenna for communication with Earth. Upon reaching the target orbit, the prime spacecraft launches the six CubeSats/SmallSats, which spread out to provide continuous and simultaneous solar wind observations across a range of longitudes. SWANS provides the mesoscale observations critical to advance our scientific understanding of solar wind structures and to close the knowledge gap required for mesoscale space weather forecasting.

Alterman B. L.   Kasper J. C.   Leamon R. J.   McIntosh S. W.   Stevens M. L.   Wilson L. B. III

Solar Wind Helium Measurements Demonstrate the Importance of Unified and Consistent Long Duration In Situ Plasma Data [#2064]
Long duration L1 missions and integrated data sets provide unique insight into the Sun and solar wind. This work combines in situ measurements of the solar wind helium abundance over multiple solar cycles along with EUV measurements from SDO and SOHO to derive two unique insights about solar wind formation. First, we use in situ Wind plasma measurements cover 22+ years to derive key insight into solar wind acceleration and generation above the photosphere. Second, we combine OMNI/Lo data from 1974 through the present day with SOHO and SDO EUV Brightpoint measurements to identify an in situ marker that predicts the onset of a new solar cycle in a manner that is likely related to physics below the photosphere. Each of these results has been enabled by long duration missions and/or data sets that cover time periods markedly longer than a typical Phase E, a mission’s prime science phase.

Arge C. N.   Jones S.   Henney C. J.   Schonfeld S.   Vourlidas A.   Posner A.   Muglach K.   Luhmann J. G.   Wallace S.   Zhang J.   Leisner A.   St Cyr O. C.

Multi-Vantage-Point Solar and Heliospheric Observations to Advance Physical Understanding of the Corona and Solar Wind [#2085]
The launch of the twin STEREO spacecraft in 2007 allowed for the first simultaneous global views of the Sun in the extreme ultraviolet (EUV). It also permitted simultaneous sampling of the solar wind from widely spaced points in the ecliptic, as well as stereoscopic views of the Sun’s corona in white light (WL) and EUV. Virtually all corona and solar wind models are driven by global estimates of the photospheric magnetic field. Other data sources, such as EUV, WL, and in situ plasma data are essential for both validating and constraining these models. Unfortunately, the STEREO mission payload did not include magnetographs, so the opportunity to simultaneously measure the Sun’s global magnetic field has not been possible until the recent launch of Solar Orbiter (SolO). Vector magnetographs onboard the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) and SolO spacecraft will, on rare occasions, allow for nearly complete 360° coverage of the Sun’s surface magnetic field. It is argued in this poster that to significantly advance basic understanding of the corona and solar wind, it is essential to have continuous monitoring of the Sun’s global magnetic field distribution, along with equivalent coverage in EUV and WL, as well as in situ monitoring of the solar wind from multiple and widely spaced vantage points.

Awasthi A. K.   Liu R.

Small-Intensity-Class Flares Unveiling the Magnetic Environment of Solar Eruptive Processes [#2005]
Solar flares are transient bursts occurring in the solar atmosphere. In particular, small-intensity-class flares unveil the magnetic environment of the source region of solar eruptions. In this context, I will present an investigation of the source region of complex ejecta, focusing on a flare precursor with definitive signatures of magnetic reconnection, i.e., nonthermal electrons, flaring plasma, and bidirectional outflowing blobs. Aided by nonlinear force-free field modeling, we concluded that the reconnection occurs within different branches of a multi-flux-rope system. I will continue on with presenting another case of a micro-flare that drove disturbances in a filament. Filament material predominately exhibited two kinds of motions, namely, rotation about the spine and longitudinal oscillation along the spine. The composite motions of filament material suggested a double-decker host structure, comprising of a flux rope atop a sheared-arcade system. Thus, it is evident that since flares are the earliest observational signature of solar eruptions that drive space-weather, their investigation not only unravels the physics of plasma heating and particle acceleration mechanisms, it also improves our capability of predicting its impact on the Earth by unveiling the pre-eruptive environment.

Bastian T. S.   Murphy E. J.   Chen B.   Fleishman G. D.   Gary D. E.   Glesener L.   Nita G. M.   White S. M.

Solar and Heliospheric Physics with the Next Generation VLA (ngVLA) [#2024]
The next-generation Very Large Array (ngVLA) is an advanced concept of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory for a general-purpose ground based astrophysical observatory operating at radio wavelengths. It is designed to perform high resolution imaging and spectroscopy using the mature techniques of Fourier synthesis imaging. It will observe from 1.2–116 GHz (0.26-25 cm) using 214 × 18m antennas distributed in the main array out to baselines of 1000 km, and 30 × 18m antennas distributed in a long baseline array extending to baselines of 8860 km. A short baseline array of 19 × 6m antennas completes the suite of antennas. The telescope will be ten times the sensitivity of the Jansky VLA and ALMA and will have ten times the angular resolution. Key science goals include unveiling the formation of solar-system analogs on terrestrial scale; probing the initial conditions for planetary systems and life with astrochemistry; charting the assembly, structure and evolution of galaxies from the first billion years to the present; using pulsars in the galactic center to make a fundamental test of gravity; and understanding the formation and evolution of stellar and supermassive black Holes and compact objects in the era of multi-messenger astronomy. Solar and heliospheric physics are also important components of the ngVLA science program. The large number of antennas and the dense sampling they provide in the main array will enable high-fidelity imaging of solar phenomena from the chromosphere up into the corona. Of particular interest are chromospheric and coronal magnetic fields, magnetic energy release, particle acceleration and transport, and shock formation and evolution. The ngVLA will also be a superb instrument to observe spacecraft beacons and natural radio sources to study propagation phenomena such as angular and spectral broadening, scintillations, and Faraday rotation. These may be used to study solar wind acceleration, solar wind turbulence and its evolution, turbulence dissipation, and the interaction of solar wind with transient events such as coronal mass ejections. The ngVLA will be a powerful complement to the in situ and remote sensing observations of the next generation of NASA heliophysics missions.

Bastian T. S.   Barta M.   Brajsa R.   Chen B.   De Pontieu B.   Fleishman G. D.   Gary D. E.   Hales A.   Hills R.   Hudson H.   Iwai K.   Kobelski A.   Krucker S.   Loukitcheva M.   Motorina G.   Shimojo M.   Skokic I.   Wedemeyer S.   White S. M.   Yan Y.

Solar Physics with the Atacama Large Millimeter-Submillimeter Array (ALMA) [#2044]
The Atacama Large Millimeter-submillimeter Array (ALMA) is a Fourier synthesis telescope operating at millimeter and submillimeter wavelengths. Located in the Atacama Desert of Northern Chile and an elevation of 5000m, and operated by an international partnership, ALMA opens a new window onto the Universe. The ability to perform high resolution continuum imaging and spectroscopy of astrophysical phenomena at mm-submm wavelengths with unprecedented sensitivity opens up new avenues for the study of cosmology and the evolution of galaxies, the formation of stars and planets, and astrochemistry.
ALMA also opens a new window into solar physics. Unlike many diagnostics at optical and ultraviolet wavelengths — spectral lines that form under conditions of non-LTE — the source function is Planckian for mm-submm continuum emission from the Sun. These wavelengths form mainly in the poorly understood solar chromosphere. This turbulent layer channels the energy from the solar interior into the heliosphere, thus mediating all “space weather.” ALMA provides powerful new diagnostics of the solar chromosphere that are complementary to those provided at optical and UV wavelengths. Beginning in late 2016, ALMA became available for studies of the Sun in the 1.25 mm (band 6) and 3 mm (band 3) continuum bands with an imaging cadence of 2 s. Both interferometric imaging and fast-scan total power maps of the entire solar disk are available. Since then, observations at 0.85 mm (band 7) and 1.77 mm (band 5) have been commissioned for solar observing. It is expected that 3 mm polarimetry and fast-scan regional mapping will become available in the coming year. Plans are underway to commission ALMA for flare observations within two years.  ALMA is expected to be the premier mm-submm observatory for several decades to come and, as such, is an important ground-based complement to NASA heliospheric missions.

Bourouaine S.   Perez J. C.   Klein K. G.   Chen C. H. K.   Martinović M.   Bale S. D.   Kasper J. C.   Raouafi N.

Turbulence Characteristics of Switchback and Nonswitchback Intervals Observed by Parker Solar Probe [#2120]
Using PSP data we analyzed the characteristics of solar wind turbulence during the first solar encounter covering radial distances between 35.7 SR and 41.7 SR. In our analysis we isolate so-called switchback (SB) intervals (folded magnetic field lines) from nonswitchback (NSB) intervals, which mainly follow the Parker spiral field. Using a technique based on conditioned correlation functions, we estimate the power spectra of Elsasser, magnetic, and bulk velocity fields separately in the SB and NSB intervals. In comparing the turbulent energy spectra of the two types of intervals, we find the following characteristics:  (1) The decorrelation length of the minor Elsasser field is larger in the NSB intervals than the one in the SB intervals; (2) the magnetic power spectrum in SB intervals is steeper, with spectral index close to –5/3, than in NSB intervals, which have a spectral index close to –3/2; (3) both SB and NSB turbulence are imbalanced with NSB having the largest cross-helicity, (4) the residual energy is larger in the SB intervals than in NSB, and (5) the analyzed fluctuations are dominated by Alfvénic fluctuations that are propagating in the sunward (antisunward) direction for the SB (NSB) turbulence. These observed features provide further evidence that the switchbacks observed by PSP are associated with folded magnetic field lines giving insight into their turbulence nature.

Caspi A.   Shih A. Y.   Athiray P. S.   Warren H. P.   Winebarger A. R.   Cheung M. C. M.   DeForest C. E.   Gburek S.   Klimchuk J. A.   Kowaliński M.   Laurent G. T.   Mason J. P.   Mrozek T.   Palo S. E.   Schattenburg M.   Seaton D. B.   Stęślicki M.   Sylwester J.   Woods T. N.

Understanding Heating of the Solar Corona Through Soft X-Ray Spectroscopy [#2095]
Why the solar corona is orders of magnitude hotter than the underlying atmosphere remains a fundamental unanswered question in solar and stellar physics. Soft X-ray (SXR) emission provides unique diagnostics, not available from other wavelengths, of high-energy processes in the corona. However, despite the rich insights enabled by spectrally resolved SXR measurements, such observations of the Sun have been sporadic, with incomplete wavelength coverage of the crucial 0.25–3 keV (4-50 Å) range and with significant compromises between spectral, spatial, and temporal resolution. Emerging advances in detectors, focusing optics, diffraction gratings, and other technology offer both near- and long-term capabilities to completely fill this observational gap with imaging spectroscopy at high resolution, sensitivity, and cadence. Significant progress on this critical question — and other closely related questions — is easily achievable by 2050 if we leverage these advances and prioritize development of new solar SXR observatories.

Chamberlin P. C.

Next Generation Formation-Flying White Light Coronagraphs for Science [#2028]
Conventional solar coronagraphs measure visible photospheric light Thomson-scattered by coronal electrons. Due to on-disk light diffracting off the external occulter and vignetting effects, historical, current, and near-future single spacecraft coronagraph measurements do not properly resolve the low corona where CME initiation and acceleration occurs and the Solar Wind is formed. Increasing the distance between the external occulter and optical elements will greatly improve the imaging resolution and reduce the noise in the low corona. Taking advantage of recent technological improvements in formation flying have enabled large distances and accurate positioning between two spacecraft possible, and once utilized will lead to improving our understanding of coronal evolution and how the solar wind and CME transients evolve from the low solar atmosphere through the heliosphere.
The 6U CubeSat, the Spherical Occulter Coronagraph CubeSat (SpOC Cube), was developed to observe the low corona in white light from 1.5RSun to 5RSun. SpOC will deploy an 8cm diameter free-flying spherical occulter, and after deployment the actively controlled CubeSat will provide inertial formation flying with the sphere and Sun. SpOC has greater than 2.25 m separation between the occulter and optics, longer than STEREO Cor2, which is approximately 1.3 m (Howard et al., 2008) and SOHO/LASCO C2 that is about 0.8 m (Brueckner et al., 1995).  This larger separation improves signal-to-noise due to reduced diffraction intensities off the occulter, a dominant noise source in coronagraphs, and improves upon spatial resolution of current coronagraphs.
An Earth-escape orbit is necessary and ideal, as it will take SpOC out of the influence of Earth’s atmospheric density variations and changing gravitational forces, simplifying formation flying while providing a 100% view of the Sun. Additionally, SpOC Cube is a pathfinder directly scalable to future Explorer-class coronagraphs, SpOC Ex, with even larger separations, possibly hundreds of meters using high-TRL inflatable spherical occulters up to, or even greater than, 100m in diameter. SpOC Ex will have better signal/noise and true spatial resolution of better than 1 arcsec all the way down to <1.05 solar radii.

Chen B.   Bastian T. S.   Gary D. E.   Saint-Hilaire P.   White S. M.

A Next Generation Radio Heliograph:  New Insights into the Physics of the Active Sun [#2084]
A long-term goal of the solar and space physics community is to understand the fundamental physical processes underlying solar flares and coronal mass ejections (CMEs) and their space weather implications. Pertinent outstanding challenges include the measurement of the dynamic coronal magnetic field, the examination of physical mechanisms underlying the fast magnetic energy release and efficient particle acceleration, and the understanding of the formation and evolution of CMEs/CME-driven shocks.
Radio observations provide a wealth of unique tools for diagnosing both the quiescent and active Sun. Outstanding examples include coronal magnetography of active regions, flares, and CMEs based on radio gyromagnetic radiation; tracing and measuring flare/CME shocks and the nonthermal electrons they produce; as well as origins of space weather drivers such as fast CMEs, fast solar wind streams, and critical inputs on the source components contributing to the F10.7 Activity Index.
In the past decade, thanks to the advances in radio frequency (RF) and digital technologies, we have enjoyed a major transition in radio observing techniques as it evolves from imaging at a few discrete frequencies to true broadband dynamic imaging spectroscopy. In recent years, exciting new results have emerged with the operation of new/upgraded instruments such as EOVSA, JVLA, LOFAR, MWA, and ALMA. However, solar-dedicated instruments currently operating or being commissioned do not have sufficient bandwidth, dynamic range, and resolution to fully exploit the unique diagnostic power of observations at radio wavelengths. This poster discusses the potential for new insights enabled by the superior spectral imaging capabilities of a next-generation radio heliograph such as the Frequency Agile Solar Radiotelescope (FASR) concept. Its synergy with other multi-wavelength instruments (ground-based and spaceborne) and next-generation numerical models will also be discussed.

Criscuoli S.   Kazachenko M.   Kosovichev A.   Martinez Pillet V.   Nita G.   Sadykov V.

Challenges and Advances in Modeling the Solar Atmosphere [#2154]
Unprecedented observations of the solar atmosphere and heliosphere will be provided in the next decade by new ground- and space-based instrumentation. The synergy between modeling effort and comprehensive analysis of observations is crucial for the understanding of the physical processes behind the observed phenomena. However, the unprecedented wealth of data on one hand, and the complexity of the physical phenomena on the other, require the development of new approaches in both data analysis and numerical modeling. This contribution summarizes recent numerical efforts to reproduce the structure and dynamics of the solar atmosphere, outlines challenges we expect to face for the interpretation of future observations, and provides recommendations to promote the development of more sophisticated models on one hand, and foster the inter-comparison between models and observations on the other.

Daughton W.   Cohen C. M. S.   Phan T. D.   SolFER Collaboration

Ion Heating and Acceleration in Impulsive Flares [#2111]
Ions gain a significant fraction of the magnetic energy released in solar flares. However, the mechanisms for ion energy gain remain uncertain as do the conditions which may contribute to specific spectral and compositional characteristics and their variability. While observations of the resulting energetic ion population have been made for decades near 1 AU, relating these directly to the acceleration processes and environment at the Sun remains difficult. With recent advances in simulations and new observational capabilities, the time is ripe for significant progress to be made. The NASA DRIVE science center on Solar Flare Energy Release (SolFER, solfer.umd.edu) is bringing together a diverse group of scientists, including theorists and modelers and observers doing remote as well as in situ measurements, to address the full range of topics relevant to ion heating and acceleration.
PIC simulations are already, for the first time, revealing the simultaneous formation of electron and ion powerlaw distributions, including the critical low energy cutoff of the powerlaw that controls the energy content of non-thermal ions. The kglobal simulation model, which has been successful in producing the extended powerlaw distributions of non-thermal electrons, is being upgraded to include particle ions and will pave the way for modeling of flare ion acceleration in realistic global magnetic geometries. In-situ ion measurements over energy ranges extending down to tens of keV and obtained by multiple spacecraft at more unique locations (including inside 0.3 AU) are becoming available. Measurements of ion spectra in energetic magnetotail reconnection events also provide critical data. These data create the opportunity to test the simulation results and examine the specific spectral and compositional signatures that the models produce.
Models suggest that the magnetic geometry of flare energy release, and specifically the strength of the ambient guide field, controls the production of the most energetic particles in flares. Remote sensing observations capable of revealing the magnetic structure of sites of energy release in the corona are coming online, providing new opportunities for benchmarking models with observations.

Gibson S. E.   Malanushenko A.   de Toma G.   Tomczyk S.   Reeves K.   Tian H.   Yang Z.   Chen B.   Fleishman G.   Gary D.   Nita G.   Pillet V. M.   White S.   Bak-Steslicka U.   Dalmasse K.   Kucera T.   Rachmeler L. A.   Raouafi N. E.   Zhao J.

Untangling the Global Coronal Magnetic Field with Global Multiwavelength Observations [#2041]
Magnetism defines the complex and dynamic solar corona. Coronal mass ejections (CMEs) are thought to be caused by stresses, twists, and tangles in coronal magnetic fields that build up energy and ultimately erupt, hurling plasma into interplanetary space. Even the ever-present solar wind possesses a three-dimensional morphology shaped by the global coronal magnetic field, forming geoeffective corotating interaction regions. CME evolution and the structure of the solar wind depend intimately on the coronal magnetic field, so comprehensive observations of the global magnetothermal atmosphere are crucial both for scientific progress and space weather predictions. Although some advances have been made in measuring coronal magnetic fields locally, synoptic measurements of the global coronal magnetic field are not yet available. We present the state of the art and argue that there is a great need to expand capabilities for measuring the global, synoptic coronal magnetic measurement at all wavelengths.

Gopalswamy N.   Kucera T. A.   Leak J. E.   MacDowall R. J.   Wilson L. B. III   Kanekal S. G.   Gong Q.   Golub L.   DeLuca E.   Tadikonda S. S. K.   Seaton D. B.   Savage S.   Winebarger A. R.   Reeves K.   DeForest C.   Pevtsov A.   Hurlburt N.   Desai M. I.   Bastian T.   Lazio J.   Jensen E. A.   Manchester W. C.   Wood B.   Kooi J.   Wexler D. B.   Bale S. D.   Tripathi S. C.   Jain K.

The Multiview Observatory for Solar Terrestrial Science (MOST) [#2039]
The Multiview Observatory for Solar Terrestrial Science (MOST) is a comprehensive mission concept to understand the solar drivers and the heliospheric responses as a system, discerning and tracking three-dimensional magnetic field structures, both transient and quiescent, from the solar interior out to 1 au. The full MOST scientific payload consists of the following instruments designed to study the magnetic connection between the solar interior and the atmosphere:  (1) Magnetic and Doppler Imagers (MaDI), which will investigate surface and subsurface magnetism by exploiting the combination of helioseismic and magnetic-field measurements of the photosphere; (2) Inner Coronal Imager in EUV (ICIE) to study large-scale structures such as active regions, coronal holes and eruptive structures by capturing the magnetic connection between the photosphere and the corona to about 3 solar radii; (3) Hard X-ray Imager (HXI) to image the non-thermal component of flares; (4) White-light Coronagraph (WCOR) that seamlessly connects the ICIE features into the near-Sun interplanetary medium up to 15 solar radii; (5) The Faraday Effect Tracker of Coronal and Heliospheric structures (FETCH) is a novel radio package to directly measure the magnetic field of the quiet solar wind, coronal mass ejections, shock sheaths, and stream interaction regions. within 0.5 au; (6) Heliospheric Imager with polarization capability (HIP) to track solar features into the heliosphere and study their impact on Earth; and (7) Radio and Plasma Wave instrument (M/WAVES). MOST will carry three in-situ instruments to support solar heliospheric system science and advance solar wind physics: (8) Energetic Particle Detector (EPD), (9) Solar Wind Magnetometer (MAG), and (10) Solar Wind Plasma Instrument (SWPI). The MOST mission consists of two large spacecraft with two identical payloads deployed at L4 and L5 and two smaller spacecraft ahead of L4 and behind L5 to carry additional FETCH elements. MOST will build upon the achievements of the Solar Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) and the Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory (STEREO) missions over the past couple of decades. In particular, the multiview observations provided by STEREO and SOHO combined helped the community to discern the three-dimensional nature of the quiescent and transient magnetic structures in the support solar heliospheric system. MOST will expand this multiview observational approach into the first half of the 21st Century.

Guo F.   Chen B.   Reeves K. K.   Phan T.   Glesener L.   Oka M.   Gary D.   Arnold H.   SolFER Collaboration

Electron Heating, Acceleration, and Transport in Solar Flares [#2096]
Solar flares show the prolific production of energetic electrons with energy content comparable to the released magnetic energy. The resulting hard X-ray and microwave emissions show nonthermal signatures suggestive of power-law electron energy spectra, but it remains unclear what controls the transition and partition between thermal and nonthermal distributions. How electrons efficiently gain energy remains a hotly debated problem. In addition, it is not clear where the acceleration site is and what role the transport plays in the acceleration, or in the emissions observed over space and time.
The NASA funded SolFER (Solar Flare Energy Release) DRIVE Science Center brings together a diverse group of observers, theorists, and modelers to attack these problems using a wide range of observations and numerical tools. Particularly, EOVSA, RHESSI, SDO, and other multi-wavelength observations provide the first measurements of energetic electron distributions over space and the magnetic structure and plasma flows, with an excellent agreement with MHD models. A set of heroic PIC simulations have demonstrated clear power-laws of both electrons and ions, and an injection process that controls the lower energy cutoffs. The first self-consistent macroscopic model has achieved power-law electron distributions over nearly three decades and has been applied to observations of the 2017 Sep. 10 event, with the prediction that the efficiency and spectral index critically depend on the guide field.
Achieving a decisive understanding of electron energization and transport calls for further development of such center-scale collaborations. A fully upgraded macroscopic energetic particle model coupled with realistic MHD simulations is needed to robustly predict spatial and temporal energetic electron distributions and, in turn, to compare with multi-wavelength observations. Equally important is the development of remote-sensing instruments at multiple wavelengths that can provide high cadence, high resolution, high sensitivity, and high dynamic range imaging and spectroscopy of emissions from energetic electrons. Such missions recently proposed or under development include MUSE, Solar-C/EUVST, FIERCE, MaGIX, FASR, and PhoENiX, etc. Direct observations of energetic electrons from impulsive flares or reconnection events in the solar wind and the Earth’s magnetotail by PSP, SO, MMS, and other future spacecraft will also provide crucial data to probe the electron energization.

Illarionov E. A.   Sitdikov D. U.   Kosovichev A. G.   Tlatov A. G.

Machine-Learning Framework for Construction and Segmentation of Coronal Holes Synoptic Maps [#2015]
Fast and reliable automatic pipelines for data processing and interpretation are an essential part in space weather prediction models. We present an open-source framework https://github.com/observethesun/helio for construction of solar synoptic maps from SDO/AIA, SOHO/EIT and GONG/SUVI data, training a neural network coronal holes (CHs) segmentation model from daily solar disk images and model application to CHs identification in synoptic maps. The continuously updated catalogue of solar synoptic maps built from SDO/AIA images is available at https://sun.njit.edu/coronal_holes starting from the beginning of SDO observations. At the moment we prepare an extension of the catalogue based of SOHO data archive. In the presentation we also discuss a correlation between SDO and SOHO synoptic maps over a common period of observations as well as physical properties of CHs identified.

Inglis A. R.   Kirk M. S.   Attie R.   Pesnell W. D.   Knoer V.

Rapid-Cadence EUV and UV Imaging of the Solar Atmosphere:  Science and Challenges [#2081]
The modern era of solar EUV imaging, in particular a decade of SDO/AIA observations, has unlocked a wealth of scientific discovery. Looking to the future, a strong case can be made for ultra-high cadence, ultra-high resolution Solar EUV and UV imagery. In this poster we present an overview of the outstanding science questions driving such observations, explore key science and technological requirements, and discuss the challenges of achieving these requirements. Fast EUV imaging capability is especially relevant for understanding bright, transient events on the Sun such as solar flares. Models predict and observations show that during flares reconnection and particle acceleration processes can occur on less than 1s timescales. These energetic processes lead to rapidly varying thermal responses in chromospheric and coronal plasma. At present, these atmospheric responses cannot be observed at the necessary spatial or temporal resolution to fully explore the physics driving the eruptions, hence a key potential diagnostic of solar energy release is unavailable. High resolution observations bring with them significant technical challenges, including the need for sophisticated on-board event triggering software, dynamically avoiding detector saturation, and managing very high data volumes. This work discusses the scientific potential of a high speed EUV imager as well as some of the ways to overcome the current challenges.

Kasper J. C.   Lazio T. J. W.   Romero-Wolf A.

The Sun Radio Interferometer Space Experiment (SunRISE) Mission [#2013]
The Sun Radio Interferometer Space Experiment (SunRISE) will reveal aspects of how solar energetic particles (SEPs) are accelerated at Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs) and how SEPs are released into interplanetary space. SunRISE is a constellation of small spacecraft operating as a radio interferometer to produce a synthetic aperture. As the first low radio frequency interferometer in space, SunRISE will provide spatially and temporally resolved observations of decametric-hectometric (DH, < 15 MHz) radio bursts that cannot be observed on Earth due to ionospheric absorption. DH radio bursts are produced by electrons energized near expanding CMEs (Type II) and released by solar flares into space (Type III).
Tracking DH Type II radio bursts from 2 RSun to 20 RSun will allow discrimination of competing hypotheses for the source mechanism of CME-associated SEPs by measuring the location of Type II radio emission relative to where the most intense acceleration occurs. Questions to be addressed include where electron acceleration and DH Type II radio bursts occur relative to the overall structure of CMEs, determine if specific properties of CMEs lead to DH radio bursts, and how the magnetic connection between the location of the radio burst and an observing spacecraft influences the detection of SEPs.
Tracking DH Type III radio bursts will determine if a broad magnetic connection between active regions and interplanetary space is responsible for the wide longitudinal extent of some flare and CME SEPs by imaging the field lines traced by Type III bursts from active regions through the corona. SunRISE observations will reveal the topology of magnetic field lines between active regions into interplanetary space and the time variation of that connection, identifying whether some active regions connect to a broad range of latitudes and longitudes.The SunRISE mission leverages more than 50 years of development in ground-based very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) techniques, and recent mission-enabling advances in software-defined radios, GPS navigation and timing, and small spacecraft technologies. The SunRISE mission utilizes commercial access to space, in which the SunRISE spacecraft will be carried to their target orbit as a secondary payload by a larger host spacecraft.Part of this research was carried out at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under a contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

Kaur S.

Primary Drivers of Intense, Major, and Minor Geomagnetic Storms During the Solar Cycles 23–25 [#2103]
The individual and accumulated effects of solar features such as Coronal Mass Ejections, Solar Flares, Solar Wind Plasma, Solar Type II Radio Bursts, and Interplanetary Magnetic Field (Bz) have statistically studied to understand the primary drivers of Geomagnetic storms of Intense if (Dst < –100nT), Major if (–50n T Dst ≥ –100nT), and Minor if (–20nT ≥ Dst ≥ –50nT) observed during the solar cycles 23–25(ongoing).

Kerr G. S.   Alaoui M.   Allred J. C.   Bian N. H.   Dennis B. R.   Emslie A. G.   Fletcher L.   Guidoni S.   Hayes L. A.   Holman G. D.   Hudson H. S.   Karpen J. T.   Kowalski A. F.   Milligan R. O.   Polito V.   Qiu J.   Ryan D. F.

Solar Flare Energy Partitioning and Transport — The Gradual Phase [#2020]
Solar flares are a fundamental component of solar eruptive events (SEEs; along with solar energetic particles, SEPs, and coronal mass ejections, CMEs). Flares are the first component of the SEE to impact our atmosphere, which can set the stage for the arrival of the associated SEPs and CME. Magnetic reconnection drives SEEs by restructuring the solar coronal magnetic field, liberating a tremendous amount of energy which is partitioned into various physical manifestations:  particle acceleration, mass and magnetic-field eruption, atmospheric heating, and the subsequent emission of radiation as solar flares. To explain and ultimately predict these geoeffective events, the heliophysics community requires a comprehensive understanding of the processes that transform and distribute stored magnetic energy into other forms, including the broadband radiative enhancement that characterises flares.
This poster discusses energy transport during the gradual phase of flares. The precipitation of accelerated nonthermal electrons is thought to be the primary vehicle by which flare energy is transported during the impulsive phase, known from the presence of hard X-ray footpoint sources. This is followed by the longer duration gradual phase, during which flare emission decays and there is a lack of HXR emission (i.e. nonthermal electron bombardment of the lower atmosphere has ceased). While much of flare research concentrates on the impulsive phase, the gradual phase is also a topic of hot debate and scientific intrigue as it exhibits some serious discrepancies between models/theory and observations. Namely, the modelled cooling times during the gradual phase of flares are significantly shorter than flare observations suggest. We must ask then, what sustains the observed gradual phase, and what physical processes are missing from our models?
It has been suggested that energy release continues in the gradual phase, with magnitude comparable to that deposited in the impulsive phase. However, the origin and transport mechanism of this post-impulsive phase energy is largely unknown. Towards 2050, we must (1) determine the magnitude, source, and transport mechanisms of energy deposition during the gradual phase; (2) improve our modelling and observational constraints of the gradual phase, and our understanding of important plasma physical processes such as turbulence and non-local effects (which have far reaching effects beyond flares).

Kerr G. S.   Alaoui M.   Allred J. C.   Bian N. H.   Dennis B. R.   Emslie A. G.   Fletcher L.   Guidoni S.   Hayes L. A.   Holman G. D.   Hudson H. S.   Karpen J. T.   Kowalski A. F.   Milligan R. O.   Polito V.   Qiu J.   Ryan D. F.

Solar Flare Energy Partitioning and Transport — The Impulsive Phase [#2019]
Solar flares are a fundamental component of solar eruptive events (SEEs; along with solar energetic particles, SEPs, and coronal mass ejections, CMEs). Flares are the first component of the SEE to impact our atmosphere, which can set the stage for the arrival of the associated SEPs and CME. Magnetic reconnection drives SEEs by restructuring the solar coronal magnetic field, liberating a tremendous amount of energy which is partitioned into various physical manifestations:  particle acceleration, mass and magnetic-field eruption, atmospheric heating, and the subsequent emission of radiation as solar flares. To explain and ultimately predict these geoeffective events, the heliophysics community requires a comprehensive understanding of the processes that transform and distribute stored magnetic energy into other forms, including the broadband radiative enhancement that characterises flares. This abstract discusses energy transport during the impulsive phase of flares.
Our approach to solar flare research from now until 2050 reflects the following basic philosophy: (1) to identify the sites of energy release and particle acceleration in the solar corona; (2) to characterize the most energetically important components as they evolve in time and space; and (3) to understand how energy is transported and dissipated, heating the Sun’s atmosphere from photosphere to corona. Observations should be made of these energy conversion sites before, during, and after the event, to characterize the magnetic fields, plasma density, temperature, flow velocities, wave fields, and the accelerated electrons and ions. These properties should be measured as close to the release site as possible, both in space and in time to minimize uncertainties due to propagation effects and temporal evolution.
Our aim should be to ensure that models can reproduce fundamental and universal aspects of flares, and to improve the included physics where they cannot. We must determine the acceleration mechanism and propagation properties of accelerated electrons. We must also push beyond the standard paradigm of energy transport via electron beams, particularly to address the roles of flare-accelerated ions, and Alfvén waves. To determine whether these models accurately represent the wide range of flare phenomena, we must confront them with high-quality observations. We outline key areas where progress would advance insight into flare physics substantially.

Klimchuk J. A.   GSFC/ISFM Team on Coronal Heating

Causes and Consequences of Heating in the Magnetically Closed Corona [#2136]
Understanding how the magnetically closed corona is heated and how the plasma responds and radiates remains one of the most important goals in heliophysics. Determining what produces the non-uniform thermal structure of the corona is not only crucial for understanding fundamental physical processes such as magnetic reconnection, but it is a prerequisite for predicting the variable solar spectral irradiance, which has major implications for space weather at Earth and the development of life throughout the cosmos. Finding the necessary answers is extremely challenging. An enormous range of spatial scales is involved, and there are close physical couplings among the scales and between different parts of the solar atmosphere. Progress has been made on isolated aspects of the problem, but a comprehensive understanding of the interconnected system is still lacking.
Vital sub-questions that must be addressed include the following. What is the presently unresolved substructure of the corona and how is it created? What are the sizes and shapes of elemental magnetic strands? How do they interact to produce features such as coronal loops? How, when, and where do nanoflares occur? What is the role of waves – both those generated in the lower atmosphere and those generated in the corona? How does material cycle between the corona and lower atmosphere (e.g., chromospheric evaporation and spicule ejections)? Is thermal nonequilibrium important? What causes the first ionization potential (FIP) effect? How and why do conditions vary across and among active regions?
Answering these questions requires a full range of tools:  imaging and spectroscopic observations, numerical simulations, and new theoretical insights. All must be brought to bear in a coordinated fashion if we are to finally solve the long-standing mystery of coronal heating and its effects. Our ISFM team at GSFC has made excellent progress, and we have laid out important pathways foreword. We look forward to continuing and expanding our engagement with the broader community.

Kosovichev A. G.   Pipin V. V.   Getling A. V.

Helioseismic Observations of Dynamo Processes in the Solar Interior [#2001]
Helioseismological observations of the internal dynamics of the Sun during the last two solar activity cycles have made it possible to trace the development of solar dynamo processes throughout the depth of the convective zone and to link them with models of solar cycles. Observational data obtained from the GONG (1995–2020), SoHO (1996–2010), and SDO (2010–2020) represent measurements of the internal differential rotation, meridional circulation, and thermodynamic parameters. The structure and dynamics of zonal plasma flows (torsional oscillations) and variations of the meridional circulation reveal the processes of generating and transporting magnetic fields inside the Sun. The observed structure of zonal flows and their latitudinal and radial migration in deep layers of the convective zone correspond to dynamo waves predicted by dynamo theories and numerical MHD simulations. The helioseismic observations and dynamo modeling provide insight into the extended solar-cycle phenomenon and demonstrate the potential for advanced prediction of solar cycles. The data reveal fundamental changes in the solar interior dynamics during the past two cycles and show the need for future advanced helioseismic observations.

Leamon R. J.   McIntosh S. W.

Heliospheric Meteorology:  HMM, the $200 Mission [#2071]
What? To make transformational scientific progress with the space weather enterprise the Sun, Earth, and heliosphere must be studied as a coupled system, comprehensively. Rapid advances were made in the study, and forecasting, of terrestrial meteorology half a century ago that accompanied the dawn of earth observing satellites. Those assets provided a global perspective on the Earth’s weather systems and the ability to look ahead of the observer’s local time and move to a global perspective. From a heliospheric, or space, weather perspective we have the same fundamental limitation as the terrestrial meteorologists had—by far the majority of our observing assets are tied to the Sun-Earth line—our planet’s “local time” with respect to the Sun. This perspective intrinsically limits our ability to “see what is coming around the solar limb” far less to gain any insight into the global patterns of solar weather and how they guide weather throughout the heliosphere. An L5 mission alone is only incremental.
How? We propose a concept—the Heliospheric Meteorology Mission (HMM)—to sample the complete magnetic and thermodynamic state of the heliosphere inside 1AU using a distributed network of deep space hardened smallsats that encompass the Sun. The observations and in situ plasma measurements made by the fleet of HMM smallsats would be collected and assimilated into current operational space weather models. Further, the HMM measurements would also being used in an nationally coordinated research effort—at the frontier of understanding the coupled heliospheric system—as a means to develop the next generation models required to provide seamless prediction for the geospace environment to protect vital infrastructure and human/ robotic explorers throughout the solar system. The HMM mission concept naturally allows for research-motivated technology development that can improve forecast skill.HMM is doable with present technology. Such a mission—in whatever guise or formulation, not necessarily ours presented here—to observe the entire Sun all of the time, is critical in terms of scientific understanding of our star and for the operational need to protect our technologically advancing society.
A Heliospheric Monitoring Mission really is the $200 mission for Heliophysics in (by) 2050. As in, “Go to HMM. Go directly, do not pass ‘Go’, do not collect $200.”.

Lugaz N.   Al-Haddad N.   Palmerio E.   Török T.   Farrugia C. J.   Jian L. K.   Lynch B. J.   Winslow R.   Manchester W. B.   Hess P.   Nieves-Chinchilla T.   Vourlidas A.

The Importance of Fundamental Research on the Coronal and Heliospheric Evolution of Coronal Mass Ejections [#2056]
Coronal mass ejections (CMEs) are a cornerstone of Heliophysics research. They are subjects of intense investigation both in the solar and heliospheric domains, where they constitute the most energetic objects, and in solar wind-magnetosphere coupling, since CMEs subject the magnetosphere to extreme and sustained forcing of the magnetosphere. Fundamental research on CMEs involves their initiation mechanisms at the Sun and the physical processes by which they couple massive amounts of energy and momentum to magnetospheres and influence various regions of the magnetosphere-ionosphere-thermosphere (MIT) system. The 2012 Heliophysics Decadal Survey discusses CME research associated with their solar origin (SHP3a), their coupling with the MIT system (Key Science Goal –KSG– 2), and space weather research (KSG 1). Of particular significance, KSG 4 is related to fundamental processes, but neither the evolution of low-beta plasmas typical of CMEs nor the plasma-plasma interaction process, which is central to the formation of CME sheaths, are mentioned as such fundamental processes. This gap has had significant implications to the field of CME research in the past decade, where all investigations of CMEs beyond their initiation are required to loop back to space weather issues. It is not clear what distinguishes CMEs from flares or SEPs in this respect, yet the latter two are listed as topics where fundamental research is required. It is essential to develop a program for fundamental research on the coronal and interplanetary evolution of CMEs, independent of their space weather impact. While the ability to approximately forecast the arrival time and speed of CMEs in operational settings is a major achievement, there are numerous physical phenomena that operational codes do not capture:  the CME magnetic field, CME expansion, the turbulent nature of the sheath, substructures within CMEs, etc. The focus on understanding and forecasting the geo-effects of CMEs must be grounded in fundamental research. Such research should draw on investigations focusing on data analysis, theory, numerical simulations, and code and model development, but also on missions and instruments, especially in the Explorer and SmallSat categories. Without such fundamental research on the coronal and heliospheric evolution of CMEs, we run the danger that, in 2050, we will still be relying on overly limited models that are based on oversimplified approximations.

Mason E. I.   Higginson A.   Weberg M.   Rivera Y. J.   Spitzer S. A.   Alterman B. L.

The Need for Consistent, Comprehensive Inner Heliosphere Data [#2011]
The main science goal presented here is the capability to reliably track individual packets of solar wind from the low corona to 1 AU by 2050. This capability is essential for understanding how the Sun generates and accelerates the solar wind, and how the solar wind impacts the Earth. Better tracing of solar wind is primarily a logistical matter of providing coverage to best leverage our current capabilities, rather than a challenge necessitating fundamental innovations in theory or technology. By utilizing current technologies with high TRL (satellite constellations and photon sieves), we can produce powerful new science results. Reliable plasma parcel tracing capability is the means by which the field will achieve further vital advances in solar theory, solar wind modeling, and space weather forecasting. In order to accomplish this goal, we need reliable, high-resolution data measuring solar wind plasma magnetic fields, composition, particle density, and velocities. These measurements need to have a cadence on the scale of minutes or better, spaced at regular intervals encircling the entire Sun, and at regular distances covering out to at least 1 AU. The context provided by universal coverage is critical for researchers to extract the maximum physical insight from unreplicable observations such as those from Parker Solar Probe and Solar Orbiter, where the data results are a relatively small set of very high-quality measurements. In accordance with our plan, by 2030 there should be data access to the intermediate Sun-Earth line via an in situ mission located at L4 or L5, with plans being implemented to expand analogous coverage around the Sun using a “string of pearls” satellite constellation with an orbit of roughly 0.5 AU. A constellation of small craft spectrometers or photon sieves should be planned for 360-degree in-plane solar coverage by 2035. From this enhanced coverage, it will be possible to trace individual packets of solar wind with a high level of confidence from the corona to 1 AU, placing vital science results within reach for the first time.

Mason J. P.   Chamberlin P. C.   Woods T. N.   Jones A.   Veronig A. M.   Dissauer K.   Kirk M.

CME Acceleration as a Probe of the Coronal Magnetic Field [#2003]
Current state in 2020/2021:  It is well established that the coronal magnetic field is the proximate cause of solar eruptive events. We have numerous instruments that observe the plasma emission where the magnetic field strengthens into loops (e.g., EUV and X-ray imagers). We also have numerous models describing the coronal magnetic field to varying levels of fidelity (e.g., PFSS, NLFF, MHD). However, there are not many observations in the “middle corona” (here defined ~1.5–5 Rs), which means a lack of strong constraints for those modeled field topologies and dynamics. This is precisely the region where CMEs experience the bulk of their acceleration, and their kinematic profiles are directly influenced by the background magnetic field they pass through.

The desired state by 2050:  CME models accurately describe — and ideally predict — observed solar eruptions and the propagation of CMEs through the corona. This state implies that we will have obtained a deep understanding of the coronal magnetic field.

The journey:  We must address known unknowns and be prepared for unknown unknowns.

Known unknowns:  Expand observational regimes, e.g., direct coronal magnetic field observations, multiple observational angles to observe the sun as a 3D object, observe the middle corona. Also improve upon existing CME models, e.g., more complete treatment of fundamental plasma processes, incorporation of new observational constraints, linking magnetic field lines from photosphere to source surface, and achieving consistency among multiple model runs in solar max regime.

Preparation for unknown unknowns:  Expand the community, e.g., collaborate with astronomers on sun-like star observations. Also make powerful tools easy to use and big data easy to access and manipulate for non-experts in heliophysics or in computer science, e.g., machine learning.

Newmark J.   Hassler D.   Gibson S.   Vial N.   Hoeksema T.   Vourlidas A.

Solar Heliosphere Constellation [#2031]
Our current understanding of the Sun, its atmosphere, and how it creates the heliosphere is severely limited by the lack of nearly ANY observations of the polar regions. Opportunities for discoveries abound for spacecraft out of the ecliptic plane, as new vantage points inevitably lead to discoveries and insight. Multiple fundamental problems will be addressed, including the solar dynamo, the origins of coronal mass ejections, the polar magnetic fields, and the formation of the solar wind. Establishing 4π coverage of the Sun and inner heliosphere is the obvious next step for full understanding of the global, time-dependent heliosphere. Only high latitude (>55°) and full 360° longitude observations can lead to fundamental, PSP-grade, leaps in Heliophysics and Space Weather understanding. Long duration, high latitude, near-continuous observations are required to extract information about the (deep-seated) flows in the vicinity of 55° (or above). Long orbital periods are required to keep relevant latitudes in the field of view as continuously as possible.
In addition to the discoveries expected with a polar view of the Sun, improving space-weather forecasts requires observations from off the Sun-Earth line and in particular, observations from the solar poles. The longitudinal “sunny-side-up” coverage from a spacecraft positioned near the solar rotation axis is particularly useful, uniquely providing space weather monitoring for all the planets and spacecraft in the inner heliosphere, not just the Earth-Moon system and L1. This will become increasingly important as human exploration takes us out into the heliosphere.
These science questions and space weather requirements lend themselves naturally to a disaggregated constellation, meaning one made of various differing Observatory concepts. We present 3 case studies, Solaris, Solar Polar Explorer (SOLPEX), and Inner Heliosphere Sentinels (IHS) that demonstrate this. The Solaris mission, currently undergoing Phase A study, will be a pathfinder for discovery, imaging the Sun’s poles from heliolatitudes >70° for months at a time. SOLPEX is similar in mission design to Solaris, but has a significantly larger instrument complement and adds solar electric propulsion to enable multiple passes over both solar poles. The IHS is a concept for a constellation of sub-L1 smallsats, using solar sails derived from the technology being developed for the Solar Cruiser mission, currently under development.

Oka M.   Glesener L.   Caspi A.   Narukage N.

Solar Flares as the Key Toward Understanding Particle Acceleration in the Plasma Universe [#2092]
Particles are accelerated to very high, non-thermal energies during explosive energy-release phenomena in space, solar, and astrophysical plasma environments (or the Plasma Universe). However, how particles are accelerated in these plasma environments remains unclear. In this regard, solar remote-sensing observation is special in a sense that, unlike in-situ measurements of Earth’s magnetosphere, it provides large-scale contexts of particle acceleration through imaging, and yet it still resolves their spatial and temporal structures in much more detail than flux-limited observations of distant astrophysical objects. The possible structures that need to be resolved to understand the context of particle acceleration includes, but not limited to, shocks, waves/turbulence, plasmoids, jets, current sheets, and collapsing loops. In fact, a variety of different theories of flare particle acceleration has been proposed using one or more of these structures. However, previous observations have been unable to constrain the model due partly to insufficient measurement in soft X-rays (SXR) which is suitable for diagnosing (super) hot plasma and hence the context of particle acceleration. In general, soft X-ray (or bremsstrahlung continuum) photons are emitted directly and instantly from energized electrons interacting with (or deflected by) ions, with no non-equilibrium delay. With imaging-spectroscopy in both soft and hard X-rays, the transition from thermal to non-thermal energy ranges will be covered seamlessly. In fact, such a measurement is under development in future mission concepts such as PhoENiX and CubIXSS. In this presentation, we argue that future studies of solar flare particle acceleration with imaging-spectroscopy in soft and hard X-rays would facilitate comparative studies of particle acceleration in various plasma environments and exploration of possible scaling-laws as well as their universality.

Parker L. N.   Minow J. I.   Pulkkinen A.   St.Cyr O. C.   Jun I.   Semones E.   Onsager T.   Hock R.   Mertens C.   Allen J.   Fry D.

Space Weather Architectures for NASA Missions [#2017]
Since the final human Moon landing in 1972, all human space exploration has taken place in low-inclination low Earth orbit (LEO), where the Earth’s magnetosphere provides relative protection from harmful space radiation. In the near future, as humans return to the Moon, existing scientific and operational ground- and space-based assets should provide sufficient warning of sporadic eruptions from the Sun. Journeys beyond cislunar space, however, will require new monitoring infrastructure and operational procedures to protect astronauts from space radiation hazards. Therefore, infrastructure supporting cislunar space operations can serve as a testbed for these future needs.
A NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) assessment team evaluated the required minimum latency for data streams and forecasts that will directly affect mission operations using the European Space Agency’s Solar Energetic Particle (SEP) Environment Modeling RSDv2.0 41-year database of SEP events. The database contained 192 SEP events that resulted in a dose increase above background levels. Of those, 10% were “multiple events,” or events that occurred in quick succession. The analysis provides probabilistic values for time to peak flux and dose rate for the duration of each event. This NESC assessment also evaluated the SEP threshold levels for exploration missions to determine the relevant energy range of required proton measurements. Accurate modeling and prediction of SEPs is a major challenge, and the performance of available models leaves room for improvement. However, promising paths for predictive SEP modeling have been identified and are actively being explored by the space weather community.
Operational timeline requirements were developed to ensure general mission planning and situational awareness for lunar and Mars missions. Various architectures were developed for lunar and Mars missions, providing different cost categories in the form of instrument packages of increasing ability (i.e., baseline, enhanced, and comprehensive). Finally, the assessment provides a research and development strategy to bridge the time from successful lunar missions to Mars missions. We will provide an overview of the analysis and recommendations for future NASA space weather architectures.

Peretz E. P.   John Mather J. M.   Douglas Rabin D. R.   Jeff Kuhn J. K.   Thomas Rimmele T. R.   Dirk Schmidt D. S.

Observing Coronal Microscales from the Ground Using an Orbiting Artificial Guide Star and Adaptive Optics [#2049]
Why the Sun has a tenuous upper atmosphere some 1000 times hotter than the photosphere is a fundamental open problem in space plasma physics despite decades of study. Observations by soft x-ray (SXR) and extreme ultraviolet (EUV) imagers have provided important clues regarding the nature of the heating, but the structure of the heated regions remains cloaked, and the heating mechanisms remain unknown. The primary hypothesis is that, in most of the corona, heating is confined to narrow current sheets in which energy is dissipated despite the low large-scale resistivity of the coronal plasma. The characteristic scale of these current sheets is estimated to be on the order of 100 km (0.14 arcsec) or smaller.

High-temperature (> 5 MK) coronal plasma can only be isolated with space-based SXR and EUV instruments, but coronal electron density and 1–2 MK plasma can be studied from the ground with high angular resolution using a coronagraphic telescope equipped with adaptive optics. The corona is much fainter than the daytime sky and cannot be used as the target of a conventional solar adaptive optics system. Only one bright (first magnitude) star comes marginally near enough to the Sun, one day a year. Artificial guide stars created by ground-based lasers do not work well at visible wavelengths. A hybrid ground- and space-based solution is found in the proposed ORCAS (Orbiting Configurable Artificial Star) mission concept. ORCAS could provide a magnitude zero (or brighter) artificial star (laser beacon) superposed on the low solar corona (<2 Rsun) for an hour or more every 3-5 days during an observing campaign. The adaptive optics system of the 4-m Daniel K. Inouye Solar Telescope (DKIST) is capable of tracking this beacon and acquiring nearly diffraction-limited images with a resolution of approximately 0.04 arcsec in the white-light (electron scattering) corona or the 2 MK emission line of Fe XIV.

In the baseline mission concept, the ESPA-Grande class ORCAS satellite is stationed in a highly elliptical Earth orbit, which can be chosen to provide a desired angular velocity relative to the Sun or to passively keep a specified solar location within the isoplanatic patch for up to 3 hours at the location of DKIST. Alternatively, a laser beacon orbiting the Sun-Earth L1 Lagrange point could support a continuous observation throughout the life of the satellite but would require a higher laser power or better beam focusing.

Plowman J. E.

Implications of a New Capability for 3D Coronal Reconstruction from a Single Perspective Snapshot [#2141]
I demonstrate how a three-dimensional picture of coronal plasma structures can be constructed using a photospheric magnetogram and optically thin EUV observations, even with a single perspective snapshot. Moreover, I argue that the residuals from this picture can then be used to determine the coronal magnetic field. In addition to representing a viable way forward in tackling this critical data analysis problem, this new technique allows benchmarking which observables are necessary to obtain the 3-dimensional picture, and allows us to obtain more from the same data. E.g., rather than needing an entire constellation of spacecraft filling the ecliptic (or above), the results suggest we only need a handful (with some useful results possible with just one perspective). They also indicate essential capabilities for this task, namely photospheric magnetography and optically thin coronal observations with broad temperature coverage (roughly 0.3 to 10 MK). This can be accomplished with 4 to 6 EUV channels (similar to AIA), but might also be accomplished with a pair of soft X-Ray channels — the soft X-ray temperature response functions are naturally suited to the analysis.

Posner A.   Arge C. N.   Staub J.   StCyr O. C.   Folta D.   Solanki S. K.   Strauss R. D. T.   Effenberger F.   Gandorfer A.   Heber B.   Henney C. J.   Hirzberger J.   Jones S. I.   Kuehl P.   Malandraki O.

A Multi-Purpose Heliophysics L4 Mission [#2023]
The solar radiation hemisphere (SRH), which coincides with the hemisphere in view from L4, is the source of all potentially hazardous solar energetic particle events at Earth. L4 and existing assets at Earth would establish continuous, detailed surveillance of active regions of 2/3 of a solar rotation. L1/L4 combined assets would provide for the reduction of ambiguity in the observation of solar magnetic fields through Zeeman polarimetry. Two magnetographs when placed 60° apart would resolve the inherent ambiguity in azimuthal magnetic field components applying to quiet background fields, but also to active regions that rotate into the solar radiation hemisphere. The added knowledge of vector magnetic fields combined with growing machine learning and AI technology could lead to breakthroughs in solar activity forecasting and understanding. Mars explorers on their journeys to and from Mars, would be particularly vulnerable to SEPs. On fast journeys to Mars, which would reduce exposure to cosmic rays considerably, explorers would be magnetically connected to regions behind the solar W limb as viewed from Earth, but well within view from L4. This along with the expanded longitude coverage that L4 provides for solar observations during astronauts’ stay at Mars, would make an L4 mission a vital part of human Mars exploration plans in the 2030s and beyond. L4, L1 and L5 observations would boost scientific understanding of inner-heliosphere solar wind structure, vital for our ability to predict the most severe geomagnetic storms at Earth. At current, coronal and solar wind models use diachronic maps, i.e. not all regions of the Sun are observed simultaneously but recorded over time. L4 and L5 missions would reduce the wait time for a complete map to ~12 days, drastically improving inner heliosphere solar wind modeling. Flux emergence could be constrained further, even on the Sun’s far side, through helioseismic holography. Moreover, L4 offers another platform for viewing the entire Sun-Earth line with coronographic and heliospheric imaging technology, but well out of the way of the associated SEPs that are associated with the Earth-directed CME. Inclined L4 and L5 orbits would ideally cover solar poles and low-latitude solar wind structure, further enabling modeling and model verification of inner-heliosphere solar wind structure, and laying the groundwork for a space weather architecture in the 2050s.

Prete G.   Perri S.   Zimbardo G.

Energetic Particle Fluxes at Heliospheric Shocks:  Evidence of Superdiffusion and Comparison Between Analytical and Numerical Modeling [#2102]
Energetic particle fluxes measured by spacecraft in the heliosphere are frequently observed to peak during interplanetary shock crossings, suggesting the shock to be the source of acceleration. Energetic particle transport properties can affect the shape of energetic particle fluxes, in both sides of the shock region. In this study, we make a comparison among some shock crossings observed by the ACE spacecraft, and the energetic particle fluxes derived by a test-particle numerical model in the vicinity of a planar shock. We find that observations are in good agreement with a particle density profile obtained in the simulation by assuming superdiffusive transport both upstream and downstream of the shock region.

Rabin D. M.   Daw A. N.   Denis K. L.   Klimchuk J. A.   Kamalabadi F.   Schmit D. J.   Golub L.   Novo-Gradac A.-M.

Probing Corona Microscales [#2047]
After decades of study, we still don’t know why the Sun has a tenuous upper atmosphere some 100-1000 times hotter than the photosphere. Soft x-ray (SXR) and extreme ultraviolet (EUV) imaging and spectroscopy have provided important clues to the nature of the heating, particularly in magnetically closed regions, but the spatial structure of the heated regions and the interplay between magnetic reconnection and wave heating are largely unknown. The leading hypothesis is that heating is confined to narrow layers or small regions in which energy can dissipate despite the low resistivity and viscosity of most of the coronal plasma. The characteristic scale of these structures is typically estimated to be <~100 km (0.14 arcsec). The overarching scientific goal of studying coronal microscales over the next three decades should be a quantitative understanding of the structure and mechanisms of coronal heating on the physical scales predicted by contemporary (and evolving) theories. Quantitative understanding will entail comparing observations of unprecedented angular resolution with numerical simulations that have enough physical realism and few enough free parameters that some models can be ruled out for a specific set of observations, and at least one model agrees well. A major advance in angular resolution over a range of temperatures will undoubtedly require and stimulate new theory and more powerful simulation.
At least three observational approaches to probing coronal microscales merit discussion and development. All approaches require a long effective focal length to produce a large image scale.
(1) Diffractive optics are thin, light, flat, and obtain nearly diffraction-limited EUV/SXR images with greatly relaxed surface accuracy compared to mirror optics. Their intrinsically long focal lengths at short wavelengths require a distributed formation-flying telescope. A two-CubeSat EUV telescope using a photon sieve is expected to be demonstrated by 2024.
(2) Because of recent advances in figuring and polishing aspheric mirrors to sub-nanometer accuracy and smoothness, an all-reflecting, diffraction-limited EUV telescope accommodated on a single spacecraft is likely feasible now or in the near future.
(3) A laser beacon carried on a small satellite can provide an artificial guide star that could be used by large ground-based telescopes in conjunction with adaptive optics to obtain nearly diffraction-limited images at visible/near-infrared wavelengths.

Reardon K.   Cauzzi G.   Rimmele T.   Schad T.   Tarr L.   Tremblay B.   Rast M.

Revealing Fundamental Physics of the Sun with DKIST [#2128]
The Sun’s atmosphere represents a unique testbed for deciphering fundamental plasma processes in regimes not accessible by laboratory experiments, as well as a resolvable template relevant to a range of astrophysical phenomena. Our understanding of this system depends on an integrative, data-driven approach that necessarily intertwines the interpretive power of state-of-the-art numerical simulations and the physical touchstone of cutting-edge, highly-resolved solar observations. The desired goal is a deep knowledge of how the solar atmosphere behaves across a range of temporal and spatial scales, and the ability to make projections about its dynamic behavior. From a broader perspective, this knowledge will inform on very general phenomena such as magnetic reconnection, shocks, turbulence, multi-species plasmas, and, crucially, their interconnections.
The 4-meter-diameter Daniel K. Inouye Solar Telescope (DKIST; Rimmele et al., 2020), funded by the National Science Foundation (NSF), will play a fundamental role in these efforts. It has been designed to provide information on crucial, and yet poorly known, physical properties of the solar atmosphere such as the chromospheric and coronal magnetic fields. DKIST’s early science goals, summarized in the Critical Science Plan [Rast et al., 2020], are rich and far reaching, with significant discovery science. Planned to be a responsive facility during its lifetime, DKIST will evolve as scientific questions and available technologies advance. It is anticipated to remain at the forefront of ground-based observational solar physics for the next three decades? and will be essential to achieving a comprehensive view of the solar atmosphere. It will also be an integral partner with space-based missions in multi-messenger heliophysics, enabling a holistic understanding of the heliosphere [Martinez Pillet et al., 2020].

Rivera Y. J.   Higginson A.   Lepri S. T.   Viall N.   Alterman B. L.   Landi E.   Spitzer S. A.   Raines J. M.   Cranmer S. R.

Connecting Heliospheric Phenomena with Their Solar Source Through Multi-Point Compositional Measurements [#2159]
Spacecraft have long measured solar plasma on a multitude of spatial and temporal scales at several locations around our solar system, both remotely and in situ. Yet, we still lack a fundamental understanding of how energy and mass is transferred between the Sun and interplanetary space, because it is not currently possible to track plasma from the Sun’s chromosphere through the corona into the heliosphere. Our understanding of the physics that drives the release, heating, and acceleration of the solar wind and transients is still incomplete. These parameters are crucial to understanding the Sun and its impact on Earth and the rest of the heliosphere. To fully address these questions, it is critical that we understand the evolution of the plasma as it leaves the Sun and fills the heliosphere. As such, we must meaningfully and quantifiably connect and compare remote and in situ plasma measurements.
It is well known that elemental and ion composition hold important clues for linking the solar-heliospheric environment, as well as for deciphering the energization of the solar wind. This is due to the wealth of information that charge states can provide about the origin and thermodynamic evolution of the plasma. In addition, the kinetic properties of heavy ions can provide a unique window to non-thermal signatures imprinted by heating and acceleration mechanism(s) in their velocity distribution functions from in situ measurements and spectral profiles of plasma lifting off from the Sun. Combined, ion and elemental composition can trace individual solar wind parcels to specific source regions, and provide insight to the global picture of solar wind release, heating, and acceleration.
Current missions target measurements of young solar wind but, generally, in situ and remote instruments are not integrated in a manner that provides the continuous multi-point ion measurements necessary to fully address these questions by coupling in situ and remote observations. This poster discusses two overarching goals for effectively bridging solar-heliospheric phenomena by 2050:  (1) continuous 4π Sun coverage of compositional measurements in situ and remotely, and (2) the development of cohesively designed and improved alignment of compositional properties observed with both in situ and remote observation instruments. Goal (1) allows us to trace the evolution of plasma between the Sun and heliosphere. Goal (2) will drive the design of instruments necessary to meaningful compare composition throughout the solar wind evolution. Through this global solar view, we can build a more comprehensive description of the solar wind and transients, and potentially solve some of the largest open questions in heliophysics.

Ryan J. M.   de Nolfo G. A.   MacKinnon A.   McConnell M. L.   Murphy R.   Vilmer N.   Young C. A.

High-Energy Neutrons in the Heliosphere [#2162]
We outline the value of performing low background, spectroscopic measurements of fast neutrons to advance the science of solar energetic particles, the inner radiation belt proton budget, and lunar and planetary regolith composition. With the existing rarity of such measurements, breakthroughs are likely in understanding Long Duration Gamma Ray Flares, accelerated solar proton spectra, time-resolved proton injection into the inner belts, and average Z measurements of lunar planetary surfaces.

Samra J.   Cheimets P.   DeLuca E.   Del Zanna G.   Golub L.   Judge P.   Kramar M.   Lin H.   Madsen C.   Marquez V.   Testa P.   Tomczyk S.

A Balloon-Borne Infrared Coronagraph and Spectropolarimeter for Magnetic Field Measurements of the Solar Corona [#2115]
We present a balloon-borne infrared coronagraph and spectropolarimeter for long-duration measurements of coronal plasma and magnetic fields. The Coronal Spectropolarimeter for Airborne Infrared Research (CORSAIR, selected Feb. 2021), will yield major advances in our understanding of the inner corona while serving as a prototype for future space instrumentation. CORSAIR will observe five emission lines at 1.1, 1.4, and 3.9 μm, including a density-sensitive Fe XIII line pair, a temperature-sensitive Si IX/X line pair, and a He I line for probing cooler plasma. The instrument will measure the corona’s full polarization state integrated along the line of sight (LOS), providing estimates of LOS magnetic field strength, plane-of-sky (POS) field direction, and plasma thermodynamics under the assumption that emission is restricted to the POS. During a future long-duration observation, tomographic inversions will yield the three-dimensional vector magnetic field as well as plasma temperature and density. Our primary science goals explore the transition of coronal structures between closed and open field and the role of waves and flows in transporting mass and energy in coronal magnetic fields.
CORSAIR is a coronagraph, polarimeter, and grating spectrometer that provides two-dimensional spectropolarimetric imaging up to one solar radius from the limb. The spectrometer includes up to 128 slits, which enable the spectral dimension and the 1x1 degree spatial field of view to be acquired simultaneously. By operating in multiple orders, the polarimeter and spectrometer measure each of the five emission lines with similar sensitivity and resolution. CORSAIR will be developed by Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory in collaboration with the NCAR High Altitude Observatory and the University of Hawaii Institute for Astronomy. A one-day commissioning flight in September 2024 will be followed by a long-duration Antarctic flight in late 2026 or 2027.

The storage of magnetic free energy in coronal structures has been recognized for decades, and the build-up of energy over long time scales and its rapid release in the form of flares and CMEs are defining characteristics of activity on the sun and sun-like stars. The prospect of following the global coronal magnetic field evolution continuously over time scales from tens of hours to weeks holds great promise for advancing our understanding of coronal energy storage and the onset of instabilities that result in energy release.

Seaton D. B.   West M. J.   Alzate N.   Caspi A.   DeForest C. E.   Gilly C.   Golub L.   Higginson A. K.   Kooi J. E.   Mason J. P.   Rachmeler L. A.   Reeves K. K.   Savage S.   Viall N. M.   Wexler D. B.

A Strategy for a Coherent and Comprehensive Basis for Understanding the Middle Corona [#2069]
The Middle Corona – the region between typical active region loop tops and the apex of dynamic streamer cusps, extending roughly from 1.5 to 6 solar radii – encompasses nearly all physical transitions and processes that govern the behavior of coronal outflow, both steady and in transient events. Importantly, it also modulates inflow from above that can drive dynamic changes at low heights, and is the location of many disconnection events that contribute to the solar dynamically-open flux budget. Consequently, this region is essential for understanding the physics of the corona, the heliosphere, and the eruptions that propagate through them. Because it is challenging to observe, the middle corona has been somewhat overlooked by major solar missions and instruments going back to the SOHO era. To address this discrepancy, a strategy of well-coordinated instrumentation is required to produce continuous and overlapping coverage of the whole corona over the full range of observational regimes (e.g. X-Ray, EUV, Visible, IR, etc.) needed for global models and studies that can characterize, interpret, and ultimately understand the physical processes that govern this region. Additionally, radio remote sensing techniques, such as Faraday rotation, measurements of gyrosynchroton emission, etc., can probe magnetic field intensities and electron densities, presenting significant opportunities if synchronized with imaging observations, models, and new instrumentation investments. Moreover, multi-perspective observations are required to determine the three-dimensional structure of the complex interfaces between the low corona and outer corona/heliosphere that bound this region. Relating three-dimensional structure and magnetic field observations to global coronal models is essential for understanding this system as a whole, so obtaining the 360°/4π views of the photospheric magnetic field, which these models require as a boundary condition, is a critical need. Here, we discuss the need for strategic planning for continuous, coherent, and comprehensive observations of the middle corona and outline a plan to achieve such observations in the coming decades.

Shih A. Y.   Glesener L.   Krucker S.   Guidoni S.   Christe S.   Reeves K.   Gburek S.   Caspi A.   Alaoui M.   Allred J.   Battaglia M.   Baumgartner W.   Dennis B.   Drake J.   Goetz K.   Golub L.   Hannah I.   Hayes L.   Holman G.   Inglis A.   Ireland J.   Kerr G.   Klimchuk J.   McKenzie D.   Moore C.   Musset S.   Reep J.   Ryan D.   Saint-Hilaire P.   Savage S.   Schwartz R.   Seaton D.   Stęśicki M.   Woods T.

Fundamentals of Impulsive Energy Release in the Corona [#2091]
Solar eruptive events are the most energetic and geo-effective space-weather drivers. Many of the processes involved in triggering, driving, and sustaining solar eruptive events — including magnetic reconnection, particle acceleration, plasma heating, and energy transport in magnetized plasmas — also play important roles in phenomena throughout the Universe. We discuss areas of science investigation that would significantly advance our understanding of these fundamental physical processes.

Shih A. Y.   Vilmer N.   MacKinnon A.   Pesce-Rollins M.   Vainio R.   Hudson H.   Simões P. J. A.   Cohen C. M. S.

Ion Acceleration in Solar Eruptive Events [#2090]
Observations of energetic ions in solar eruptive events — solar flares with associated CMEs — are critical to understanding the transient, efficient release of stored magnetic energy at the Sun. Solar flares are the most powerful explosions in the solar system, efficiently accelerating ions up to tens of GeV. CME-driven shocks also accelerate ions to extreme energies in SEP events. Observing ion signatures is necessary to answer open questions regarding ion acceleration and transport.

Sorriso-Valvo L.   Carbone V.   Khotyaintsev Yu. V.   Steinvall K.   Telloni D.   Yordanova E.

Statistical Study of Electron Density Turbulence and Ion-Cyclotron Waves in the Inner Heliosphere:  Solar Orbiter Observations [#2099]
The recently released spacecraft potential measured by the RPW instrument on-board Solar Orbiter has been used to estimate the solar wind electron density in the inner heliosphere.
Solar-wind electron density measured during June 2020 has been analyzed to obtain a thorough characterization of the turbulence and intermittency properties of the fluctuations. Magnetic field data have been used to describe the presence of ion-scale waves.
Selected intervals have been extracted to study and quantify the properties of turbulence. The Empirical Mode Decomposition has been used to obtain the generalized marginal Hilbert spectrum, equivalent to the structure functions analysis, and additionally reducing issues typical of non-stationary, short time series. The presence of waves was quantitatively determined introducing a parameter describing the time-dependent, frequency-filtered wave power.
A well defined inertial range with power-law scaling has been found almost everywhere. However, the Kolmogorov scaling and the typical intermittency effects are only present in part of the samples. Other intervals have shallower spectra and more irregular intermittency, not described by models of turbulence. These are observed predominantly during intervals of enhanced ion frequency wave activity. Comparisons with compressible magnetic field intermittency (from the MAG instrument) and with an estimate of the solar wind velocity (using electric and magnetic field) are also provided to give general context and help determine the cause for the anomalous fluctuations.

Sterling A. C.   Moore R. L.   Panesar N. K.   Samanta T.

Solar Coronal Jet Studies as an Example that Motivates Future High-Resolution Solar Investigations [#2163]
Many of the key advances in solar science over the previous fifty years have been strongly influenced by imaging with increasing resolution and cadence of the Sun’s atmosphere from space. There is still much room for further advances in this area in the coming decades. Here we demonstrate this need using as an example recent past advances of the features known as solar coronal jets. Over the last few decades jet studies have progressed substantially, and much of this is due to improved resolution and cadence in imaging, along with concurrent magnetic field and spectroscopic studies. We now understand that the jets apparently are caused by solar eruptions of a smaller scale than, but otherwise essentially identical to, those that make solar flares and CMEs. Thus the high-resolution studies of coronal jets potentially informs us on how the larger eruptions work.  In addition, coronal jets in the feet of open magnetic field might inject magnetic twist pulses that become the switchbacks discovered by the Parker Solar Probe in the magnetic field in the inner solar wind. Future higher-resolution, higher-cadence studies of solar features and events, at a variety of wavelengths, along with magnetic field information (such as magnetograms) of comparable resolution and cadence, will, for the foreseeable future, advance our understanding of the preparation and production of solar eruptions of all sizes, their role in heating the chromosphere and corona, and how they drive, perturb, and disrupt the solar wind.

Swisdak M.   Antiochos S.   Qiu J.   Glesener L.   Dahlin J.   Klimchuk J.   SolFER Collaboration

Solar Flare Onset and Dynamics [#2110]
The mechanism(s) responsible for the explosive release of magnetic energy in X-class flares and fast CMEs occupy a central role in heliophysics. Especially challenging to our understanding is the amazing rate of energy release, over 1032 ergs on time scales of minutes. Not only are flares/CMEs the primary drivers of the most destructive space weather, but they also offer an opportunity to study fundamental processes such as MHD instabilities, magnetic reconnection, particle acceleration, and shock formation that lie at the heart of explosive activity throughout the cosmos.
In recent decades major progress on this problem has come from the synthesis of space observations, advances in basic theory, and breakthroughs in numerical modeling. It is now accepted that the free energy is stored in a filament channel overlying a polarity inversion line, while the possible mechanisms for creating these structures has been narrowed to three:  flux emergence, flux cancellation, and helicity condensation/shear flows. Furthermore, the disruption of the pre-flare equilibrium and initiation of the energy release occurs in one of two ways: through ideal instabilities, such as kink or torus, or reconnection instabilities, such as breakout or tether-cutting. Irrespective of the mechanism, observations and theory/modeling have clearly established that flare reconnection is the dominant energy release process, although important questions remain regarding its rate and dynamics.
In coming decades NASA Heliophysics must not merely determine which of these mechanisms dominates, but must also achieve a sufficiently deep understanding that accurate first-principles-based predictions of flares and their space weather impact become possible. There are three hurdles to attaining this grand challenge goal. First, we need new high-resolution observations of the energy release process. New instruments and missions should be able to deliver these observations. Second, we must develop new insights into the MHD-kinetic-scale coupling at the heart of reconnection and the flare phenomenon. Finally, we must develop numerical models of the full 3D energy buildup and release process to achieve closure with the new observations.
In this iPoster we present the latest advances on the latter two issues from the NASA DRIVE science center on Solar Flare Energy Release (SolFER) that has brought together theorists, modelers, and observers to attack these challenges.

Szabo A.   Bale S.   Kasper J. C.   Ho G.   Raouafi N. E.

Inner Heliospheric Flotilla [#2029]
A nine spacecraft, inner heliospheric mission concept is presented to address the following outstanding science objectives:  1: Determine the internal topology and evolution of ICMEs as to travel from the Sun to 1 AU; 2: Determine the longitudinal extent and diffusion of energetic particle particle beams; 3: Determine the global structure of the inner heliosphere as a function of solar drivers. In addition, this mission could provide 1–2 day forecasts of solar transients at Earth or at any other location in the ecliptic. All small spacecraft would carry fields and particles in-situ instrumentation and one of three solar remote sensing telescopes (EUV imager, coronagraph, and magnetograph). In their 0.5 x 0.76 AU orbits, the nine spacecraft will change their configuration from tight formations for ICME and transient studies to fully distributed around the Sun to study the global structure of the heliosphere. A single launch vehicle could deliver all nine spacecraft to their orbits.

Tiwari S. K.   Thalmann J. K.   Panesar N. K.   Evans C. L.   Prasad A.   Moore R. L.   Winebarger A. R.   DeRosa M. L.

Dependence of the Heating in Active Region Coronal Loops on Magnetic Conditions at the Loop Feet in the Photosphere [#2074]
Using SDO/AIA and SDO/HMI data and coronal magnetic field modeling of solar active regions (ARs), we find that freedom of convection and strength of magnetic field in the photospheric feet of AR coronal loops, together, can engender or quench heating in them. From EUV observations and non-linear force-free field modelling it is shown that the hottest loops of ARs are the ones connecting sunspot umbra/penumbra at one end to (a) penumbra, (b) unipolar plage, or (c) mixed-polarity plage on the other end. The loops connecting dark sunspot umbra at both ends are not visible in EUV images - thus, these loops are the coolest loops. Some recent investigations stress more on the loop-foot mixed-polarity (above-mentioned connectivity ‘c’), suggesting that flux cancellation might be the dominant mechanism in heating chromospheric and coronal loops, as well as in driving fine-scale explosive events, e.g., seen by Hi-C 2.1. In this presentation, we will show some latest results and challenges posed to understanding the dependence of heating in AR coronal loops on the distribution and evolution (including cancellation) of magnetic flux at the loop feet. Further, to address the challenges posed, we will argue for the need of much higher spatial and spectral resolution magnetograms than SDO/HMI, of a large field of view (e.g., for following both ends of AR loops for hours to days), preferably full-disk Sun. Continuous Hi-C like observations of finely-structured corona in EUV, together with super-HMI-like magnetograms (with a spatial resolution of Hinode/ SOT-SP or better), will also help understanding the fine-scale explosions reported from using 5-minute observations of Hi-C 2.1.

Velli M.   Panasenco O.   Artemyev A.   Runov A.   Tripathi S.   Lin Y.   Nishimura T.   Riley P.   Egedal J.   Abbett W.   Lynch B.   Tenerani A.   Gonzales C.   Downs C.   Titov S.   Shi C.   Sioulas N.   Lu S.   Reville V.   Innocenti M. E.   Zimovets I.   McAteer J.

HERMES:  HEliospheRic Magnetic Energy Storage and Conversion:  From the Solar Corona to Planetary Magnetospheres [#2148]
The HERMES (HeliospheRic Magnetic Energy Storage and conversion) DRIVE Science Center will provide a community framework for studying the basic mechanisms of energy storage and release in the natural plasmas of the heliosphere. In this poster we present HERMES research programs to understand magnetic energy storage and release in the solar corona and inner heliosphere, from coronal heating mechanisms, to filament channel development and destabilization, to the development of the heliospheric current sheet and the role of Alfvénic turbulence in the nascent solar wind. We will also describe how synergies and comparisons with energization at the Earth’s magnetosphere, via the solar wind-magnetosphere interactions, and phenomena such as flux transfer events, reconnection in the tail, turbulence and dipolarization fronts, as well as interactions with the ionosphere, will help to progress fundamental understanding of natural plasmas. In addition, plasma experiments to validate or disprove theories and models are planned within the Science Center environment. These advances will lead to a discussion of necessary future developments in solar atmospheric observations of the Sun, exploration of the in situ solar wind and the magnetospheres of other planets, as well as to discussions of the development of plasma modeling and novel numerical simulation experiments over the coming decades.
Acknowledgement:  This work was supported by the NASA HERMES DRIVE Science Center grant No. 80NSSC20K0604.

Wexler D. B.   Efimov A. I.   Jensen E. A.   Vierinen J.   Coster A.   Lukanina L.   Song P.

Solar Wind Acceleration Through the Middle Corona:  Spacecraft Radio Studies [#2055]
The designation “Middle Corona” is a presently an operational term that refers roughly to the region 1.5–6 solar radii (Rs, heliocentric) through which several important structural and dynamic changes occur in coronal streamer regions. Among these is a regime change from high density, closed magnetic field structures to open field structures of much lower electron concentration. Along with this complex restructuring, the forming slow solar wind is channeled and accelerated through the middle corona. Studied in trans-coronal radio sensing methods, solar wind outflow speeds can be estimated from observations of radio signal amplitude scintillations and by analysis of the frequency fluctuations (FF). Trans-coronal radio studies of the middle-corona, using observations from HELIOS (S-band), MESSENGER (X-band) and Akatsuki (X-band) spacecraft radio transmissions were undertaken. The radio FF analysis treats the frequency fluctuations as speed-dependent density inhomogeneities crossing the sensing line-of-sight (LOS). With suitable model parameters such as the correlation scale and the fractional amplitude of the density disturbances, the implied speeds can be calculated. We found that below 2 Rs, where the SW is beginning to form and outflow speed expected to be well below the acoustic wave speed, the radio FF could be attributed to the density oscillations of acoustic waves crossing the radio sensing path, such that the RMS fluctuation levels trended with the steep curve of modeled underlying plasma electron density. In contrast, with increasing helioaltitudes through the middle corona, the RMS FF radial dependence shifted to a mass flux power law, consistent with density disturbances advected across the sensing LOS. We determined a solar wind acceleration curve and compared this to other wind speed estimates from the literature. The solar wind coronal plasma is believed to enter the middle corona in a subsonic state, then accelerate to exit the zone generally with supersonic, but sub-Alfvenic flows. The estimated sonic point for the low-heliolatitude latitude corona was 4 Rs; the sonic speed transition may prove to be a robust feature of the middle corona.

Wilson L. B. III

Accurate Measurements of Thermal Velocity Distribution Functions in the Solar Wind [#2002]
The current state-of-the-art thermal particle measurements in the solar wind are insufficient to address many long-standing, fundamental physical processes. The solar wind is a weakly collisional ionized gas experiencing collective effects due to long-range electromagnetic forces. Unlike a collisionally mediated fluid-like Earth’s atmosphere, the solar wind is not in thermodynamic or thermal equilibrium. For that reason, the solar wind exhibits multiple particle populations for each particle species. We have already observed the electron populations of the core, halo, strahl, and superhalo. We have observed a proton core and secondary proton beam in addition to the alpha-particle beam of the solar wind ions. However, we have not been able to resolve each of these populations for subcomponents analogous to the electron populations due to instrumental limitations.  MMS has taught us that higher resolution measurements lead to paradigm-shifting results. This should not be surprising, but we will not be able to address the fundamental kinetic physics of the solar wind, collisionless shock waves, magnetic reconnection, wave-particle interactions, turbulence, etc. unless we can fully resolve the particle velocity distributions for both ions and electrons because each population responds differently to a common phenomena.

Winslow R.   Scolini C.

On the Importance of Investigating ICME Complexity Evolution During Propagation [#2072]
Interplanetary coronal mass ejections (ICMEs) are the main source of adverse space weather in the inner heliosphere. These large-scale transients, characterized by intense and highly-twisted magnetic field bundles, often drive fast-forward interplanetary shocks and turbulent sheaths, as well as contain prolonged periods of southward pointing magnetic field. The interaction of ICMEs with other interplanetary structures, including the heliospheric current sheet, solar wind streams and interaction regions, and other ICMEs, can drastically alter their global and local properties during propagation, and increase their complexity. Fundamental research on ICME complexity changes during propagation is critical to our physical understanding of the evolution and interaction of transients in the inner heliosphere. A complete understanding of such changes is required to understand the space weather impact of ICMEs at different planets.
In-situ measurements carried out by spacecraft in close radial alignment are critical to advance our knowledge on ICME evolution, and can, in turn, help refine current space weather forecasting models. Yet, the scarcity of radially-aligned ICME crossings at this time restricts such investigations to a few case studies, preventing a comprehensive understanding of ICME complexity changes. Recent advances in this research area derive from investigations that combine data from both planetary and heliophysics missions, as well as numerical simulations. Results from these studies provide compelling evidence that the interaction with large-scale corotating solar wind structures significantly increases the complexity of ICMEs as they propagate in interplanetary space. Future spacecraft placed in optimal spatial configuration could greatly advance the field in this area, once and for all answering the underlying question:  what are the causes of the drastic alterations observed in some ICMEs during propagation, while other ICMEs remain relatively unchanged? Thus, there is a real need at this time for numerical studies assessing the optimal spatial configuration required by future missions to effectively close the current observational gaps. Furthermore, including a magnetometer (and preferably also a plasma spectrometer) on all future planetary and heliophysics missions would greatly extend the number of events available for possible large-scale statistical studies, alleviating the urgent need for dedicated missions on this topic.

Young P. R.

Magnetic reconnection:  UV Bursts — A Case for Hi-Res EUV Images, Spectra, and Magnetograms [#2116]
Magnetic reconnection is being studied in Heliophysics through in situ measurements in the Earth’s magnetosphere and through remote sensing in the solar atmosphere. The former gives point measurements of the microphysics while the latter allows the macroscale properties of flow, topology and temperature to be studied through the lifetime of the reconnection event. Both types of measurement are critical to understanding how reconnection transfers energy from the magnetic field to the plasma.
Ultraviolet bursts are a class of reconnection event occurring in the solar atmosphere that arguably give the best access to the reconnection physics. They are heated to temperatures of 100 kK in regions where the plasma is physically very thin, thus the UV bursts give a very strong signature in spectral emission lines, both in intensity and Doppler shifts/broadening. This is in contrast to the corona that has a large line of sight. In addition, the magnetic field evolution driving the events is clearly established through photospheric magnetograms.
To make progress on understanding UV bursts requires similar instrumentation to what we have now (EUV imagers, UV/EUV spectrometers and magnetographs), but with higher spatial and temporal resolutions, and better spectral coverage. Heliophysics must continue to advance these technologies as it has done for the past 25 years to make progress in understanding the fundamental physics of the solar atmosphere.






Poster Title and Abstract

Argall M. R.   Smith A. W.   Turner D. L.   Shuster J.   Vines S. K.   Keesee A.   Ferdousi B.   Fuselier S. A.   Azari A.   Gabrielse C.   Claudepierre S.   Hwang K.-J.   Bloch T.   McGranaghan R. M.   Slavin J.

Intelligent Missions in a Living Heliophysics System Observatory [#2134]
By 2050, the Heliophysics System Observatory (HSO) will consist of satellite swarms and constellations that generate untold quantities of data. In addition, the HSO archive will consist of the retired single- and multi-spacecraft mission data that paved the way to 2050. To maximize the science return of a growing HSO and leverage the vast potential of past missions and their large data sets, next-generation missions need to incorporate artificial intelligence, machine learning, and data mining approaches (AI) into their science objectives and mission architectures from the ground up. This includes developing AI-capable hardware, creating resource-limited models for in-flight data evaluation, recognizing changing data quality, and encouraging science discovery through AI applications.

It also includes investing in infrastructure to support these objectives:  a centralized cloud database for AI-ready datasets, support of open source software initiatives, and services to host and run AI models.AI is beginning to gain a foothold in Heliophysics but is already enabling a more holistic use of the active and retired HSO. For example, AI methods have allowed us to take local, point measurements from single or multiple missions, and transform them into global, dynamic models; to discover empirically the first principles equations that govern particle transport; and to enhance numerical simulations by providing empirical constraints. This is all supported by a grass-roots community effort to develop open source software for data analysis and model development, AI training to support community demand, and infrastructure to distribute and validate models and datasets. For the HSO archive of 2050 to be a living entity relevant to the efforts and direction being taken by the community today, Heliophysics needs a platform to centralize and standardize these efforts.

AI has yet to be applied in the design of a major science mission in heliophysics. A near real-time AI model has been implemented on the ground by the MMS mission to select mission-critical data for downlink; however the majority of on-board downlink-selection schemes relying on simple models and look-up tables. Most urgently, the HSO requires investments in rad-hard GPUs and processors paired with opportunities to improve their technical readiness. To manage the data volumes anticipated in the HSO of 2050, we need investments in AI-ready flight systems and intelligent mission design today.

Bonnell J. W.   Lejosne S.   Mozer F. S.   Goodrich K.

A Path Towards Revolutionary Improvements in 3D Fields and Plasma Measurements [#2057]
Electrodynamics, the exchange of energy and momentum between the electromagnetic field and charged particle populations, plays a significant role in determining the coupling between solar outputs and terrestrial or planetary responses at macroscopic and microscopic scales throughout heliospace. Key aspects of this exchange remain unclear, and further scientific progress requires more accurate and complete measurements of both fields and particles.
Focusing on the electromagnetic field, one finds that the current state of the art in quasi-static electric and magnetic field measurements routinely makes 2D measurements with accuracies often better than +/- 1% using long wire boom systems on rotating spacecraft. However, achieving such accuracies for the fully 3D E and B fields required for further progress remains elusive. The axial antennas for E-field measurements are kept shorter than the radial by SC dynamic stability constraints, leading to systemic offsets 1 to 2 orders of magnitude larger than the quantity measured, and thus in the final field measurements themselves and any electrodynamics derived from them. Similar issues arise in the measurement of 3D magnetic fields, as well as plasma distributions with sufficiently rapid cadence and accuracy for drifting and asymmetric distributions.
While efforts to refine the design of 3D field and plasma measurements on spinning spacecraft continue, a much more accurate path to the goal of routine, high-accuracy 3D measurements exists. This path consists of mounting two sets of highly accurate 2D field (or particle) sensors on a pair of orthogonal rotating platforms that are in turn mounted to a three-axis-stabilized spacecraft bus. The evolution of integrated instrument suites allows for a far simpler power and data interface to the platform-mounted packages than on prior dual-spin missions making such a design quite feasible. This twin platform design allows the end user to combine easily and routinely the measurements from the two sets of 2D measurements into a single high-accuracy instantaneous 3D measurement of the fields and particle distributions. Such a twin orthogonal rotor platform (TORP) system has been under study for over 10 years and shows great promise both in terms of the uniform improvement in accuracy of such 3D measurements. Here, we shall present the case for the need for such a revolutionary improvement and results of the ongoing TORP design and development effort.

Borovsky J. E.   Delzanno G. L.   Gilchrist B. E.   Heelis R. A.   Henderson M. G.   Johnson J. R.   Kepko L.   Marshall R. A.   MacDonald E. A.   Reeves G. D.   Ruohoniemi J. M.   Rowland D. E.   Sanchez E. R.   Semeter J.   Sojka J. J.   Spanswick E.   Donovan E.   Turner D. L.   Wing S.   Varney R.   Zou S.

The Uncertainty of Nightside Magnetosphere-Ionosphere Magnetic Connections:  Critical Progress Since the Call in the Last Decadal Survey [#2083]
On the Earth’s nightside, the magnetic connections between the ionosphere and the non-dipolar magnetosphere have a great deal of uncertainty:  this prevents us from understanding what magnetospheric processes are driving various phenomena in the ionosphere. Magnetic-field models are not accurate enough in the time-varying nightside magnetosphere to establish detailed magnetosphere-ionosphere connections and it is unlikely that breakthroughs in these models will be achieved. Because of these facts, “Magnetosphere-to-Ionosphere Field-Line Tracing Technology” using an energetic electron beam fired from a magnetospheric spacecraft has been called out in the NRC 2013 Solar and Space Physics Decadal Survey (pp. 333–334) as an “instrument development need and emerging technology”.

A key example of how the uncertainty impedes us is the outstanding question of how the magnetosphere drives auroral arcs: a number of mechanisms are hypothesized in the literature, but equatorial magnetospheric measurements have not been unambiguously connected to arcs in the ionosphere, preventing us from identifying the correct generator mechanisms. Essentially, it is not known what form of energy is tapped from the magnetosphere to drive arcs, preventing us from assessing the impact of aurora on the magnetosphere. A celebrated desire has been to use auroral observations as a “TV screen” to interpret ongoing magnetospheric processes: this has not been accomplished. Other problems require precise specification of magnetic connections between magnetospheric and ionospheric processes such as SAPS, SAID, STEVE, convection reversals, ionospheric density structures, bursty bulk flows, and omega bands and the mapping of boundaries the magnetosphere and the ionosphere. With precise knowledge of the magnetic connection, magnetosphere-ionosphere convection coupling could be studied by comparing temporal onsets of convection in the magnetosphere (via spacecraft measurements) with temporal onsets of ionospheric convection at the magnetic footpoint (via ground-based measurements), which could answer questions about when and where (a) the magnetosphere drives ionospheric convection and (b) the ionosphere drives magnetospheric convection. Since the last Decadal Survey substantial progress has been made on this much-needed technology development. This presentation will focus on the progress to date in solving the magnetic field mapping problem and the outlook for the future.

Burkholder B. L.   Nykyri H. K.   Ma X.

2-Dimensional Solar Wind Propagation from L1 to Earth [#2121]
The interaction of the solar wind with Earth and other obstacles in the solar system is a 3-dimensional problem. The fleet of solar wind monitoring spacecraft orbiting the L1 point upstream of Earth have orbits that often give them large separations in the azimuthal direction. This makes it possible to resolve azimuthal gradients in the solar wind and furthermore, when these gradients are sufficiently strong, predict when conditions may be different on the dawn vs. dusk flanks. I will introduce our simple method to resolve the 2-dimensional structure of the solar wind and discuss potential impacts of different solar wind conditions on the dawn vs. dusk flanks of the magnetosphere.

Buzulukova N.   Fok M.-C.   Sibeck D.   Keesee A.   Connor H.   Collier M.   DeMajistre R.   Glocer A.   Murphy K.

Global Imaging in Energetic Neutral Atoms:  Tracing Energy Pathways [#2094]
The Earth’s magnetosphere is a complex system that interacts with the solar wind, ionosphere and neutral gases of atmosphere and geocorona. Despite tremendous progress, the community is not at the stage where a reliable prediction and description of all desired variables can be achieved. One of the major problems is that local measurements are very sparse. Local satellite measurements often allow multiple interpretations, and consequently different solutions for the global state of the magnetosphere. Recent attempts to solve this problem using the state-of-the-art first-principles global models are promising; however, global models taken alone are not currently ready to predict the global state of the magnetosphere.
This presentation highlights Energetic Neutral Atom (ENA) imaging as a tool to address two key science challenges of Heliophysics, namely:  “How does magnetic reconnection drive mass, momentum and energy transport” and “What are the mechanisms to control the production, loss and energization of magnetospheric plasma”.
Previous ENA missions IMAGE and TWINS have significantly improved the knowledge on the structure and dynamics of the Earth’s magnetosphere, measuring ENA emissions primarily from the ring current region. It is anticipated that future missions with enhanced angular resolution and sensitivity will be able to measure ENAs from the plasmasheet, reconnection exhaust in the tail and dipole transition region, and differentiate between modes of magnetospheric behavior, i.e., substorms, steady magnetospheric convection, sequential bursty bulk flows etc. With favorable viewing geometry, they can relate the occurrence of tail bursty flows and ion injections in the ring current, their azimuthal extent and composition on a case-by-case and statistical basis for each event category. We conclude that the global imaging is a very effective way to understand the dynamics of the whole system, and to constrain the global models. The synergy between global modeling and global imaging will ensure the science closure for many open questions in magnetospheric physics and improve predictive capabilities for space weather applications.

Chakraborty S.   Fiori R. A. D.   Bland E. C.   Ruohoniemi J. M.   Baker J. B. H.

Observing and Modeling Space Weather Phenomena in the Ionosphere [#2168]
The Sun is a variable star that evolves with time via tangling, crossing, and reorganizing magnetic fields. The magnetic activities on the Sun create disturbances, which manifest as solar flare (SF), solar energetic proton event (SEP), and coronal mass ejection (CME). SFs, SEPs, and CMEs, which form on the Sun’s corona, travel through the interplanetary space and reach Earth in ~8 minutes, ~30 minutes, and ~3 days, respectively. These solar activities, commonly referred to as space weather, deposit energy into Earth’s upper atmosphere (ionosphere) and create disturbances in near-Earth space or geospace. Geomagnetic storms, sudden ionospheric disturbances (SIDs), ground induced currents (GIC) are a few examples of impactful space weather phenomena. Ionospheric properties such as conductivity and electron density are strongly affected by space weather. The ionosphere has significant implications for modern technology, including long-distance communication, global satellite positioning systems, atmospheric drag on LEO satellites, and GICs. Sudden changes in ionospheric properties due to extreme space weather can have severe and disruptive impacts. A comprehensive understanding of ionospheric properties and their variability will enable us to gain insight into ionospheric physics and energy coupling mechanisms and mitigate these impacts. Initially, it was thought that space weather-driven phenomena alter ionospheric properties only at auroral regions (high latitudes); however, with the establishment of new ground-based instruments and spacecraft missions, it is now clear that space weather also impacts technology at the middle, equatorial, and polar latitudes. The research community should target the fundamental physics of the active ionosphere, including conductivity, plasma instability, and the formation of density irregularities, ionospheric current, plasma-neutral coupling, etc., and the related spatiotemporal dynamics during space weather. We argue for the value of global-scale observations of the ionosphere-magnetosphere system that support conjunction studies using ground-based and space-borne instruments. Now that multi-decadal datasets are available, machine learning and neural-network-based studies can help with sorting out the sources and pathways for the global-scale impacts of space weather on the ionosphere. Ultimately we should aim to complete our understanding with comprehensive first-principles modeling that provides a predictive capability.

Chen L.-J.   Samara M.   Michell R.   Collier M.   Dorelli J.   Fung S.   Gershman D.   Karpen J.   Ng J.   Rowland D.   Sibeck D.   Wang S.   Halford A.   Zesta E.   Giles B.   Vasko I.   Stawarz J.   Turner D.   Paterson W.   Madanian H.   Wilson III L.

Kinetic Effects of Solar Driving on Magnetospheres [#2122]
We discuss kinetic effects of solar driving on magnetospheres and interconnected science topics envisioned for future major research directions in heliophysics. We recommend (1) promotion of global particle simulations to address how these kinetic effects impact the evolution of magnetized planets and bodies in the heliosphere, past and present; and (2) advancing NASA’s high-end computing to exascale to provide the critical ground for (1). An underlying connection between collisionless shocks, turbulence, and magnetic reconnection leads to complex interactions in the geospace environment. Below are example topics for major future investigations to be discussed in the poster.
*Collisionless shock physics:  magnetic field amplification, particle acceleration, cross shock dissipation, 3D shock structures and dynamics, wave excitation and interaction with particles.
*Evolution of magnetized bodies:  how does kinetic turbulence due to reflected particles at the bow shock affect the evolution of magnetized planets and bodies in the universe, past and present?
*Turbulent reconnection:  how foreshock and magnetosheath turbulence impacts the magnetopause processes such as reconnection and Kelvin-Helmholts instability, for example. Furthermore, the nature of reconnection varies with scale size. Reconnection in electron-scale turbulence precludes ions from participating in the dynamics, hence the energy conversion process and evolution in kinetic turbulence call for new examination.
*Impact on the magnetosphere-ionosphere-thermosphere:  What are the MIT responses to the shock turbulence both in terms of the amplified fields and energized particles?
*Impact on the magnetotail:  Turbulence affects the dayside reconnection rate which influences magnetic flux circulation, and hence magnetotail dynamics.

Chi P. J.   Damiano P. A.   Denton R. E.   Ferdousi B.   Jorgensen A. M.   Lin N.   Lysak R. L.   Raeder J.   Takahashi K.

Magnetoseismology Research for the Next Decade [#2107]
Magnetoseismology is a unique and well-demonstrated method to investigate the plasma structures and dynamics of the magnetosphere. The normal-mode method examines the widespread field line resonance in the magnetosphere to estimate the plasma mass density that is difficult to infer through other measurements. The travel-time method tracks impulse propagation in the magnetosphere and has enabled new capability of remotely monitoring sudden impulses and substorm onsets that are rarely measured on-site. The two methods of magnetoseismology bear substantial resemblance to the techniques used in terrestrial seismology and helioseismology that have advanced our understanding of the interior of the Earth and the Sun.

Several research areas require major efforts to be able to advance magnetoseismology in the next decade. Even though an abundance of ground-based and spacecraft measurements of field line resonance have been collected through past projects, coordinated multi-point observations for normal-mode magnetoseismology research were rarely conducted. Implementation of additional ground-based magnetometer stations to form dense magnetometer chains in American, European, and Asian sectors can enable global monitoring of the plasma mass density in the inner magnetosphere. In addition, identifying field line resonance frequencies in large databases is very time-consuming and requires expert experience, and the incorporation of machine learning or other data analysis techniques into the process can help remove these technical hurdles. Travel-time magnetoseismology is a relatively young research topic, where the forward model involves impulse propagation in highly inhomogeneous plasmas. Characteristics of signal propagation require validation by global magnetosphere simulations and new satellite missions that are designed to time the arrivals of impulse arrivals at multiple distances in a systematic fashion. These near-term investigations will facilitate the development of magnetoseismology and help the two techniques become common means of Heliophysics research by 2050.

Coster A. J.   Huba J. D.   Sazykin S. Y.

Developing a Modeling Framework for Understanding Hemispheric Asymmetries via Model-Data Comparisons [#2150]
Asymmetries in a variety of ionospheric phenomena related to magnetospheric-ionospheric coupling between the different hemispheres arise due to the geographic and/or geomagnetic properties of the Earth, as well as effects that arise directly from the solar wind and its magnetospheric consequences. A few examples phenomena displaying asymmetrical coupling include magnetic pulsations, ion outflows, field-aligned currents, electromagnetic energy (Poynting) flux, auroral particle precipitation, high-latitude ionospheric convection, ionospheric electron densities and thermospheric winds and mass densities. Many of these hemispheric asymmetries can be traced back to a handful of fundamental causes including interplanetary magnetic fields, solar illumination, Earth’s magnetic field (e.g., different offsets between magnetic and geographical poles, differences in field strength at conjugate regions, displacement of the magnetic equator from the geographic equator) as well as land-sea distribution. There are also hemispherical differences at the mid and low latitudes, and associated coupling processes between the hemispheres (e.g., magnetic lines of force, winds, and electrodynamics), that lead to differences in the neutral atmosphere and plasma. Interpretation of various observations and understanding causes and mechanisms of hemispheric asymmetries requires development of a first-principles numerical model of the ionosphere-thermosphere-magnetosphere system capable of handing asymmetries. Such a model will also serve as a framework for interpretation of experimental results from an increasing number of data sources, and would be a necessary development for making advances in the ITM science.

Coster A. J.   Erickson P. J.   Hysell D. L.   Kendall E.   Varney R. H.

The Potential for Community Science with Future Incoherent Scatter Radar Observations [#2143]
The technique of collective Thomson or incoherent scatter (IS) radar has been employed since the 1960’s to provide comprehensive, fundamental insights into the state of the ionosphere and its thermal parameters in a way not matched by any other remote sensing technique. This technique directly, and uniquely, measures full altitude profiles of the most fundamental ionospheric parameters including electron density, electron temperature, ion temperature, plasma velocity, and ion composition. These basic state variables with varying assumptions then allow further derivation of such key quantities as electric field strength, conductivity, electric currents, neutral temperature, and neutral wind velocity. Taken in aggregate, no other technique is comparable in the range of ionospheric and thermospheric parameters provided for synoptic and detailed scientific studies.

IS radar’s unique observation power stems from its use of a precise theoretical model derived from fundamental constants and first-principles plasma theory, applied to properly interpret very weak ionospheric backscatter measured using large aperture antennas and powerful transmitters. IS measurements have played and continue to play a critical role in community atmospheric and ionospheric model development and verification. For example, IS measurements have helped produce the widely used MSIS neutral atmosphere model and the International Reference Ionosphere (IRI). In recent years, IS measurements have also been used to validate and amplify in-situ satellite measurements from a number of different missions in system scale studies. In general, IS radar characterizations of ionospheric and thermospheric dynamics are a mainstay of community knowledge and understanding of large and small scale processes and features within the tightly coupled magnetosphere-ionosphere-thermosphere system. In the coming decades, the power of ISR’s will rapidly expand with new advances in hardware, software, and signal processing. These will provide new capabilities for community studies, such as volumetric images of ionospheric plasma parameters using aperture synthesis radar imaging, including three-dimensional images of the movements of different ionospheric constituents, and enhanced observations of the temperature, density of different atmospheric species and the intensity of electrodynamic coupling.

Delzanno G. L.   Borovsky J. E.   Buzulukova N.   Chappell C. R.   Denton M.   Fernandes P.   Friedel R.   Gallagher G.   Goldstein J.   Henderson M.   Larsen B.   Jordanova V.   Maldonado C.   Moore T.   Reisenfeld D.   Roytershteyn V.   Skoug R.   Varney R.

The Need to Understand the Cold-Ion and Cold-Electron Populations of the Earth’s Magnetosphere [#2089]
The Earth’s magnetosphere comprises multiple ion and electron populations with a broad range of energies, from the sub-eV particles of the ionosphere to the relativistic particles of the radiation belts. These diverse particle populations are co-located and interact through a variety of processes, including various plasma waves.
While the warm (ring current/plasma sheet) and hot (radiation belts) populations have received a lot of attention in part because of their potential harm to space infrastructure, the cold populations (with energy less than ~100 eV) are the least studied and in some cases have been referred to as the ‘hidden populations’. This is because spacecraft are typically charged to levels that make measuring the cold plasma properties very difficult and sometimes impossible. For electrons, an additional complication is that spacecraft surfaces exposed to sunlight and bombarded by energetic particles emit secondary electrons with energies comparable to those of the cold electrons of the environment that can completely dominate the detector measurement.
However, the cold plasma has a strong impact on many phenomena that are critical to the dynamics of the near-Earth environment, both locally and globally. Examples include the cold plasma being the source of hot magnetospheric plasma, solar-wind/magnetosphere coupling, tail reconnection and substorm dynamics, wave-particle interaction physics, plasmasphere/plasmasheet interactions and structuring of the pulsating aurora. Given the sparsity of measurements and the generally poor understanding of the cold populations, it is plausible that other impacts not yet known might exist. In all, this leaves a major gap in our understanding of the magnetosphere-ionosphere system.
In preparation for the next decadal survey for space physics, this presentation will highlight (1) the known and probable impacts of the cold populations in magnetospheric physics; (2) the need for new measurement techniques; (3) the need for a data-analysis effort to use available data to survey the cold-particle populations, understand their origin, drivers and controlling factors; (4) the need for a theory/modeling program (including merged ionosphere/magnetosphere models) to understand the impacts of the cold populations and how to include those impacts in the next generation space-weather models; and (5) the need for new space missions to perform comprehensive in-situ and remote measurements of the cold-particle populations.

Donovan E.   Borovsky J.   McGranaghan R.   Angelopoulos V.   Spanswick E.

The Observations We Need for System Science [#2070]
Geospace dynamics are inherently multi-scale. Ultimately, everything is accomplished on a foundational level through small-scale fundamental physical processes like reconnection, wave-particle interactions, turbulence, and plasma instabilities. In the magnetosphere these processes can only be studied via in situ observations, and in the ionosphere these scales can be explored by in situ observations on low-altitude spacecraft, LIDARs and ISRs. All of these techniques provide either true point measurements, or observations from small regions (ISRs).

Although critical for understand how geospace works, they do not tell the whole story. There are processes that unfold over larger scales that are still small compared to the overall system, processes that in geospace are the equivalent of tides, currents, and Tsunamis in ocean dynamics. These processes, which include Bursty Bulk Flows (BBFs), plasma injections, ULF waves, MHD waves and instabilities, Sub-Auroral Ion Drifts (SAIDS), and as yet to be understood processes that determine the extent of regions over which specific small-scale processes occur. Three examples of the latter are whatever determines the size of a reconnection region, the size and shape of auroral patches in the morning sector, or the narrow north-south and very long east-west shape of auroral arcs. These are meso-scale and multi-scale processes, and we argue these are as critical to the dynamics of geospace as the underlying small-scale processes. These are the processes by which the immediate and local effects of the small-scale processes ‘spin up’ to have regional/global-scale consequences. These are the drivers of space weather.

The desire to explore these meso-scale processes was the driver for the ISTP, and is what motivates constellation class satellite missions such THEMIS and the planned Magnetospheric Constellation mission. Still, although THEMIS has been, and MagCon will be, revolutionary, the spacing between point measurements is large compared to, e.g., the width of a BBF, size of an auroral patch, or that of whatever gradient in the magnetotail is the ‘root’ of an arc. Imaging of processes in the ionosphere, and in particular the aurora, is perhaps our most powerful tool for exploring the real structure of these mesoscale processes and their magnetospheric or ionospheric drivers.

In this paper, we explore the need for multi-scale (in time and space) observations of key regions and parameters in geospace, and for simultaneous observations of multiple geospace regions and regimes. Our goal is to highlight how the need to understand the system complements the need to understand the plasma.

Dorelli J. C.   Bard C.   Buzulukova N.   Khazanov G.   Gallardo-Lacourt B.   Kepko L.   Michell R.   Murphy K.   Oliveira D.   Samara M.   Shuster J.   Sibeck D.   Zesta E.

Understanding the Connection Between Multiscale Magnetotail Dynamics and the Aurora [#2132]
Auroral displays are among the most beautiful space weather effects observable from Earth, capturing the imaginations of scientists and non-scientists alike. Auroral substorms exhibit a bewildering, but repeatable, variety of complex structure and dynamics, originating from kilometer scale arcs that brighten rapidly over minutes before expanding over hours to turbulent storms hundreds of kilometers wide. These auroral substorms are distorted two-dimensional projections of complex multiscale dynamics in Earth’s magnetotail. Understanding the physics of this connection remains one of the most challenging problems in heliophysics. Previous NASA missions, like THEMIS and MMS, have solved important pieces of the puzzle, but fundamental questions remain. THEMIS provided an essentially one-dimensional picture of the evolution of magnetotail dynamics from the mid-tail to the inner magnetosphere, but the connection to the aurora involves the cumulative influence of many mesoscale structures distributed in the cross-tail dimension. MMS was the first “magnetospheric microscope” to resolve the kinetic scale of magnetic reconnection, thought to play an essential role in the onset of auroral substorms; but MMS cannot observe the physical processes, occurring over many thousands of kilometers along magnetic field lines, that connect magnetic reconnection to the aurora. To make progress on this problem, our community needs to work together to develop the next generation of global models and mission concepts.
In this poster, we describe some of the modeling advances that will be needed to accurately simulate auroral substorms. Since the aurora results from the collisional interaction of precipitating electrons with Earth’s atmosphere, a key element in any predictively powerful global model will be the self-consistent transport of electrons from the collisionless plasma sheet to the collisional ionosphere. We discuss the computational challenges involved in achieving this ambitious goal. Additionally, we outline some of the observations that will be needed to test this new generation of global models. These include constellations of satellites to achieve global magnetic local time coverage in the dipole transition region, fast (10s of ms) particle measurements to resolve the electron edge of the plasma sheet boundary layer, coordinated in situ observations at multiple altitudes (ranging from LEO to the auroral acceleration region), and multispectral auroral imagers on the ground.

Eastes R. W.   Burns A. G.   Greer K. R.   Gan Q.   Laskar F. I.   Solomon S. C.   McClintock W. E.

Global Remote Sensing of the Thermosphere-Ionosphere System — A Catalyst for Advances in 2050 and Beyond [#2045]
Remote sensing provides essential information for advances in understanding and forecasting the Earth’s Thermosphere-Ionosphere (T-I) system. The Earth’s T-I is a dynamic system. Changes in the energy inputs from the Sun and the Earth’s magnetosphere can alter the entire system within an hour or less. Another large source of energy, about which we have insufficient knowledge, is from the lower atmosphere. Determining how the thermosphere-ionosphere (T-I) system responds to these drivers on a global-scale is essential to understanding the system’s behavior and to future space weather forecasting advances. Advancing our understanding of the T-I system’s spatial and temporal response requires relatively small-scale observations of the T-I environment within a simultaneous global-scale view of the T-I system’s response within the Sun-Earth system. Some essential remote sensing capabilities for accomplishing this, using both low and geostationary Earth orbit, have been established in recent decades. A logical next step is combining them to make global observations capable of following the temporal (an hour or less) and spatial (order of 10 km vertical and 100 km horizontal) changes that occur. An expansion of such capabilities would enable advances in modeling and assimilation capabilities for the T-I system and in our understanding of its interaction with other parts of the Earth-Sun system.

Elias A. G.   Zossi B. S.   Medina F. D.   Gutierrez Falcon A. R.   de Haro Barbas B. F.

Implications of Solar Activity and Geomagnetic Field Secular Variations on Long-Term Trends Estimation [#2043]
Several aspects of aeronomy and space weather are modulated by variations in geomagnetic field and in solar activity as well. In particular, secular variations in both may have comparable effects in terms of magnitude for certain processes. A difference between their effects could be the spatial pattern of their consequences in, for example, charged particle flux reaching the Earth’s atmosphere. While the expected solar modulation is more spatially homogeneous, in the sense that increasing or decreasing solar activity may have the same effect for every location in our planet, the geomagnetic field modulation may depend on location. A comparison of the secular variation in both forcings is analyzed in parameters characterizing the ionosphere and charged particles entering the atmosphere, emphasizing its implication in long-term trend assessments.

Fernandes P. A.   Delzanno G. L.   Denton M. H.   Henderson M. G.   Jordanova V. K.   Kim T. K.   Larsen B. A.   Maldonado C. A.   Reeves G.   Reisenfeld D. B.   Skoug R. M.

Heavy Ions:  Tracers and Drivers of Solar Wind/Ionosphere/Magnetosphere Coupling [#2142]
Much of our knowledge of the composition of plasma in space comes from decades-old measurements. The mass spectrometers of the 1970s, 1980s, and 1990s outperformed most contemporary instruments, due to changes in the funding landscape and shifting community perspectives of the necessity of various in situ measurements. The dearth of modern composition measurements in space and our poor understanding of differences in plasma processes driven by different heavy ions inhibit our ability to predict and characterize natural and man-made events in the near-Earth space environment.
Significant advances in technology over the last several decades, including both digitization and hardware miniaturization, enable more sophisticated mass spectrometers in smaller design packages than ever before. Looking to the future, we propose a community goal of characterizing the full complement of plasma species (composition and charge state) within the Solar Wind/Ionosphere/Magnetosphere (SW/I/M) system to understand how these populations interact with one another and impact the system as a whole.

Focusing on the next decadal survey and extending to the vision of the state of Heliophysics research in 2050, we discuss a cost-effective solution for bringing high-resolution in-situ mass spectrometers to the forefront of major space missions. In particular, we present:  (1) a brief comparison of past and present mass spectrometer capability; (2) our current understanding of the role of heavy ions in the SW/I/M system; (3) unresolved questions within the SW/I/M system that will be addressed by modern plasma composition measurements; (4) proposed programs to modernize and provide flight heritage to novel mass spectrometer instruments; (5) the need for complementary space missions to treat the SW/I/M system as a coupled system and not as distinct regions studied by different communities.

Gabrielse C.   Nishimura Y.   Deng Y.   Lyons L. R.   Chen M. W.   Hecht J. H.   Merkin V. G.   Gkioulidou M.   Turner D. L.   Malaspina D.   Birn J.   Ohtani S.   Liu J.   Lui A.   McPherron R. L.   Sheng C.   Sorathia K.

Mesoscales and Their Contribution to the Global Response:  A Focus on the Magnetotail Transition Region and Magnetosphere-Ionosphere Coupling [#2053]
The broad but important question that is being increasingly studied across subdisciplines of Heliophysics is “how do mesoscale phenomena contribute to the global response of the system?” This poster focuses on this question within two specific but interlinked regions in Near-Earth space:  the magnetotail and its transition region to the inner magnetosphere, and the ionosphere. With regards to the magnetotail transition region, a Geospace Environment Modeling (GEM) Focus Group has been studying if and how much mesoscale transport in the tail contributes to the more global response at the transition region with respect to magnetic flux and dipolarization, particle transport and injections, and the substorm current wedge. The magnetosphere-ionosphere is a directly coupled system that feeds into one another; therefore, this poster also discusses the question of mesoscale contributions from related plasma flows and auroral precipitation to the more global energy flux deposited and the resulting conductance. We see these specific open questions as part of the larger need to address these mesoscales in order to understand the global system, suggest some types of datasets that, if developed in the future, could help answer these questions, and welcome your thoughts and discussion on moving forward.

Genestreti K. J.   Turner D. L.   Argall M. R.   Baumjohann W.   Birn J.   Bortnik J.   Burch J. L.   Chen Y.   Claudepierre S.   Cohen I. J.   Fuselier S. A.   Gabrielse C.   Hwang J.   Ieda A.   Kiehas S.   Kistler L. M.   Lin Y.   Liu Y.-H.   Merkin S.   Motoba T.   Mouikis C. G.   Nagai T.   Nakamura R.   Nakamura T. K. M.   Ogasawara K.   Panov E.   Plaschke F.   Runov A.   Sitnov M.   Slavin J. A.   Spence H. E.   Stephens G.   Sun W.   Torbert R. B.   Tsyganenko N.   Vines S. K.   Wang C.-P.

Open Questions in Magnetotail Physics [#2139]
Magnetic reconnection is a universal process that powers explosive phenomena in space and laboratory plasmas. Reconnection in Earth’s cis-lunar magnetotail drives rapid magnetospheric reconfiguration during geomagnetic storms/substorms and increases – often dramatically – energetic particle radiation levels throughout cis-lunar space. Reconnection is a fundamentally local and micro-scale process; though, like any other process of consequence, cross-scale and cross-region coupling is an inescapable certainty. Understanding the coupling between reconnection at these smallest scales (~10–4 RE3) and the much larger magnetosphere (~10+4 RE3) is no small feat, due in large part to the dramatically different spatial scales. Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) has transformed our understanding of the fundamentally micro-scale process by investigating reconnection physics at the smallest plasma scales in space and time. Contextualizing the micro-scale revolution of MMS is the next major advancement and is required to quantify the impact of reconnection on near-Earth space. In this poster, we discuss three major open questions regarding reconnection in Earth’s nightside magnetotail.
(1) What are the conditions of the magnetotail in the moments before reconnection starts, and how do these conditions affect the reconnection process?
(2) What is the azimuthal extent of magnetotail reconnection what is the connection between reconnection and azimuthally-confined plasma flows and large-scale plasmoids?
(3) How do energetic particles gain energy from multi-scale transient structures in reconnection exhausts?

These questions should be addressed by the community as soon as possible so that Heliophysics in 2050 may target the much broader coupling between microscopic reconnection and geospace, and apply these “lessons learned” to reconnection beyond the Earth.

Hartinger M. D.   Engebretson M. J.   Salzano M. L.   Olabode A.   Ozturk D. S.   McGranaghan R.   Shi X.   Kim H.   Connors M. G.   Xu Z.   Weygand J.

Towards a Better Understanding of the Causes and Consequences of Geomagnetic Perturbations in 2050 [#2037]
Disturbances in the magnetic field at the Earth’s surface, or surface geomagnetic perturbations (BGEO), have played a major role in the development of Heliophysics research, by (1) providing a remote sensing tool for electric currents that define the electrodynamics of the magnetosphere-ionosphere (M-I) system, (2) providing a wide range of diagnostics (geomagnetic activity indices, model validation tools), (3) improving our understanding and ability to predict geoelectric fields and geomagnetically induced currents (GICs). Multiple factors contribute to BGEO simultaneously:  the spatial and temporal scales of the M-I source currents, ionospheric electrical conductivity and related spatial gradients, the Earth conductivity and related spatial gradients. Past work mostly examined these factors independently, but multiple factors can affect BGEO simultaneously. The superposition of multiple M-I current systems in BGEO further increases the complexity of this problem. As a result, fundamental research is needed to improve our understanding of the causes and consequences of BGEO. For example, addressing the question, “How do the multiple spatial and temporal scales present in the magnetosphere, ionosphere, and ground affect the generation of geomagnetic fields, geoelectric fields, and GIC”? requires research targeting many different multi-scale phenomena (e.g., interplanetary shocks, substorms and auroral electrojets, wave activity) and observations and models that can account for variability in the magnetosphere, ionosphere, and ground simultaneously.

In the next 30 years, progress is needed in several areas:  (1) more realistic ground conductivity models incorporated into analysis of BGEO so that telluric currents can be separated from M-I currents, (2) fundamental research to understand the sources of BGEO along with targeted improvements in the spatial sampling of BGEO by, for example, the development of low-cost, high-quality instrumentation, (3) both fundamental and applied research to improve our understanding of how the multiple spatiotemporal features of BGEO couple to GIC, (4) both fundamental and applied research to improve space weather forecasts that rely on BGEO, (5) all stakeholders who need BGEO measurements should work together to intelligently design new coverage and instrumentation requirements; governmental policies (e.g., interagency solicitations) are needed to promote collaborations in this area.

Huang S.   Li W.   Shen X. C.   Ma Q.   Chu X. N.   Capannolo L.

Hiss in the Plasmasphere and Plumes:  Global Distribution from Machine Learning Technique and Their Effects on Global Loss of Energetic Electrons [#2048]
Whistler mode hiss waves are typically observed inside the plasmasphere and plumes, and are known to play an important role in energetic electron loss processes in the Earth’s inner magnetosphere. In particular, hiss in plumes is previously shown to be stronger than the waves inside the plasmasphere; however, it has been challenging to achieve the dynamic evolution of hiss inside the plumes on a global scale. We use machine learning technique, more specifically, artificial neural network (ANN) to construct the global evolution of total electron density and hiss wave amplitude inside the plasmasphere and plume and the associated hiss waves therein. These constructed hiss wave models are used to quantify the effects of hiss on the global electron loss at L < 6 using the 3D Fokker Planck simulation. We demonstrate that neural network is able to reconstruct the dynamic evolution of total electron density and hiss inside the plasmasphere and plume. Moreover, the simulation result indicates that plume hiss can cause an efficient loss of energetic electrons in the outer radiation belt.

Hysell D. L.   Milla M. A.

An Ionospheric Modification Facility at the Magnetic Equator [#2104]
We propose the development of an ionospheric modification facility, sometimes called an ionospheric heater, near the geomagnetic equator.
A heater is a powerful high-frequency (HF) transmitter that can induce a number of phenomena in ionospheric plasmas. Some of these phenomena provide insights into complicated plasma physics processes that may occur elsewhere in nature but that are impractical to explore in the laboratory or numerically. Other processes provide diagnostics of naturally occurring ionospheric phenomena at work. Ionospheric modification experiments affect the propagation of radio signals passing through the ionospheric volume, which is how the phenomenon was first discovered (i.e. the Radio Luxembourg effect). They generate airglow and radio emissions which can be observed from the ground. They create field-aligned plasma density irregularities that can be interrogated by small coherent scatter radars. They generate low-frequency radiation which has practical societal utility.  They also cause electron acceleration.  Finally, they modify plasma density and electron and ion temperatures and enhance the plasma and ion lines observed by incoherent scatter. They offer a way to study cause-and-effect relationships that may be impenetrable to passive experimental methods.
Important science questions:  This project addresses some of the most pressing basic science questions in AIM including the physics behind electron acceleration, wave-wave coupling, wave-particle interactions, and ionospheric instability. It also has the potential of providing a new diagnostic of ionospheric parameters, rate constants, and transport coefficients, adding to and going beyond what incoherent scatter techniques already supply. The ability to probe the neutral atmosphere via radio using the creation of artificial periodic inhomogeneity (API) is novel.
Societal benefits and operations:  Low-frequency electromagnetic waves have an important strategic role to play in the areas of submarine communication and subsurface remote sensing. An equatorial heater represents a cost-effective means of achieving the needed capability. ESF forecasting is important to a number of space weather interests, but conventional research methods are producing results only slowly. Active experiments with ionospheric modifications could accelerate the progress by promoting controlled cause-and-effect experiments.

Jaynes A. N.   Gabrielse C.   Erickson P. J.   Fang X.   Halekas J.   Harvey V. L.   Marshall R.   Blum L.   Usanova M. E.   Turner D. L.   Kaeppler S.

A Call for Interdisciplinary Science Focusing on How Particle Precipitation from the Magnetosphere Affects Earth’s Atmosphere [#2151]
Truly interdisciplinary science has the potential to create new paradigms and discover exciting links between phenomena that occur across disciplines, thereby changing our understanding of the system as a whole. This kind of holistic treatment has been highly successful in other sciences, even in our sister fields of Planetary and Earth science. Time and again, interdisciplinary investigations have led to real breakthroughs. Traditionally, Heliophysics has conducted research using a more compartmentalized model. As an example, even the form to fill out before submitting this white paper requires a Primary and Secondary categorization from within the firmly established sub-disciplines. When studying how particles from the Sun are processed by Earth’s magnetosphere and provoke a response in Earth’s atmosphere, would one define the Primary subject to be Heliosphere, Magnetosphere or ITM science? As we look forward to thirty years from now, we should intentionally shift away from this kind of siloed science and toward a more interdisciplinary approach to understanding the Sun-Earth system.

To this end, we pose a specific long-standing science question that connects multiple regions of geospace, yet is still not understood. Energetic particle precipitation, known as EPP, is the primary source of nitrogen oxides (NO and NO2), collectively known as NOx, in the polar upper atmosphere. These NOx constituents are known to catalytically destroy stratospheric ozone. But the contribution to polar ozone loss of NOx produced by EPP, and the consequent effects on temperature and winds, are poorly quantified. The atmosphere is necessary for the existence of life on Earth, yet we still don’t understand a critical component of this region:  how energy from the Sun and from near-Earth space is absorbed and transported in the middle and lower layers of the atmosphere.

Here, we present a set of compelling science questions that need answers in order to fully understand this last link in the Sun-Earth system. It will require researchers from both the magnetospheric and atmospheric fields working together. And it will require support from the greater communities and funding agencies to help build and maintain those bridges.

Kepko L.   Merking S.   Viall N.   Vourlidas A.   McIntosh S.

Mesoscale Dynamics — The Key to Unlocking the Universal Physics of Multiscale Feedback [#2007]
The universal physics of multiscale feedback results from dynamical plasma physics occurring over temporal and spatial scales that span many orders of magnitude. We can broadly categorize these regimes into three scales:  microscale, mesoscale, and synoptic. Though each regime encompasses vastly different temporal and spatial scales, the bidirectional feed-back across the scales is crucial to physical understanding and, ultimately, prediction. This is true of all of the physical systems that comprise the sub-disciplines of heliophysics:  solar, heliospheric, magnetospheric, and Mesosphere, Ionosphere and Thermosphere (MIT). Understanding the multiscale feedback inherent to plasma dynamics throughout the helio-sphere requires bridging the gap between kinetic and MHD and covering several orders of magnitude of time and space. The undersampled mesoscale regime is crucial to study and we believe could be a unifying focus of heliospheric research in the coming decades.

Klein K. G.   Spence H.   HelioSwarm Team

HelioSwarm:  A Mission to Characterize Turbulence in Space Plasmas by Leveraging Multi-PointMulti-Scale Observation [#2006]
There are many fundamental questions about the temporal and spatial structure of turbulence in space plasmas. Answering these questions is complicated by the multi-scale nature of the turbulent transfer of mass, momentum, and energy, with characteristic scales spanning many orders of magnitude. The solar wind is an ideal environment in which to measure turbulence, but multi-point observations with spacecraft separations spanning these scales are needed to simultaneously characterize spatial and temporal structure and cross-scale couplings.

Recently selected for phase A study for NASA’s Heliophysics MidEx Announcement of Opportunity, the HelioSwarm Observatory represents the opportunity to transform our understanding of the physics of turbulence in space and astrophysical plasmas by deploying nine spacecraft to measure the local plasma and magnetic field conditions at many points, with separations between the spacecraft simultaneously spanning MHD and ion scales. HelioSwarm promises to resolve the transfer and dissipation of turbulent energy in weakly-collisional magnetized plasmas with a novel configuration of spacecraft in the near-Earth solar wind and magnetosphere. These simultaneous multi-point, multi-scale measurements of space plasmas allow us to reach closure on questions of how energy is distributed in typical solar wind conditions, as well as in extreme conditions relevant to astrophysical plasmas.

Knipp D. J.   Verkhoglyadova O. P.   Lynch K. A.   Morton J.

Making Full Use of Archival and Future Magnetosphere-Ionosphere-Thermosphere (MIT) Energy Deposition Data and Proxies [#2114]
While anticipating future ground-based resources and space-based missions that gather data for estimating energy transfer within the near-Earth system, we strongly advocate for expanded revitalization and re-use of previously collected data. We tabulate and discuss data collected during the last several decades that could be used in concert with models, data assimilation and machine learning methods to build a data cube for contextualizing energy flow within a few RE of Earth. As an example, we will illustrate low earth orbit (LEO) Poynting flux that has been derived from revitalized Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP)co-measured ion drifts and magnetic field perturbations. Thinking broadly, we need not limit ourselves to direct measurements but should consider methods for ‘reverse-engineering’ the LEO energy state based on rocket measurements, satellite drag and associated position data. There is a need to advance data processing and analysis techniques to utilize and cross-calibrate similar measurements, e.g., electric field estimates and particle fluxes, across distributed ground and satellite platforms to optimize use of available datasets. Clever use of data mining and machine learning with such data could provide historical and re-analysis views of three-dimensional energy flow in the MIT system. This effort should encompass particle precipitation and imagery of kinetic energy deposition, Alfvenic and quasi-steady Poynting vector (electromagnetic energy transfer), as well as satellite-drag variability data and global navigation satellite system (GNSS) data. While data revitalization is not without cost, these types of data potentially provide a historically rich baseline for re-analysis of energy input under various driving conditions, long-term trends and targets for validating global circulation models. This historical information could be critical to quickly develop models for the increasingly congested LEO satellite operation (and debris) environment. Such models in turn would provide context for future energy-flow measurements that, while moving toward more distributed platforms, would benefit from the long-term multi-decade view provided by historical data.

Li J.   Bortnik J.   An X.

Generation of Rising-Tone Chorus Waves, Quasiperiodic Emissions, Magnetosonic Waves, and EMIC Waves [#2063]
A variety of electromagnetic waves grow from space plasma instabilities, and they play critical roles in redistributing plasma energy. It has been known for decades that whistler-mode chorus waves typically consist of discrete rising-tone structures in spectrum as they grow from anisotropic electron populations. Whistler-mode quasiperiodic emissions also consist of rising-tone structures with a periodicity of ~10 s - 30 min, and they usually have a large (up to ~3 Re) spatial scale. Magnetosonic waves have also been observed to be consisting of rising-tone structures, and sometimes two groups of rising-tone elements interleave together forming “zipper-like” magnetosonic waves. EMIC waves that grow from anisotropic ion distributions have also been observed to exhibit rising-tone structures. Why all these waves exhibit discrete rising-tone structures have been poorly understood. Three approaches can possibly address this question. 1) Run high-resolution Particle-in-cell simulation in a dipole magnetic field model. 2) Do a comprehensive and statistical study on wave features and their propagation properties using burst-mode data. 3) Investigate rising-tone magnetosonic waves and EMIC waves from ion instabilities, which has not been studied. 4) Investigate the wave spatial scale and spatial variation using multipoint measurements with different interspacecraft separations.

Lieberman R. S.   Yudin V. A.   Goncharenko L.   Harvey V. L.   Yue J.   France J.   Pawson S.

Upper Atmosphere Reanalysis in the Goddard Earth Observing System for Space Weather Applications and Support of Heliophysics Missions (GEOS-H) [#2034]
Extension of the GEOS-5 global atmosphere model into the ionosphere-thermosphere-mesosphere (ITM) domain with middle atmosphere data assimilation (hereafter referred to as GEOS-H) would fully realize NASA’s research priority of utilizing Earth and Heliophysics mission data for geospace discovery science. Retrospective analysis (reanalysis) of ITM data in GEOS-H will enhance the scientific return from previous and current space-borne missions (e. g., UARS, TIMED, MLS EOS Aura, AIM, GOLD and ICON), and engage future missions such as the Atmospheric Waves Experiment (AWE), and the proposed Geospace Dynamics Constellation (GDC) and DYNAMIC. We present the scientific motivation, timeliness, and roadmap for the development and testing of GEOS-H, and the coordinated community steps needed to start the retrospective data collection for the upper atmosphere reanalysis (1992-present).

Liemohn M. W.   Jahn J.-M.   Welling D. T.   Ilie R.

Global-Scale Ionospheric Outflow:  Major Processes and Unresolved Problems [#2106]
Outflow from the ionosphere is a major source of plasma to the magnetosphere. Its presence, especially that of ions heavier than He+, mass loads the magnetosphere and changes reconnection rates, current system configurations, plasma wave excitation and wave-particle interactions. It even impacts the propagation of information. We present a brief overview of the major processes and scientific history of this field. There are still major gaps, however, in our understanding of the global-scale nature of ionospheric outflow. We discuss these unresolved problems highlighting the leading questions still outstanding on this topic. First and foremost, since the measurements of ionospheric outflow have largely come from individual satellites and sounding rockets, the processes are best known on the local level, while the spatial distribution of outflow has never been simultaneously measured on more global scales. The spatial coherence and correlation of outflow across time and space have not been quantified. Furthermore, the composition of the outflow is often only measured at a coarse level of H+, He+, and O+, neglecting other species such as N+ or molecular ions. However, resolving O+ from N+, as is customary in planetary research, aids in revealing the physics and altitude dependence of the energization processes in the ionosphere. Similarly, fine-resolution velocity space measurements of ionospheric outflow have been limited, yet such observations can also reveal energization processes driving the outflow. A final unresolved issue to mention is magnetically conjugate outflow and the full extent of hemispherically asymmetric outflow fluxes or fluence. Each of these open questions have substantial ramifications for magnetospheric physics; their resolution could yield sweeping changes in our understanding of nonlinear feedback and cross-scale physical interactions, magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling, and geospace system-level science. A notional mission concept to resolve these questions of global-scale ionospheric outflow is presented. This mission would consist of several (4–8) spacecraft at high-inclination (>80°) orbits in circular trajectories well above the exobase (>1000 km altitude). The identically-instrumented satellites should consist of a suite of sensors, including a low-energy ion spectrometer, auroral particle spectrometer, magnetometer, and perhaps also an auroral camera and GPS receiver for remote sensing observations.

Matsuo T.   Goncharenko L.   Paxton L.   Yee S.   Oberheide J.   Liu H.

DYNAMIC — A Mission Concept to Transform the Climatological Picture of the Ionosphere and Thermosphere into its Weather and Beyond [#2161]
A Dynamical Neutral Atmosphere-Ionosphere Coupling (DYNAMIC) STP mission concept was originally put forth as the 2013 Decadal Survey’s Atmosphere-Ionosphere-Magnetosphere-Interaction Panel’s number one priority. DYNAMIC’s goal is to reveal how terrestrial weather drives ionosphere and thermosphere space weather by providing key observations for transforming the climatological picture of the ionosphere and thermosphere into its weather. The community now has an opportunity to pursue DYNAMIC science with a small, cost-effective mission launched as a rideshare secondary payload concurrent with GDC’s launch. To address the DYNAMIC goals and to fully understand lower atmosphere influences on the ionosphere-thermosphere system, the height evolution of the wave spectrum throughout the thermosphere needs to be investigated on global scales. This will require measurements of day and nighttime wind and temperature throughout the thermosphere, even under the presence of aurora. Measurements of ion and neutral compositions are also required to quantify ion-neutral interaction and dynamo processes in order to understanding how lower-atmosphere influences manifest in the ionosphere. The instruments that can provide these critical measurements can also provide key observations needed to determine the fundamental turbulent mixing processes that take place in the lower thermosphere impacting global ionospheric structure, exospheric temperature and atmospheric escape relevant to the evolution of the planetary atmosphere. DYNAMIC measurements, in combination with GDC measurements, can also uncover the ionosphere-thermosphere’s active role in its coupling with the magnetosphere by quantifying Joule heating induced by wind dynamo, fly-wheel effects, and horizontal gradients in conductance. The poster gives an overview of broad science areas that can be pursued with DYNAMIC as a SMEX-lite mission and discusses what innovation and community engagement involving the ground-based community would be required in order to seize this opportunity.

Matsuo T.

Predictability of the Space-Atmosphere Interaction Region (SAIR) [#2165]
The Space Atmosphere Interface Region (SAIR), encompassing the ionosphere and thermosphere, is the intersection between the Earth’s neutral atmosphere and the Sun’s fully ionized atmosphere, simultaneously exposed to dynamic drivers from both space and terrestrial weather. The SAIR, as the interface to space, controls the escape of gas into space. Understanding the intrinsic predictability of the SAIR, as the upper atmospheric state constantly shifts from one dynamic equilibrium to another in response to highly variable drivers, is a fundamental science question in Heliophysics. The Earth’s atmosphere is a nonlinear deterministic dynamical system. The Navier-Stokes fluid equations, when used for modeling troposphere dynamics, indicate that this dynamical system exhibits considerable chaotic divergence resulting from high sensitivity to initial conditions. The physical insight that the predictability of tropospheric weather is highly dependent on the details of initial conditions, supported by the deterministic chaos theory, has guided the development of sophisticated tropospheric numerical weather prediction systems. Yet those same Navier-Stokes equations when applied and isolated to the thermosphere appear stable, leading to reproducible predictable dynamical behaviors controlled largely by the details of external forcing. The thermosphere, however, is not an isolated system, so even though it may not be inherently chaotic, there are pathways connecting and linking the thermosphere to its surrounding regions, which give rise to nonlinearity that likely limits the predictability. Furthermore, as a forced-dissipative dynamical system, the SAIR’s predictability is highly dependent on details of the dissipation processes as well as forcing. Vertically propagating atmospheric waves from the lower atmosphere are dissipated and transformed on their way through the SAIR. This wave dissipation process manifests as turbulence often parameterized as “eddy diffusion” in models, which is a poorly understood fundamental SAIR process that can impact global ionospheric structure, exospheric temperature and atmospheric escape relevant to the evolution of the planetary atmosphere. The poster gives an overview of outstanding scientific questions pertaining to the SAIR’s predictability and discusses predictability as a useful framework to test of our scientific understanding of the Ionosphere-Thermosphere-Mesosphere system.

Nykyri K.   Ma X.   Burkholder B.   Fuselier S.   Wing S.   Broll J.   Ganjushkina N.   Wilder R.   Sibeck D.

Cross-Scale Plasma Science in Super- and Sub-Magnetosonic Plasma Regimes [#2166]
Space plasmas are highly collisionless and involve several temporal and spatial scales. Due to experimental and computational limitations, understanding the physical mechanisms responsible for energy transport between these scales is a challenge. In this poster we discuss major unresolved questions in super– and sub-magnetosonic plasma regimes in the solar wind and Earth’s magnetosphere and how these questions can be only resolved via next-generation constellation missions covering simultaneously CME, fluid, ion, and electron scales as well as next generation computational models capable of ingesting new data in near real-time.

Oberheide J.   Lu X.

Making the Step from Tidal Climate to Tidal Weather — Connecting Meteorology with Space Weather [#2050]
The height evolution of the global-scale wave spectrum between the mesosphere and upper thermosphere remains an unsolved problem due to the lack of continuous day-and nighttime temperature and wind observations throughout the whole thermosphere. A particular challenge is the lack of E-region data in the transition region into the diffusive regime and the lack of high and mid-latitude observations around 200 km where ion drag is predicted to be an important wave source that is yet to be explored. Meteorological weather events such as polar vortex deformations, the Madden-Julian Oscillation, and others dramatically change the global-scale wave variability in the E-region dynamo on time scales that can only be resolved by satellite constellations measuring at multiple local times each day. The poster overviews the current state of knowledge of tidal “weather”, what is not known, and what measurements are needed to make progress in explaining ionospheric variability driven by the combined effects of tides and planetary waves from the lower atmosphere.

Ogasawara K.   Burleigh M.   Chornay D. J.   Collier M. R.   George D. E.   Goldstein J.   Hirsh M.   Hwang K.-J.   Liemohn M. W.   Madanian H.   Nocolaou G.   Nishimura Y.   Schunk R. W.   Semeter J. L.   Zesta E.   Zettergren M.

Importance of Ion Velocity Distribution Function Observations in the Ionosphere [#2112]
Precise observations of multi-species flows and non-Maxwellian velocity distribution functions (VDFs) are key to understanding the atmosphere-ionosphere-magnetosphere (AIM) coupling processes. However, mass-resolved ion VDF observations are extremely rare in the ionosphere; only a limited amount of satellite and sounding rocket data exists, since past and currently existing instruments have technical difficulty resolving the ion properties sufficiently. In this presentation, we discuss the importance of such observations in the next decades in Heliophysics community.
Quantitative measurements of flow vectors for all co-existing plasmas are essential to determine the total energy and mass content in the flow and the threshold of instabilities and resulting heating, turbulence, and anomalous resistivity in the ionosphere. Inhomogeneity in flow channels can create free energy by producing perpendicular electric fields and causing plasma heating through instability and wave excitation. Ionospheric plasma VDFs frequently show non-thermal features. Frictional heating from relative velocities between drifting ions and neutrals produces specific, non-thermal VDFs depending on mass. These ion VDFs are studied by past theoretical and numerical predictions, and are predicted to evolve depending on the relative speed and mass ratio between ions and neutrals. Another mechanism is the resonant heating with waves. In the wave resonance process, pronounced mass-dependent transverse heating becomes evident as a noticeable asymmetry in VDFs.

Accurate observations of the mass-resolved ion flow structure and the ion 3-d VDFs throughout heating processes in the ionosphere will have a huge impact to the Heliophysics community by providing missing pieces to understand the AIM coupling mechanisms, and redistribution of energy during space weather events. For example, the ion upwelling motion can be initiated by the anisotropic VDFs, and are thought to be the source of the ion outflows which supply the cold ionospheric plasmas into magnetosphere and regulates the physical processes. A comprehensive understanding of the ion outflow is also important to understand the evolution of the atmosphere. Moreover, the investigation proposed here has significant impacts in two active and critical areas for current/future Heliophysics research:  numerical modeling and ground-based observations.

Ozturk D. S.   Garcia-Sage K.   Kim Connor H.   Lin D.   Merkin V. G.   Zheng Y.   Chen M. W.   Zou S.   Halford A.   Weimer D.   Crowley G.   McGranaghan R.

A Collaborative Approach to Understanding Auroral Region Magnetosphere-Ionosphere-Thermosphere Coupling Through Ionospheric Conductivity [#2059]
The ionospheric conductivity modulates the magnetosphere’s response to the solar wind, by affecting the ionospheric convection and field-aligned current (FAC) patterns. To gain a predictive understanding of the Magnetosphere-Ionosphere-Thermosphere (MIT) systems, it is necessary to treat ionospheric conductivity in an accurate and self-consistent way. By 2050 the improvements in modelling and observations, combined with the strength of collaborations in our field, should enable the global specification of 3D conductivities, with quantified uncertainties. The improving efficiency of high-performance computing (high-resolution, kinetic modelling, etc.) and data-informed models (data assimilation, AI, etc.), as well as the increasing availability of measurements, will be very advantageous for advancing the current operational tools.

The characterization of ionospheric conductivity at the auroral region is a particularly difficult task because of the various multi-scale drivers that factor into its determination and the lack of in-situ data. The specification of these drivers is also challenging due to a lack of measurements, limited data coverage, insufficient spatial and temporal resolutions, and physical assumptions used in numerical models. Therefore, a wide collaborative approach is needed to fully comprehend the key role ionospheric conductivity plays on the MIT system and how it is influenced by different drivers.

Based on the discussions that took place in the NSF Geospace Environment Modelling Ionospheric Conductance Challenge session, the following science investigations are deemed necessary by the community to predict the conductivity and to quantify the related uncertainties: 

1.Investigating the ionospheric conductance and conductivity changes due to different auroral precipitation patterns.

2.Investigating the relationship between the conductivity and the characteristics of the neutral population.

3.Investigating the ionospheric conductivity at different spatial and temporal scales.
These science investigations can be achieved by (i) establishing a universal ground-truth data set, (ii) developing model validation, verification, and uncertainty quantification tools, (iii) developing physics-based local and global models of conductance/conductivity, (iv) improving empirical, numerical, and data assimilation models, (v) forming new collaborations, working groups, and teams, and (vi) organizing coordinated measurement and modelling efforts.

Paxton L. J.   Zhang Y.   Kil H.   Schaefer R.

Using Remote Sensing from Space to Explore the Ionosphere/Thermosphere [#2127]
FUV remote sensing, particularly using a sensor like the Global Ultraviolet Imager (GUVI) on the NASA TIMED mission or the SSUSI instrument on the DMSP satellites, enables us to discover the connections within the ionosphere/thermosphere that lead to meaningful tests of our physical understanding via comparison with models.

GUVI and SSUSI have shown that, with 1990s’ technology, one sensor can image the aurora (producing conductivity, Eo, and Q maps), dayside neutral density altitude profiles (O, N2, O2, NO, H), dayside and nightside O+ profiles, dayside temperature (Texo and N2 rotational temperatures), and map ionospheric bubbles as well as continue the O/N2 maps we have provided for almost 20 years - with every orbit it makes.

The next generation instruments developed under the SSUSI-Lite and SIHLA programs have greater flexibility and capability.

These sensors enable us to provide a 3D understanding of the I/T system. Some of the science questions are straightforward:  How does the observed behavior of the I/T compare from solar cycle (SC)23 to SC24 to SC25 and beyond? Others require additional information, especially from the ground-based community: What role does the asymmetric energy inputs (between Northern and Southern hemisphere) play in the response to solar/geomagnetic inputs? What role does forcing from below play in determining and modulating the I/T response and behavior? Has the behavior of the upper atmosphere changed due to anthropogenic change in the troposphere? There are other questions about the observed smaller scale behavior (e.g. TADs, TIDs, bubbles, blobs and irregularities) that can be studied with this next generation tool. And many others...

Flying these low-cost, powerful sensors opens new opportunities for the community.
We argue that I/T research would benefit from a commitment to provide long-term sensors of this time for open use by the community.

Perri S.   Perrone D.   Roberts O.   Settino A.   Yordanova E.   Sorriso-Valvo L.   Veltri P.   Valentini F.

Detection of Electrostatic Waves in the Earth’s Magnetosheath [#2101]
The high cadence plasma, electric, and magnetic field measurements by the Magnetospheric MultiScale (MMS) spacecraft allow us to explore the near-Earth space plasma with an unprecedented time and spatial resolution, resolving electron-scale structures that naturally emerge from plasma complex dynamics. The formation of small-scale turbulent features is often associated to structured, non-Maxwellian particle velocity distribution functions that are not at thermodynamic equilibrium. Using high-resolution measurements in the Earth’s magnetosheath, we analyze regions characterized by bumps in the power spectral density of the parallel electric field at sub-ion scales. In such regions, ion velocity distribution functions exhibit beam-like features at nearly the local ion thermal speed. Ion cyclotron waves in the ion-scale range are frequently observed at the same locations.

These observations, supported by Hybrid Vlasov-Maxwell numerical simulations, are consistent with the generation of ion-bulk waves that propagate at the ion thermal speed. This represents a new branch of efficient energy transfer towards small scales, which may be relevant to weakly collisional astrophysical plasmas.

Pfaff R.   Rowland D.   Kepko L.

Understanding the Earth’s Atmosphere-Space Transition Region [#2098]
The Earth’s Atmosphere-Space Transition Region Explorer is a poorly understood yet vital region of Geospace — it is here where the Earth’s atmosphere and the ionized gases of space interact within a “boundary layer” at the base of the ionosphere between 100-250 km altitude. The interactions of these co-existing gases within this region and their consequences are profound. It is here is where magnetospheric currents close, where ions and electrons drift at different speeds and directions due to the influence of ion-neutral collisions, where frictional heating between the gases is significant, where neutral wind “jets” are set up in concert with enhanced auroral conductivity, and where gravity waves propagating from below break and deposit energy. Furthermore, at high latitudes, this region is at the end of the line of the sun-upper atmosphere chain, and thus harbors the critical missing link in our knowledge of the transfer, dissipation, and regulation of energy and momentum from the Sun to the upper atmosphere.
Understanding the earth’s transition region is highly synergistic with NASA and NSF goals that seek to understand not only ion-neutral coupling processes but also how solar wind driven sources of energy and momentum couple with the upper atmospheres of the earth and those of other planets. Indeed, low altitude measurements on NASA’s MAVEN satellite have revolutionized our understanding of the martian ionosphere-thermosphere system and we can expect equally ground-breaking results from future measurements within the Earth’s transition region as well.
To make progress with our understanding, we discuss the need for high time and spatial resolution measurements of key parameters in order to reveal the true nature of the characteristics and energy exchange within the atmosphere-space transition region. Ultimately, the science motivation must lead to new mission designs and creative data acquisition strategies.

Qin M. Q.   Li W. L.   Ma Q. M.   Woodger L. W.   Millan R. M.   Shen X. S.   Luisa L. S.

Energetic Electron Precipitation Modulated by Whistler-Mode Waves [#2118]
Energetic electron precipitation modulated on the Ultra-Low-Frequency (ULF) wave timescale has been shown in some previous observations, but it remains to be established whether ULF waves are directly responsible for the electron precipitation or act as a complementary role in driving electron precipitation. In this work, we present simultaneous multi-point observations of waves observed by both Van Allen Probes, associated with conjugated energetic electron precipitation by BARREL and POES-18 at around L~ 6 from noon to dusk. We show that the correlation coefficient between whistler-mode waves and electron precipitation is high in several regions, including plumes and plasma trough. An almost one-to-one correlation is observed between whistler-mode waves and energetic electron precipitation. ULF wave fluctuation shows a similar period to whistler-mode wave modulation but the correlation between them is low. Some whistler-mode wave intensification is associated with plasma density enhancement. We further quantify electron precipitation using theory and modeling based on the observed wave and plasma parameters to evaluate the accurate role of ULF waves and whistler-mode waves in energetic electron precipitation.

Rowland D. E.   Halford A.   Klenzing J.   Oliveira D.   Paxton L.   Turner D.   Verkhodglyodova O.

Cross-Scale and Cross-Regime Coupling in the ITM:  Studying Weather, not just Climate, in the Middle and Upper Atmosphere [#2146]
The middle and upper atmosphere is rich in dynamics at scales from tens of meters to tens of thousands of kilometers and timescales ranging from seconds to solar cycles. Our understanding of the mechanisms at work that drive neutral and ionized phenomena is inherently biased towards the very small / very fast scale or to the very large / very slow scales. This microphysics / climatological view, which has come about in the context of sparse observations, creates knowledge gaps in several key physics areas:  1) Critical meso-scale phenomena that take place on timescales from tens of minutes to several days and spatial scales from hundreds of kilometers to thousands of kilometers; 2) Cross-scale coupling, in both directions, as small-scale features provide local energy dissipation and momentum transfer, feeding back on large-scale features which transport energy, mass, and momentum, and which set the stage for smaller scale instabilities and processes; 3) Cross-regime coupling, between the neutral and ionized gases of the middle and upper atmosphere (including across magnetic field or along magnetic field lines), and between the collisional and collisionless plasmas of the ionosphere and magnetosphere.
These sparse observations will be extended, by the Geospace Dynamics Constellation (GDC) and DYNAMIC missions, which will provide critical surveys of the upper atmosphere. Despite the groundbreaking nature of these missions, many questions will remain.
In particular, these missions will not provide the observations needed to understand how the ITM system varies at medium to large scale on timescales of minutes to days. Open questions that must be answered in the next decades, and with missions beyond GDC and DYNAMIC include:  a) How does lower atmospheric forcing of the middle and upper atmosphere, on horizontal scales greater than ~1000 km, vary on day and sub-day timescales? b) What is the contribution of small-scale structures and cross-scale coupling to large-scale energy and momentum budgets, in the middle and upper atmosphere? c) What are the time-varying two-way electrodynamic linkages between the ionosphere and magnetosphere, and how are these reflected in field-aligned and ionospheric currents on scales from auroral arcs to global?
Answering these questions will require dense observations of a variety of physical parameters, and will lead to true “meteorological” understanding of the middle and upper atmosphere.

Sarris T. E.   Daedalus Team

Daedalus:  A Mission Concept to Explore the Lower Thermosphere-Ionosphere [#2062]
Daedalus is a mission concept that has recently completed Phase-0 studies within ESA’s Earth Observation Explorer programme. It targets the lower thermosphere and ionosphere (LTI) between 100 and 200 km, where the atmosphere transitions from well-mixed and electrically neutral, to heterogeneous and partly ionised, staging a host of complex processes related to the interactions between neutral and charged constituents. It tackles fundamental, long-standing questions on processes governing LTI energetics, dynamics and chemistry, marred by a scarcity of available measurements and large uncertainties in existing models.

Specific objectives include detailed estimates of the frictional heating in the LTI resulting from the electro-magnetic connection to space as well as from energetic particle precipitation (EPP); a thorough characterisation of the fluxes of EPP that pass through the LTI and affect the middle atmosphere; retrieving altitude-resolved estimates of the electro-magnetic forcing as well as of the forcing due to changes and gradients in densities and temperatures; determining the response in the LTI to upward propagating atmospheric waves, disturbances, and other dynamic features; and establishing the range of parameters that trigger radio wave-disturbing irregularities.

An overarching goal is to help develop system-level understanding of the whole Earth system, addressing an often overlooked link in Earth system science:  the connection of the atmosphere to space. This brings together atmosphere and space scientists and crosses traditional boundaries of science and applications, from traditional space physics over whole atmosphere and Earth system model development to climate research and space weather.

Daedalus targets in-situ, simultaneous,s and co-located measurements of all relevant parameters for neutrals, plasma, energetic particles, and fields, systematically extending data sets first gathered by NASA’s Atmosphere Explorers in the 1970s. Probing the LTI calls for challenging measurements by spacecraft in elliptical orbits with altitude perigees around 150 km and below during specific incursions, gathering measurements through the ionosphere’s F- and E-regions with each pass, whilst ensuring adequate coverage in latitude, local time, and altitude.

This poster gives an overview of the pursued scientific objectives, critical requirements, the modelling approaches used to define and assess them, and first elements of the mission profile.

Volz R.   Erickson P. J.   Palo S. E.   Chau J. L.   Vierinen J.   Swoboda J.

A Global Radio Remote Sensing Network for Observing Upper-Atmospheric Dynamics [#2138]
Our current sampling of the upper atmosphere is wholly insufficient to measure the highly variable (both in space and time) processes therein and make predictions on par with lower atmospheric weather. Progress on key scientific topics noted in other Heliophysics 2050 posters and white papers, such as forcing from the lower atmosphere and whole-atmosphere coupling, is hindered by poor local time coverage and severe undersampling of mesoscale structures. Ground-based observations complement space-based measurements through their unique views of the upper atmosphere. Regular, densely-sampled measurements, even if they lack the precision of those from our flagship instruments, would be a boon to scientific understanding and modeling of the geospace system. These ideas are not new, but we posit that the technology has now arrived to make dense ground-based observations of the upper atmosphere feasible in cost and effort. We highlight two of the key enabling technologies here, although we note that other techniques and instruments can play a large role in providing complementary measurements.
1) MIMO meteor radar, measuring the MLT wind field:  Recent developments in multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) meteor radar networks have made higher-resolution wind measurements of the upper atmosphere possible. These networks operate over coded continuous-wave links between separately-located transmitter and receiver sites to increase the density of specular meteor trail observations and provide diversity in sensing Doppler-derived wind projections. Such datasets contain enough information to estimate the three-dimensional wind field within the observation volume to a resolution limited only by the measurement density in space and time.
2) Low-power ionosonde, measuring bottomside ionospheric density: Coded continuous-wave transmissions also enable a cross-linked network of low-power ionosondes operating in much the same manner as the above-described MIMO meteor radar network. Each transmitter and receiver pair can be used to produce an oblique ionogram. With combinatorial scaling, this provides a cost-effective way to densely sample the ionospheric density along each TX-RX link. Innovations such as the electro-magnetic vector sensor (6 orthogonal antenna elements with a common phase center) could help to increase each individual instrument’s degrees of freedom further. This could lead to volumetric imaging of the bottom side ionosphere within the regional network.

Xu Z.   Hartinger M. H.   Kim H.   Welling D.   Ozturk D.   Weygand J.   Oliveira D.   Noh S.   Shi X.   Kuzichev I.   Edwards T.   Salzano M.   Lessard M.   Weimer D.   Baker J.   Clauer C. R.

Causes and Consequences of Interhemispheric Asymmetries in the Magnetosphere — Ionosphere System [#2032]
In the Earth’s Magnetosphere-Ionosphere (MI) system, both northern and southern upper atmospheric regions are linked to the magnetosphere through magnetic fields. The interhemispheric asymmetries in these regions are shown in observational and modeling studies with various signatures, such as magnetic pulsations, ion outflows, field-aligned currents, auroral particle precipitation, etc. These asymmetries evolve from geographic and/or geomagnetic aspects of Earth (dipole tilt and dipole), as well as possible effects that arise directly from solar wind, interplanetary magnetic fields, solar illumination, asymmetric inputs from lower atmosphere, etc.
It is crucial to understand how each source of asymmetry interacts with each other and how asymmetric structures incorporate this information into predictive models. In the past, since there were sparse data points in the southern hemisphere, it was often oversimplified that the understanding of one hemisphere can be simply mapped to the other. This assumption does not address the discrepancy found in observations and models. The MI coupling processes associated with the solar energy input and geospace feedback can be misestimated due to asymmetries. Individual studies of asymmetries in isolation lack the capability to reveal the causes of underlying asymmetric processes; models are often not capable of adapting multiple asymmetric mechanisms simultaneously.
Looking forward to 2050, better understanding the causes and effects of asymmetries in MI coupling could be achieved by:  1) Identifying the spatiotemporal characteristics and magnitudes of interhemispheric asymmetries by utilizing data from spacecraft and ground-based instruments in both hemispheres, such as field and particle data from spacecraft in solar wind and magnetosphere, magnetic field and plasma drift data from ground magnetometers and radars at conjugate locations; 2) Investigating the relative contributions of each driver by using statistical surveys (dB/dt maps, MIEs, ULF waves...) and timing analysis (solar wind and IMF conditions, ionospheric convection, auroral precipitation...); 3) Using the observational results to guide and validate models, and conducting idealized studies with controlled external drivers. The experiments may include various solar wind and IMF conditions, seasonal effects, and conductivity estimates. It will enable characterization and quantification of external drivers on interhemispheric asymmetries.

Zhang S. R.   Erickson P. J.

Storm-Time Dynamic Magnetosphere-Ionosphere-Thermosphere Coupling at Subauroral Latitudes [#2097]
The upper atmosphere at mid- and subauroral latitudes lies within the plasmasphere boundary layer (as named by Carpenter and Lemaire). This boundary layer forms the interface between high latitudes, open to substantial deposition of solar wind and magnetosphere energy, momentum and particles, and low latitudes, containing the highest plasma density in Earth’s ionosphere. Due to this overlap between cold dense plasma and hot tenuous plasma, mid-latitude regions are rarely in a fully stable, quiet state due to constant forcing from both above and below. When considering adverse space weather impacts, this region is among the most densely populated on the planet, with a wide deployment of technology and systems with large importance to human life. For these reasons, to advance state-of-the-art knowledge on the upper atmospheric system, we believe future midlatitude geospace science is essential and will need to address particular challenges provided by storm-time conditions.
Challenges posed by storm-time mid-latitude ionospheric dynamics concern the unique role of the mid-latitude ionosphere and thermosphere in pathways of (a) energy and momentum transfer from high latitudes into low and equatorial latitudes (through for example traveling atmosphere/ionosphere disturbances, disturbance wind dynamo, O/N2 changes), (b) horizontal plasma transport into high latitudes (Storm Enhanced Density, Tongues of Ionization, and polar cap patches) and vertical transport into the plasmasphere and magnetosphere (as ion upflow/outflow), and (c) direct vertical coupling through electrodynamics and energetics within the midlatitude system, influencing known magnetosphere/ionosphere/plasmasphere effects such as plasmaspheric erosion / refilling, the Subauroral Polarization Stream, ion-neutral coupling, and ionospheric irregularities. Although these aggregate pathways for mid-latitude momentum and energy exchange have been studied in previous literature, they have seldom been treated in a systematic, interactive, and self-consistent manner. Characterization of these pathways and physical processes in 3-D spatial structure combined with time scales spanning seconds to years, remains extremely limited. Ultimately, future joint modeling and observational studies, both statistical and event-based, still require considerable community effort for adequate specification and proper forecast of dynamic spatiotemporal variability of the mid-latitude upper atmosphere.






Poster Title and Abstract

Bhardwaj S.   Purohit P. K.

Distribution and Association of Geomagnetic Storms with Properties of Halo CMEs [#2058]
We have studied the distribution and association of geomagnetic storms of different intensities with over the different ranges of three kinds of properties of halo CMEs. We have selected the halo CMEs that were observed during the solar cycle 23. Then we identified the geomagnetic storms associated with each of the selected CMEs. The geomagnetic storms were divided into three categories on the basis of the Dst value, as weak (Dst > –50 nT), moderate (–100nT<Dst ≤ –50 nT) and intense (Dst ≤ –100 nT). We selected the three properties of the selected CMEs viz. speed, acceleration and transit time. We constructed several ranges of these CMEs properties and investigated the distribution and association of three different kinds of geomagnetic storms over these different ranges of CME property ranges. We found that 60% of geomagnetic storms occur in the range of 500–1500 km/s category of CME speed. Similarly, 55% storms are distributed over the range of 25–75 hours category of transit time while 66% storms occur in the range of 0–30 m/s2 category of positive acceleration and 78% storms occur in the range of 0–20 m/s2 category of negative acceleration. Moreover, it was found more number of storms is associated with negative acceleration. In negative acceleration categories the highest occurrences were of intense storms while in the positive acceleration categories the highest occurrences were either of weak storms or moderate storms.

Brandt P. C.   Provornikova E.   Mostafavi P.   DeMajistre R.   Turner D.   Lisse C.   Krimigis S. M.   McNutt R. L. Jr   Wimmer-Schweingruber R.   Roelof E. C.   Runyon K. D.   Rymer A.   Mandt K.   Blanc M.   Hill M. E.   Alkalai L.   Alterman B.   Baker D. N.   Bale S.   Baliukin I.   Barabash S.   Bertaux J. -L.   Beichman C.   Bladek P.   Bzowski M.   Cahill J.   Clarke J.   Christian E.   Cooper J.   Decker R.   Desai M.   Dialynas K.   Elliott H.   Eriksson S.   Fedorov A.   Frisch P.   Funsten H. O.   Fuselier S.   Galli A.   Gladstone R.   Gurnett D.   Gloeckler G.   Gruntman M.   Horanyi M.   Izmodenov V.   Kempf S.   Katushkina O.   Kozanecki M.   Kurth W.   Ratkiewicz R.   Lallement R.   Lavraud B.   Linsky J.   Livi S.   Liewer P.   Mayyasi M.   Mewaldt R.   Mikolajkow T.   Mis T. A.   Mitchell D. G.   Moebius E.   Nicolau G.   Nikoukar R.   Opher M.   Park J. -W.   Paschalidis N.   Paxton L.   Pogorelov N.   Poppe A.   Quemerais E.   Redfield S.   Reisenfeld D. B.   Richardson J. D.   Retherford K.   Schwadron N.   Sokol J. M.   Sterken V.   Stern A.   Szabo A.   Szalay J. R.   Tkacz A.   Wicks R.   Wang C.   Wood B.   Wurz P.   Zank G.   Zemcov M.   Zarka P.   Zong Q.

Expanding the Realm of Solar and Space Physics:  Exploration of the Outer Heliosphere and Local Interstellar Medium [#2119]
Our Star and its protective heliosphere are one of hundred billion stars and astrospheres in the galaxy that plow through the vast interstellar medium made up of the material from supernova remnants. During its evolution, the Sun has completed about twenty revolutions around the galactic core and has encountered widely different environments that have all helped formed the system we live in. The amount of interstellar plasma, gas, dust and galactic cosmic rays within the heliosphere have been dictated by the unique interaction mechanisms at the boundary that today represent one of the most outstanding problems in space physics. Heliophysics (or Solar and Space Physics) is a unique scientific discipline that has brought us, robotically, to the farthest reaches of space. The Voyager spacecraft will soon cease operations on the doorstep of interstellar space (~170 AU) and has unraveled a remarkable new regime of space physics. Remote observations from within the Heliosphere by IBEX and Cassini have revealed global features from the heliospheric boundary region that are still seeking explanations. Telescope measurements of absorption spectra have discovered that our Sun is about to leave the Local Interstellar Cloud and entering a completely different environment of interstellar space. All these discoveries amplify that, as our Sun is critical to the formation of our system and life, its interaction with the ever-changing interstellar medium is an integral part of understanding the dynamic heliosphere and conditions within it, that represents the largest gap of heliophysics today. The historic science discoveries are completely enabled by exploring a new region of space in the range of 400–1000 AU. This region is now made accessible through the increasing availability of large launch vehicles within realistic mission design lifetimes. The quest of heliophysics is therefore inevitably expanding from understanding our habitable bubble to also include the interaction with the surrounding interstellar medium to ultimately understand how the solar journey through the milky way has formed our home in the galaxy and where we are going.

Dialynas K.   Krimigis S. M.   Decker R. B.   Mitchell D. G.   Roelof E. C.   Brandt P. C.   Burlaga L.   Della Torre S.   DeMajistre R.   Galli A.   Gkioulidou M.   Hill M. E.   Kornbleuth M.   Kurth W.   McNutt R.   Mostafavi P. S.   Nikoukar R.   Opher M.   Powell E.   Provornikova E.   Rancoita P. G.   Richardson J. D.   Roussos E.   La Vacca G.   Westlake J.

The Dynamic Heliosphere and Its Interaction with the LISM:  Open Questions and Future Perspectives [#2042]
The V1 and V2 crossings of the TS in 2004 (~94 AU) and 2007 (~84 AU), respectively, led to the first measurements of the ions and electrons that constitute the heliosheath (HS), between the TS and the HP. The Voyager crossings of the HP, in 2012 (~122 AU) and 2018 (~119 AU), respectively, pinpointed the extent of the heliosphere’s expansion into the LISM. Both crossings were associated with a depletion of particles of solar origin and an abrupt increase of GCR intensities, magnetic field and plasma density. The LISM temperature was somewhat higher than expected. Apart from the similarities between the V1 and V2 crossings, some substantial differences were also identified. For example, the V1 crossing of the HP was associated with the discovery of a flow stagnation region that was observed before the boundary, possibly due to flux tube interchange instability at the HP. The Voyager in situ measurements were complemented by global ENA images from IBEX at ~1 AU (<6 keV) and Cassini/INCA at ~10 AU (5.2–55 keV), revealing a number of previously unanticipated heliospheric structures such as the “Ribbon,” a bright and narrow stripe of ENA emissions that is thought to lie beyond the HP and “sits” on top of the Globally Distributed Flux, and the “Belt”, a broad band of emission in the sky, identified as a high intensity, relatively wide and nearly energy independent ENA region (>5.2keV range), that wraps around the sky sphere in ecliptic coordinates, that corresponds to a “reservoir” of particles that exist within the HS, constantly replenished by new particles from the solar wind (SW). In anticipation of the IMAP mission at ~1 AU (expected launch in 2024), and the Interstellar Probe mission (>2030), this poster lists three open science questions that can only be answered by exploiting a combination of in-situ ion measurements and remotely sensed ENAs:  1) Where are the heliosphere boundaries and how thick is the HS? 2) Is there a “missing” pressure component effecting the dynamics of the global HS and its interaction with the LISM? 3) Why is the shape and size of the global heliosphere different when looking in different ENA energies? Finally, we provide a brief description of the particle and fields measurements needed to address these questions.

Dikpati M.   Leamon R. J.   Anderson J. L.   Belucz B.   Biesecker D.   Bothun G.   Fan Y.   Gilman P. A.   Guerrero G.   Hoeksema J. T.   Kitiashvili I. N.   Kosovichev A. G.   Linkmann M.   McIntosh S. W.   Norton A. A.   Rempel M.   Tripathy S. C.   Upton L.   Wang H.   Wing S.

Space Weather Modeling and Prediction for Intermediate Time-Scales [#2145]
“Space Weather” describes the conditions in the terrestrial system, particularly on its outer envelope, that can affect various ground- and space-borne technologies due to the impact of energetic particles and magnetic fields streaming from the Sun. This could occur either due to the continuous flow of solar wind or due to the onset of CMEs or flares in a short interval of time. While the chain of processes involved in transmitting the adverse, hazardous effects of these energetic particles into the Earth’s atmosphere is extremely complex, over the past several years considerable effort has been undertaken to understand and predict space weather on time-scales from a few minutes-to-hours up to a few days. Also, studies to understand the effects of adverse solar events occurring on longer time-scales from decades to centuries, on society’s space-weather-sensitive instruments, industries, national security systems have continued for many years. In addition to very short (hours-to-days) and much longer (decadal to millennial) time scales where solar events could arise, there is an important intermediate time scale, the interval from weeks-to-months, over which solar activity varies strongly. These events are often called ‘quasi-annual’ or ‘seasonal’ variability, during which an enhanced burst of solar activity is followed by a relatively quiet interval. The strongest space weather events happen during the “bursty seasons”. Therefore, understanding the origins of and predicting major space weather events on time-scales from weeks to months ahead, has significant scientific and economic value. This ‘intermediate’ time-scale would also fill-in the gap between the short and longer time-scale forecasts of space weather. Recently it is shown that solar Rossby waves play crucial roles in simulating enhanced solar activity bursts weeks to months ahead. In turn, these will allow us to anticipate major space weather events well ahead of time, since they are closely tied to these burstyseasons’. Details can be found in our white paper.

Ehresmann B.   Hassler D. M.   Zeitlin C.   Guo J.   Wimmer-Schweingruber R. F.   von Forstner J.   Matthiae D.   Berger T.   Reitz G.

Space Weather and Radiation Measurements on the Martian Surface with MSL/RAD Throughout the Solar Cycle [#2144]
Exposure to radiation remains one of the major risks for the human exploration of space, the moon, and Mars. To protect human explorers from potential health hazards, the Martian radiation field and how space weather affects it must be assessed in detail. The Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Radiation Assessment Detector (RAD) has been conducting radiation measurements on Mars since August 2012, collecting data from near the (weak) maximum to the deep minimum of solar cycle 24 and beyond. While changes in the Martian radiation field are mainly driven by solar modulation of the galactic cosmic radiation, on short time scales the radiation field can be dominated by large Solar Particle Events (SPEs) which can increase the surface radiation dose by orders of magnitude. As large SPEs can be seen throughout the solar cycle, these extreme space weather conditions must be characterized not only at solar maximum, when large CMEs and SPEs are more likely to occur, but also during solar minimum. In particular since extreme variations in the past 2 solar cycles have shown that current models lack sufficient predictive capability. A continued program of synoptic space weather observations at Mars is important to characterize extreme conditions throughout the solar cycle, and from one cycle to the next. Such observations increase the longitudinal extent of our data base of CMEs and SPEs and help improve models and understanding of the 3-D structure and propagation of such events. To support human exploration to Mars and beyond, heliosphere-wide space weather monitoring, prediction and early warning for these missions needs to be provided. We present RAD measurements throughout the solar cycle, show how the solar cycle affects the radiation environment on Mars, and discuss implications for the planning of future exploration missions. We show how RAD is used as a space weather monitor on Mars and present RAD measurements of solar-induced effects on the radiation field (e.g., SPEs, Forbush decreases, ICMEs). RAD measurements of timing and intensities at 1.5 AU on Mars of such features give valuable insight into particle propagation throughout the heliosphere. We then present RAD measurements of the regolith shielding effect by natural terrain on Mars, which are crucial for the validation and design of radiation shelters utilizing in-situ resources on Mars. Finally, we give an overview on necessary future radiation observations to prepare for human exploration of Mars.

Elliott H. A.   Dayeh M.   Livadiotis G.   Sokol J.   Alterman B.

Exploring the Solar Wind in the Outer Heliosphere [#2137]
The outer heliosphere is a vastly under sampled region worthy of further exploration included in the Heliophysics 2050 plan. This presentation reviews key findings about the plasma properties in the outer heliosphere such as radial trends in (1) plasma properties, (2) variability of plasma properties, and (3) relationships between plasma parameters. We discuss limitations of current and past outer heliospheric observations along with potential insights Heliophysics can gain in the short term with current assets and in the long term with improved instrumentation on future missions.

Eriksson S.   Pyakurel P. S.   Mallet A.   Swisdak M.   Cassak P. A.   Opher M.   Provornikova E.   Turner D. L.   Bale S. D.   Richardson J. D.   Desai M.   Alexandrova A.

Magnetic Reconnection Science in the Outer Heliosphere [#2018]
There is plentiful evidence of Alfvénic magnetic field reconnection exhausts across inner heliosphere current sheets of many spatial scales. Most events are observed at time scales ranging from the highest plasma instrument cadence available in the solar wind to several minutes with a few known examples also reported at the hour time scale of Heliospheric Current Sheet (HCS) crossings. These exhausts are the “smoking guns” of magnetic reconnection X-lines that change the magnetic topology where current sheets form, whether due to plasma turbulence or associated with large-scale HCS sector boundaries of the solar magnetic field. Inner heliosphere reconnection exhausts at 0.3-5.4 AU are mostly observed in a low ion beta (βi<1) regime of the thermal solar wind plasma, possibly due to a tearing mode instability, where βi is the ratio of proton plasma pressure to magnetic field pressure. The New Horizons mission provided the first measurements of interstellar H+ and He+ pickup ions (PUIs) beyond the hydrogen ionization cavity and demonstrated a much hotter (TPUI~3·106 K) and tenuous (NPUI~5·10–4 cm–3) PUI proton distribution at 20 AU as compared with the cold (Tp~1·104 K) and dense (Np~2·10–2 cm–3) population of thermal solar wind protons. The outer heliosphere proton distribution effectively consists of a core of cold thermal solar protons and a halo of hot, tenuous pickup protons. The estimated βi<2 regime of cold solar protons suggests that spontaneous reconnection could be active across local CSs in the outer heliosphere, as these βi values are similar to those confirmed across exhausts of the inner heliosphere. In contrast, the PUI-associated proton βPUI, which may be as high as 20–100 in the outer heliosphere, suggests that spontaneous reconnection may be prohibited at ion-scale current sheets involving the hot PUIs. We discuss whether spontaneous reconnection may proceed in the outer heliosphere through a decoupling of cold solar wind protons with small Larmor radii across ion-scale current sheets without a direct dynamic coupling of hot PUI protons with larger Larmor radii.

Galli A.   Redfield S.   Provornikova E.   Kucharek H.   Swaczyna P.   Sokol J. M.   Kubiak M.

The Potential of the Interstellar Probe for Measuring In-Situ Interstellar Neutrals [#2009]
A near-term interstellar probe would enable in-situ measurements of the interstellar medium all the way from the Earth to the heliosheath and beyond the reaches of the heliopause. These revolutionary measurements would reveal how the interstellar medium is filtrated and deflected by our heliosphere and the chemical and isotopical composition of the unperturbed interstellar medium itself.
Two different types of instruments with a high heritage from previous space missions can be used to measure neutrals on board the Interstellar Probe in-situ. Their capabilities and shortcomings are complementary:
1. Neutral gas mass spectrometer:  A time-of-flight detector combined with a dual entrance system (closed source for volatile species, accumulated sampling for all species and ionization states) can identify elemental and isotopic abundances of all neutral species, covering all atomic species up to Fe. Masses up to 1000 atomic mass unit can easily be achieved and also (rare) larger molecules or dust fragments can be handled. Densities along the trajectory can be measured to obtain timeseries, but no information on velocity, temperature, or flow direction of particles is obtained.
2. Low-energy Energetic Neutral Atoms (ENA) imager: An ENA-Lo imager (similar to instruments flown on the Interstellar Boundary Explorer and the Interstellar Mapping and Acceleration probe) can measure intensities, energies, and directions of interstellar neutrals and heliosheath ENAs between 10 eV and 1 keV energy, usually distinguishing between the three major species H, He, and O. If a scanning field of view is used, these measurements enable 2D-sky maps of the primary and secondary populations of interstellar neutral H, He, and O, from which spatial and temperature distributions of the different populations can be detrived.

Gil A.   Berendt-Marchel M.   Modzelewska R.   Moskwa Sz.   Siluszyk A.   Siluszyk M.   Tomasik L.   Wawrzaszek A.   Wawrzynczak A.

Analysis of Strong Geomagnetic Storms and Electrical Grid Failures in Poland for the Period 2010–2014 [#2016]
We analyzed strong geomagnetic storms for the period of the first half of the solar cycle 24. Strong geomagnetic storms were observed only several times during the studied time interval, generally accompanied by a southwardly directed heliospheric magnetic field, Bz, component. We utilized self-organizing maps, statistical and superposed epoch analysis, showing that during and right after intense geomagnetic storms, the number of transmission line failures raised, which might be of solar origin. We also examined the temporal changes of the number of failures during 2010–2014 and found the rising linear trend of electrical grid failures occurrence possibly related to solar activity level. We collated our results with the geoelectric field computed for the Poland’s region using a 1-D layered conductivity Earth model.

Goetz C.   Gunell H.   Volwerk M.   Beth A.   Eriksson A.   Galand M.   Henri P.   Nilsson H.   Simon Wedlund C.   Alho

Cometary Plasma Science [#2021]
Comets hold the key to the understanding of our solar system, its formation and its evolution, and to the fundamental plasma processes at work both in it and beyond it. A comet nucleus emits gas as it is heated by the sunlight. The gas forms the coma, where it is ionised, becomes a plasma and eventually interacts with the solar wind. Besides these neutral and ionised gases, the coma also contains dust grains, released from the comet nucleus.
As a cometary atmosphere develops when the comet travels through the solar system, large-scale structures, such as the plasma boundaries, develop and disappear, while at planets such large-scale structures are only accessible in their fully grown, quasi-steady state. In situ measurements at comets enable us to learn both how such large-scale structures are formed or reformed and how small- scale processes in the plasma affect the formation and properties of these large scale structures. Furthermore, a comet goes through a wide range of parameter regimes during its life cycle, where either collisional processes, involving neutrals and charged particles, or collisionless processes are at play, and might even compete in complicated transitional regimes. Thus a comet presents a unique opportunity to study this parameter space, from an asteroid-like to a Mars- and Venus-like interaction.
The Rosetta mission and previous fast flybys of comets have together made many new discoveries, but the most important breakthroughs in the understanding of cometary plasmas are yet to come. The Comet Interceptor mission will provide a sample of multi-point measurements at a comet, setting the stage for a multi-spacecraft mission to accompany a comet on its journey through the solar system.
This white paper reviews the present-day knowledge of cometary plasmas, discusses the many questions that remain unanswered, and outlines a multi-spacecraft ESA mission to accompany a comet that will answer these questions by combining both multi-spacecraft observations and a rendezvous mission, and at the same time advance our understanding of fundamental plasma physics and its role in planetary systems.

Green J.   Dong C.   Hesse M.   Young C. A.

Space Weather Observations and Modeling in Support of Human Exploration of Mars [#2077]
What role can Heliophysics play in the support of human exploration of Mars? As a view of the future, consider the following:  Humans on Mars will stay in an Exploration Zone (EZ). A comprehensive Mars SW modeling (MSWM) system starts at the Sun, with 360o coverage by observations and models that ingest relevant data as more become available, and which is capable of evolving in response to new scientific insights. The MSWM system also employs Martian atmospheric models and extends those outward by coupling to suitable SW-induce magnetopause models. This whole system then provides the breadth of relevant SW information as well as output suitable for scientific research and validation and verification. The MSWM system is designed to provide rapid dissemination of information to Earth controllers, astronauts in transit, and those in the EZ by producing alerts.
Human Exploration of Mars will be both an international space agency sector and a commercial endeavor. All sectors provide significant resources and capabilities in a highly coordinated fashion. A series of key measurements are fed into the MSWM that include: 1) next-generation STEREO solar observations; 2) Mars L1 solar and solar wind observations; 3) low-altitude planet-asynchronous orbiter observations monitoring dynamical phenomena rapidly evolving in space and time; and 4) planet-wide array of ground-based magnetometers, seismic, and other meteorological instruments. The communication infrastructure consists of 3 spacecraft at aerostationary orbit perform the following functions: 1) relays all surface voice/video/data back to Earth; 2) provides Earth to the EZ relay capability; 3) atmospheric weather observations whose telemetry is relayed to the EZ and to Earth; 4) particles and field sensors whose telemetry is relayed to the EZ and to Earth.
Summary: We must first develop a comprehensive Mars Heliophysics SW roadmap in which the first elements are in the next HD Decadal. The HD Decadal must also have potential new SW missions that are not being enabled in any other way but must be executed. The roadmap should include key HD payloads that could be provided to PSD Mars missions (orbiters, landers, rovers) through joint solicitation or strategic agreements. This approach should also apply to international space agencies and new commercial space partners as well. In other words, HD needs additional funding and it will need a New Initiative in order to accomplish this new science.

Hill M. E.   Giacalone J.   Florinski V. F.   Opher M.   Turner D. L.   Allen R. C.   Brandt P. C.   Cummings A. C.   Decker R. B.   Dialynas K.   Kollmann P.   Kota J.   Leske R. A.   Mewaldt R. A.   McNutt R. L. Jr.   Mostafavi P.   Nikoukar R.   Provornikova E.   Richardson J. D.   Roelof E. C.   Zank G. P.

Galactic Cosmic Rays Near the Interstellar Interface [#2067]
At one time cosmic ray experiments reached the required altitude in the wicker basket of a hydrogen balloon, drifting with the wind thousands of meters above the Austrian countryside, as in Victor Hess’s famous experiments over a century ago. In present day, analogous experiments reach their “high” vantage point of 150 AU from the Sun aboard the Voyager 1 (V1) spacecraft, immersed in the interstellar wind of the very local interstellar medium (VLISM), the frontier region connecting our heliosphere with the rest of the Milky Way galaxy. Since 2012, V1 has been in the VLISM, beyond the heliopause (HP), measuring galactic cosmic rays (GCRs) — high energy particles accelerated elsewhere in the galaxy, probably in energetic events such as supernovae. The VLISM — which was also entered in 2018 by Voyager 2 (V2) — is not at all isolated from the effects of the Sun; it is in fact actively perturbed by solar activity, and so, dynamically, the VLISM is very much a part of the heliosphere. Yet in other ways it is also not quite a part of the heliosphere, at least the heliosphere as we have known it through several decades of in situ observation. This fascinating interface between the heliosphere and interstellar space, the VLISM, is a place, as we currently understand it, awash in the plasma, suprathermal particles, gas, and dust born in distant stars and galactic clouds, not the familiar products of the Sun. It is a place that is magnetically connected to the galaxy’s magnetic field, not directly to the Sun along the spiraling Parker field, and where GCRs are the dominant mobile charged particle, not ions and electrons accelerated in the solar wind or at the Sun. The VLISM is new to us. And the GCR phenomena available for study from this new vantage point, for a few more years while Voyager observations continue, are ripe for an intensifying level of study. In this presentation we will discuss science questions associated with GCRs near and within the VLISM, as also discussed by Hill et al. 2021 (see https://www.hou.usra.edu/meetings/helio2050/pdf/4097.pdf and references therein).

Kirk M. S. F.   Lindsay S. S.   Lucas M. P.

Discovering the Ancient Sun on Solar System Bodies [#2156]
How typical is the Sun in the universe? What was the role of solar activity to create a habitable environment or the origin of life on Earth? The solar sunspot cycle is the longest-running astrophysical measurement, beginning in 1610 and consistently measured since 1749. Carbon and Beryllium radiometric dating has reliably reproduced a solar activity proxy by estimating the atmospheric cosmic-ray production of those isotopes going back about 10,000 years. However, to answer these bigger questions, we need to understand how active the Sun was millions, or billions of years ago. Geology routinely records events on this time scale, but on Earth solar activity isn’t preserved in the crust. We need a geologic source that shows the effects of space weathering that does not live on Earth. A location is needed that is not shielded by a strong magnetic field and has regular deposition of new material over weathered rocks to give us an estimate of a time-dependent change in solar energetic particles. To this end, a few prime solar system targets come to mind:  Lunar regolith, Martian Tharsis volcanos, or geologically active icy satellites such as Europa and Enceladus. In each case, there is consistent deposition of virgin material that is slowly altered by proton bombardment. This work puts forward a new mission concept that will outline the multi-decadal effort to take in-situ measurements of a solar activity proxy in the solar system. This mission would use a combination of in-situ measurement techniques to determine ion abundances (e.g., laser ablation combined with a mass spectrometer) and mineral chemistry (e.g., X-ray fluorescence or X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy – XPS) at varying core depths. We also explore the benefits and constraints of a sample return mission to further decipher trace chemistry. These measurements of space weathering products will act as a proxy solar activity over the geologic record of the collected core samples.

Lee C. O.   Luhmann J. G.   DiBraccio G. A.   Halekas J. S.   Espley J. R.   Gruesbeck J. R.   Larson D. E.   Lillis R. J.   Rahmati A.   Eparvier F.   Thiemann E. M. B.   Chamberlin P.   Schneider N. M.   Jain S. K.   Milby Z.   Xu S.   Brain D. A.   Curry S. M.   Jakosky B. M.

Space Weather at Mars:  Six Years of MAVEN Observations [#2126]
The Mars Atmosphere and Volatile EvolutioN (MAVEN) spacecraft has been continuously observing the variability of solar soft X-rays and EUV irradiance, monitoring the upstream solar wind and interplanetary magnetic field conditions, and measuring the fluxes of solar energetic ions and electrons since its arrival at Mars in September 2014, towards the end of the maximum phase of Solar Cycle 24. Relevant observations from the instrument suite include quiescent and flaring solar soft X-ray and EUV irradiance based on measurements by the solar Extreme Ultraviolet Monitor (EUVM), the fluxes of solar energetic particles accelerated by shocks at the Sun and in the heliosphere from the Solar Energetic Particle (SEP) instrument, the solar wind plasma parameters by the Solar Wind Ion Analyzer (SWIA), the vector measurements of the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) by the Magnetometer (MAG), and the auroral observations by the Imaging UltraViolet Spectrograph (IUVS).

This presentation will review observations of space weather at Mars over a 6-year period made by MAVEN, encompassing the maximum, declining, and minimum phases of Solar Cycle 24 to the start of Solar Cycle 25. The comprehensive set of observations at Mars has given us the opportunity to better characterize the local EUV and solar wind conditions during active and quiet space weather periods and to analyze the response of the martian system to the upstream disturbances. Some of the Mars-impacting space weather events observed by MAVEN include the heating of the neutral atmosphere and enhancement of the lower ionosphere triggered by large flares, the perturbation of the Martian induced magnetosphere and ion escape enhancements due to the passage and interaction of an interplanetary coronal mass ejection (ICME) and stream interaction regions (SIRs), and the triggering of diffuse auroral emission in the lower Martian atmosphere due to the precipitation of electrons during a SEP event.

Livadiotis G.

The Role of Kappa Distributions in Space Thermodynamics [#2079]
Classical collisional particle systems residing in thermal equilibrium have their particle velocity/energy distribution function stabilized into a Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution. On the contrary, space plasmas are collisionless particle systems residing in stationary states characterized by a non-Maxwellian behavior, typically described by kappa distributions. These distributions have become increasingly widespread across the physics of space plasma processes, describing particles in the heliosphere, from the solar wind and planetary magnetospheres to the heliosheath and beyond, the interstellar and intergalactic plasmas. A breakthrough in the field came with the connection of the kappa distributions with statistical mechanics and thermodynamics. In particular, kappa distributions (i) maximize the entropy of nonextensive statistical mechanics under the constraints of canonical ensemble, (ii) characterize particle systems exchanging heat with each other eventually stabilized at a non-classical version of thermal equilibrium, and (iii) constitute the unique description of particle energies consistent with polytropic behavior. Recognizing the growing importance of this subject, space science is obliged to improve understanding of the fundamentals behind the statistical and thermodynamic framework of kappa distributions and its applications in space plasma physics.

Miller J. A.   Fields B. D.

Simulating Supernova Collisions with the Heliosphere [#2060]
As the Sun moves throughout the Galaxy, the outer heliosphere encounters many different environments. Amazingly, there is now strong evidence for dramatic heliosphere compression in the past due to a nearby supernova explosion. Live radioisotopes (undecayed 60Fe, half-life of 2.6 Myr) found in ocean sediments, crusts, Antarctic snow, and even Apollo lunar samples were delivered by a supernova 2–3 Myr ago and possibly another 7–8 Myr ago. These same supernovae that deposited 60Fe must have had extreme effects on the heliosphere.
The modern heliosphere has no memory of this event, so we must turn to simulations to understand this process better. We employ idealized hydrodynamic simulations to show the heliosphere’s response to a nearby supernova explosion. Our group has investigated this event using idealized axisymmetric 2D hydrodynamic simulations. We have run simulations for supernova blasts spanning the range of possible distances informed by the 60Fe data, and for different orientations of the heliosphere. We initialize the solar wind according to data from the Voyager and Ulysses missions.
The location of the heliopause is given by pressure balance. We find that the most important parameter is the distance to the supernova. A supernova 50 pc away will compress the heliopause all the way to 13 AU. Since the solar wind ram pressure is similar in the polar and equatorial directions, the orientation makes little difference for the structure of the heliosphere.
Finally, we note that these simulations have implications for exoplanets, particularly those in the vicinity of supernova remnants. Future work, such as solar wind variability and the heliosphere through the life of the supernova remnant, will be discussed. Other future work involves studying how cosmic rays accelerated in the supernova remnant could propagate through the solar system and affect Earth. This project investigates how the heliosphere changes in response to one of the most extreme environments it encounters.

Oliveira D. M.   Weygand J. M.   Ngwira C. M.   Silveira M. V. D.   Zesta E.   Giles B. L.

Local Intense Ground dB/dt Variations Caused by Substorm-Time Injections Triggered by Interplanetary Shocks with Different Inclinations [#2065]
The impact of interplanetary shocks on the magnetosphere can trigger magnetic substorms that intensify auroral electrojet currents. These currents enhance ground magnetic field perturbations (dB/dt), which in turn generate geomagnetically induced currents (GICs) that can be detrimental to power transmission infrastructure. We perform a comparative study of dB/dt variations in response to two similarly strong shocks, but with one being nearly frontal, and the other, highly inclined. Multi-instrument analyses by THEMIS and GOES show that nightside substorm-like energy injections are more symmetric, stronger, and occur faster in the case of the nearly head-on shock impact. On the ground in North America, THEMIS magnetometers show that dB/dt is more intense and occurs faster in the case of the nearly frontal shock. THEMIS all-sky images show a fast and clear poleward auroral expansion in the first case, which did not clearly occur in the second case. The spherical elementary currents (SEC) technique shows that strong field-aligned currents occur in both cases, but the current variations resulting from the inclined shock impact are slower compared to the nearly frontal case. SEC analyses also reveal that the geographic areas with dB/dt surpassing the thresholds of 1.5 and 5 nT/s, usually linked to high-risk GICs, are larger and occur earlier due to the symmetric compression in the first case. These results suggest that shock impact angles control the location and intensity of dB/dt variations on the ground during substorms, with explosive energy release by the magnetotail through fast and intense electron fluxes triggered by symmetric compressions, which does not clearly occur under asymmetric compressions. Therefore, these results suggest that empirical and physics-based models for ground dB/dt variations should consider the shock impact angle as a very important solar wind driver factor that can subsequently cause intense GICs on the ground during magnetospheric substorms, even for isolated (no magnetic storm) events. Future statistical investigations using several shocks with different orientations and multi-instruments in space and on the ground, the last involving collaborations of several worldwide magnetometers array, will help understand not only the role of symmetric/asymmetric compressions in causing dB/dt variations with different levels at different locations, but also general shock geoeffectiveness and its direct space weather implications.

Opher M.   Zank G.   Florinski V.   Fuselier S.   Giacalone J.   Toth G.   Drake J.   Swisdak M.   Zieger B.   Galli A.   Dayeh M.   Tenishev V.   Izmodenov V.   Korenbleuth M.   Powell E.   Baliukin I.   Zirnstein E.   Michaels A.   Dialynas K.   Krimigis S.   Cummings A.   Dayeh M.   Decker R.   Elliot H.   Gkioulidou M.   Hill M.   Nikoukar R.   Roussos E.   Szabos A.   Kota J.   Provornikova E.   Mostafavi P.   Brandt P.   McNutt R.   Gombosi T.   Stone E.   Schwadron N.   Stern A.   Loeb A.

Our Heliospheric Shield, a Case of a Habitable Astrosphere:  Open Science Questions [#2012]
The heliosphere is an immense shield that protects the solar system from harsh galactic radiation. The heliosphere is a window into processes occurring in all other astrospheres. Understanding these processes enables predictions about the astrospheric conditions necessary to create habitable planets.
As the Sun moves through the interstellar medium it carves a bubble called the heliosphere. A fortunate confluence of space missions has provided a treasury of data on this structure and its interaction with the interstellar medium and the solar wind that will likely not be repeated for decades. More specifically, the in-situ measurements by the Voyager, Pioneer and New Horizon spacecraft combined with the all-sky ENA images of the heliospheric boundary region by the Interstellar Boundary Explorer (IBEX) and Cassini missions have transformed our understanding of the heliosphere. However, many fundamental features of the heliosphere are still not well understood. These aspects include the basic “shape” of the heliosphere, the extent of its tail, the nature of the heliosheath (HS), and the structure of the local interstellar medium (LISM) just upstream of the heliopause (HP). Other remaining puzzles are:  1) The acceleration region and mechanism for anomalous cosmic rays (ACRs); 2) The HS is 30–50% thinner than current models predict; 3) the plasma flows (Fig. 1) and energetic particles intensities are drastically different at V1 and V2; 4) The magnetic field direction does not change at the HP and we do not know how far from the HP the solar wind’s influence extends 5) The significant increase in Galactic Cosmic Rays (GCRs) just prior to the HP crossings observed by both V1 and V2 and the GCR anisotropies observed in the LISM are not understood fully. The ENA observations add to the list of puzzles. IBEX detected a global feature, the ribbon. INCA on Cassini measured a similar, but broader feature at higher energies, called the “Belt”. The source of these features is controversial; the models proposed to explain these features rely on assumptions for the interstellar conditions such as the draping of the interstellar magnetic field and the level of turbulence in the LISM. This work will highlight the key science questions for the outer heliosphere and the progress made so far within the NASA DRIVE Center SHIELD.

Ratkiewicz R. E.

What Does the Heliosphere Look Like? [#2022]
Authors of numerical simulations of the heliosphere tried to use all data provided by Voyagers, IBEX and other missions to validate the obtained models they created. In particular crossing the termination shock and the heliopause by both Voyager spacecraft and the discovery of the IBEX ribbon enabled to determine three criteria to be fulfilled by any model of the heliosphere:  1. The model should place the termination shock and the heliopause at the distances where both Voyager spacecraft crossed them. 2. The SW and LISM flows obtained from the numerical simulation should follow the plasma flow measured by Voyagers. 3. The model should reproduce the shape of the IBEX ribbon.

Up to now however, none of the obtained heliosphere models met all the basic fit criteria. Therefore we still do not know the structure and shape of the heliosphere. To achieve the proper model of the heliosphere we need the numerical methods that allow us to fully cover physics of problem being solved. The remedy for this seems to be to construct a numerical model using the Particle-in-cell method.

Sadykov V. M.   Kosovichev A. G.   Kitiashvili I. N.   Oria V.   Nita G. M.   Illarionov E. A.   Jiang Y.   O’Keefe P.   Fereira S. H.

Development of “All-Clear” Prediction of Solar Proton Events Using Machine Learning [#2046]
Solar Energetic Particles (SEPs) are among the most dangerous transient effects of solar activity. Representing hazardous radiation, SEPs may adversely affect the health of astronauts in outer space and therefore can endanger current and future space exploration. In this work, we consider the important problem of developing “all-clear” forecasts of Solar Proton Events (SPEs). First, we highlight our progress in developing an online-accessible database that integrates a variety of solar and heliospheric data, metadata, and descriptors related to SPEs. Use of this database is conducted through an Application Programming Interface (API) and a web application for data search and retrieval. Second, we construct daily forecasts of Solar Proton Events based on the properties of magnetic fields in Active Regions (ARs), preceding soft X-ray and proton fluxes, and statistics of solar radio bursts. Machine learning (ML) is applied to an artificial neural network of custom architecture designed for whole-Sun input. The predictions of the ML model are compared with the SWPC NOAA operational forecasts of SPEs. Our preliminary results indicate that 1) for AR-based predictions, it is necessary to take into account ARs at the western limb and on the far side of the Sun, 2) characteristics of the preceding proton flux are the most important for prediction, 3) daily median properties of ARs may be excluded from the forecast without significant performance loss, and 4) ML-based forecasts outperform SWPC NOAA forecasts in situations in which failing to predict an SPE event is very undesirable. The introduced approach indicates the possibility of developing robust “all-clear” SPE forecasts by employing machine-learning methods.

Shneider C.   Hu A.   Tiwari A. K.   Bobra M. G.   Battams K.   Teunissen J.   Camporeale E.

A Machine-Learning-Ready Software Framework Prepared for the SoHO and SDO Missions for Space Weather Readiness [#2036]
We present a software framework that allows for user-defined selection criteria and a range of pre-processing steps to generatea standard data set from solar images. Our software framework works with all image products from both the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SoHO) mission as well as the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) mission. We discuss a data set produced from SoHO mission’s multi-spectral images which is both free of missing or corrupt data and is temporally synced making it ready for input to a machine learning system. Machine-learning-ready images are a valuable resource for the community because they can be used, for example, for forecasting space weather parameters. We illustrate the use of this data with an application of a deep convolutional neural network (CNN) to a subset of the full SoHO data set in an effort to provide a 3–5 day-ahead forecast of the north-south component of the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) observed at L1. We present baselines from applying a Gaussian Naive Bayes classifier and CNN methodology.

Sokol J. M.   Dayeh M. A.   Fuselier S.   Galli A.   Swaczyna P.   Rahmanifard F.

Solar Environment as Driving and Constraining Factor in the Study of the Heliosphere and the Local Interstellar Medium [#2035]
The heliosphere, a result of solar outflow in the surrounding interstellar medium, is a fundamental subject of numerous studies and observations. Measurements from successful past and present missions like, e.g., Ulysses, IBEX, New Horizons, and Voyager constantly broaden our knowledge about its properties, solar wind dependence, interaction with the very local interstellar medium (VLISM), and the VLISM itself. Remote measurements collected from the Earth’s vicinity require careful and thoughtful interpretation of the observed signals and the implementation of proper solar environment corrections.
On one hand, solar wind and solar extreme ultraviolet radiation ionize the incoming flux of interstellar atoms measured close to Earth’s orbit. The ionization losses vary depending on species. Hydrogen, the most abundant species, is the most prone to the solar environment and undergoes the greatest losses. The high ionization rate creates an ionization cavity at a few astronomical units from the Sun including Earth’s orbit. The density of interstellar hydrogen atoms entering the heliosphere is reduced by about 95% before the atoms reach detectors at 1 au. Derivative populations like energetic neutral atoms (ENAs) and pick up ions are also affected. These severe losses significantly affect the scientific interpretation of the measurements. Studies have shown that to mitigate the adverse losses of the interstellar measurements at least outside the ionization cavity are needed. On the other hand, solar wind shapes the dimensions of the heliosphere and organizes the processes in its boundary regions. The latitudinal variation of the solar wind outflow and the variation due to the solar activity cycle are reflected in the global structure of the heliosphere observed by ENAs. Thus, the dual role of the solar environment in the study of the global heliosphere is unquestionable.
We discuss the role of the solar environment in the study of interstellar atoms, ENAs, and pick-up ions inside the heliosphere. We present research-based arguments for the need to conduct measurements outside the solar ionization cavity to improve the quality of the study of the heliosphere and to advance our understanding of the interstellar neighborhood.

Swaczyna P.

Helium Energetic Neutral Atoms as a Tool to Study the Structure of the Heliosphere and the Local Interstellar Medium [#2080]
Energetic neutral atoms (ENAs) enable remote observations of distant regions of the heliosphere and the very local interstellar medium (VLISM). Most ENA instruments observe only hydrogen ENAs, which are expected to be the most abundant species in heliospheric ENA fluxes. However, heavier species may also be produced in the heliosphere and beyond, including helium ENAs. Energetic hydrogen PUIs, which are the primary source of ENAs from the inner heliosheath, are neutralized on length scales of a few hundred au. Hence, they are almost extinct beyond this distance from the termination shock, and the distant structure of the global heliosphere cannot be mapped using hydrogen ENAs. Conversely, helium PUIs are neutralized on scales approximately 10 times longer in the heliosheath, and thus they can provide us with the information where the solar wind plasma escapes the heliosphere. Does the heliosphere have one tail, or is the solar wind concentrated in two jets? Helium ENAs are also much less attenuated due to ionization processes in the heliosphere and the LISM. This may enable observation of distant sources of the ENAs in the LISM up to about 20,000 au from the Sun. Such sources may be expected in the LISM due to the nearby boundary of the Local Interstellar Cloud. Consequently, helium ENAs may bring discoveries of new ENA sources. Due to expected low ratio of helium ENA events to hydrogen ENA events, instruments need to include high-resolution mass spectrometer ability, e.g., time-of-flight detector. However, even if the number of observed atoms is much lower compared to hydrogen ENAs, we should be able to register individual events, which mapped on the skymap can show regions of higher helium ENA emission.

Turner D. L.   Vourlidas A.   Merkin V.   Likar J.   Nikoukar R.   Sotirelis T.   Zhang Y.   Allen R.   Paxton L.   Ho G.   Ukhorskiy A.

A Vision for Heliophysics’ Role in Space Weather Research as We Advance Towards 2050 [#2088]
Space weather encompasses all aspects of the effects and consequences of the dynamic space environment on human health and technological systems spanning from on Earth itself (e.g., geomagnetically induced currents – GICs) to the Moon and Mars and on to deep space and systems beyond our home world (e.g., remote spacecraft). Societal demand for improved space weather evaluation and prediction models is ever-growing as humanity becomes more and more reliant on space-based technology and strives to explore our solar system. Here, we present our vision for a system-of-systems approach to better empower our next generation space weather capabilities, the Space Weather Aggregated Network of Systems:  SWANS. By 2050, SWANS will serve society’s space weather needs by networking an aggregated system of in situ and remote sensing observatories, both space-based and ground-based, and state-of-the-art modeling facilities and centers that will provide space weather end users with accurate, on demand resources to predict the consequences of space weather on systems distributed on and around Earth and throughout the Solar System. From the solar origins and sources of space weather to the cis-lunar and coupled geospace environments, SWANS will capture the interconnected and complex nature of space weather, always with the reality of space weather hazards and threats and end-user needs in mind. In addition to improved predictive (forecast, nowcast, and hindcast) models, next-generation climatological models will also be a critical product of SWANS, since climatological models are immensely valuable for engineering design and very long-term prediction and uncertainty models. SWANS models will encompass a variety of data-ingestive and/or -assimilative physics-based, empirical, and statistical models, some of which may also be empowered by machine learning algorithms and data analytics. In this poster, we outline our vision for SWANS and detail several of the critical observational and modeling gaps that must be filled and recommendations for how we can make SWANS a reality by 2050.

Vadas S. L.   Becker E.   Bossert K.

Medium-Scale GWs in the F Region from the Polar Vortex via Multi-Step Vertical Coupling [#2051]
In the past few years, mountain waves been shown to create fast medium and large-scale “tertiary” atmospheric gravity waves (GWs) in the F region via multi-step vertical coupling (Vadas and Becker, 2019, JGR). In this mechanism, momentum and energy are deposited where mountain waves break/dissipate in the stratosphere or mesosphere, which creates local body forces (i.e., horizontal accelerations of the neutral atmosphere) that excite secondary inertia GWs. These GWs propagate into the lower thermosphere where they dissipate from breaking/dissipation via molecular viscosity, which excites a new set of faster and deeper GWs, so-called “tertiary GWs.” These tertiary GWs were shown to reproduce the travelling atmospheric disturbance (TAD) hotspot seen in the wintertime over the Southern Andes in GOCE and CHAMP data (Becker and Vadas, 2020, JGR). However, up until now, no modeling work has analyzed how momentum and energy are transferred to the F region via GWs generated from the polar vortex, although such GWs are known to be an important source of wintertime northern hemisphere GWs in the stratosphere. Because these GWs are slow, they cannot propagate directly to the F region due to dissipation from breaking/critical level filtering in the stratosphere & mesosphere and dissipation from molecular viscosity in the thermosphere (Vadas, 2007, JGR). However, Frissell et al (2016, JGR) found that daytime MSTIDs observed by SuperDARN were strongly correlated with the polar vortex. In this study, we present a “waves from below” modeling case study during the northern hemisphere winter where we analyze GWs generated from the polar vortex. We analyze the GWs created at each step of the multi-step coupling process, which starts from the excitation of GWs by the polar vortex in the stratosphere, to the breaking/dissipation of these GWs in the lower mesosphere and the formation of local body forces and heatings, to the excitation of the secondary GWs from these forces/heatings and comparison with lidar data, to the breaking/dissipation of these secondary GWs in the mesosphere, and so on. We analyze the individual steps of this coupling process up to the F region in order to better-understand and characterize the resulting medium-scale GWs there “from below” from this physical process.

Weimer D. R.   Borovsky J. E.   Allen R. C.   Turner D. L.

The Structure of Flux Tubes in the IMF:  A Major Source of Uncertainty in Space Weather Predictions and Research [#2052]
Observational studies have indicated that the solar wind transports a network of entangled magnetic flux tubes, that may originate from the solar surface or they may be created in situ by turbulence. These flux tubes have a variety of dimensions, orientation angles, and other properties. So far much of what is known about these flux tubes has been deduced from single-point measurements in the upstream solar wind, along with the several case studies with multi-point observations. The flux tubes have a wide distribution of sizes, with a mean diameter of about 70 Re. As stated by Borovsky [2008], to fully understand the nature of the solar wind in light of the network of flux tubes, six science tasks must be accomplished:  (1) determine the properties of discontinuities in the solar wind, (2) determine the properties of the individual flux tubes, (3) determine the properties of the flux-tube network and determine its evolution, (4) learn the origin of the flux-tube texture, (5) re-analyze the solar-wind turbulence excluding fluxtube walls, and (6) assess the impacts of this flux-tube texture on Earth’s magnetosphere-ionosphere system and more generally on heliospheric physics.
The last item in this list is particularly important, while it does not get the attention it deserves. Almost all scientific studies focusing on the coupling between the solar wind and its magnetic field with the Earth’s magnetosphere and ionosphere have relied on measurements from a satellite orbiting around the first Lagrange point, sunward of the Earth. While nearly all scientific, analysis, numerical modeling, and space weather forecasting assume a uniform solar wind, the flux tube structure instead is such that the magnetic field measured some distance off the Earth-Sun line at L1 is not guaranteed to intersect with the Earth in a uniform manner with expected arrival times. As a result, the uncertainties in the fundamental structure of the IMF could be the dominant source of uncertainty in space physics research and operational forecasting.
This topic is particularly timely, given that recent NASA solicitations have required that proposers “must consider data and model uncertainty and how sources of error impact the results.”  We propose that a strategic, multi-decadal science framework for solar and space physics needs to consider scientific missions and/or operational space weather monitors consisting of at least three to four satellites in the upstream solar wind.

Xapsos M. A.   Zheng Y.   Young S. L.

Recommending Low-Cost Compact Space Weather Sensor Suites for NASA Missions [#2158]
With miniaturized spacecraft (e.g. cubesats) and instrumentation becoming an indispensable part of future space exploration and scientific investigations, it is important to understand their potential susceptibility to space weather impacts brought by the sometimes volatile space environment. A multitude of complexities influence how the space environment interacts with different space hardware/electronics. Measurements of such impacts have been severely lacking. Therefore, we recommend developing or procuring low-cost, low-power consumption, and compact sensor suites (mainly for space weather purposes) and flying them, in addition to the main instrumentation, on all future NASA (and U.S in general) missions in order to measure and quantify space weather impacts. Two of such suites, CREDANCE (Cosmic Radiation Environment Dosimetry and Charging Experiment) and CEASE3 (Compact Environmental Anomaly Sensor). are part of the Space Environment Testbed onboard the U.S. Air Force’s DSX (Demonstration & Science Experiments). The CEASE instrument was designed to measure energetic electrons and protons in the space environment. It consists of two dosimeter detectors, a particle telescope and a Single Event Effect rate detector. CEASE was designed to be an engineering instrument providing real-time warnings of space weather hazards to spacecraft operators. CREDANCE is a third generation sensor suite consisting of a proton and heavy ion telescope; internal charging current measurements at 3 shielding depths; and total ionizing dose measurements at 2 shielding depths. Space weather instruments such as CREDANCE and CEASE3 will help improve understanding of the operational environment around spacecraft, anomaly resolution, and improvements in space environment engineering tools. In addition, measurements from such sensors can be of considerable scientific value. A better understanding of space environment and its interactions with space assets can also lead to possible cost reductions with appropriate level of radiation hardening and by avoiding over-protection in space instrument design.

Zank G. P.

Theoretical Challenges in Exploring the Outer Heliosphere and Interstellar Medium [#2093]
The outer heliosphere is that region of the solar wind, supersonic and subsonic, that is mediated by the interstellar medium. This is related particularly to the entrance of interstellar neutral and the subsequent creation of pickup ions (PUIs) and the related physics that derives from this process. By contrast, the very local interstellar medium (VLISM) is that part of the local interstellar medium that is in turn mediated by heliospheric processes. This fascinating coupling of complex plasma physical processes has been insufficiently probed in situ at the level needed to properly clarify the physics and numerous open questions remain. This presentation will describe the foundations of our current understanding and then focus on the open questions that need to be resolved.

Zesta E.   Oliveira D. M.   Hayakawa H.   Bhaskar A.

Estimating Satellite Orbital Drag During Historical Magnetic Superstorms (Dst < –500 nT ) [#2066]
Understanding extreme space weather events is of paramount importance in efforts to protect technological systems in space and on the ground. Particularly in the thermosphere, the subsequent extreme magnetic storms can pose serious threats to low-Earth orbit (LEO) spacecraft by intensifying errors in orbit predictions, leading to uncertain orbit maneuvers and ultimately the complete satellite loss due to collisions. Extreme magnetic storms (minimum Dst < –250 nT) are extremely rare:  only 7 events occurred during the era of spacecraft with high-level accelerometers such as CHAMP (CHAllenge Mini-satellite Payload) and GRACE (Gravity Recovery And Climate experiment), and none with minimum Dst < –500 nT, here termed magnetic superstorms. Therefore, current knowledge of thermospheric mass density response to magnetic superstorms is very limited. Thus, in order to advance this knowledge, 4 historical magnetic superstorms, i.e., events occurring before CHAMP’s and GRACE’s commission times, are used to empirically estimate density enhancements and subsequent orbital drag. The November 2003 magnetic storm (minimum Dst = –422nT), the most extreme event observed by both satellites, is used as the benchmark event. Results show that, as expected, orbital degradation is more severe for the most intense storms. Additionally, results clearly point out that the time duration of the storm is strongly associated with storm-time orbital drag effects, being as important as or even more important than storm intensity itself. The most extreme storm-time decays during CHAMP/GRACE-like sample satellite orbits estimated for the March 1989 magnetic superstorm show that long-lasting superstorms can have highly detrimental consequences for the orbital dynamics of satellites in LEO.

Žic T.

The Drag-Based Modeling [#2068]
The space weather tools are used for forecasting the spreading and arrival of Interplanetary Coronal Mass Ejections (ICMEs) at designated positions in the interplanetary (IP) space. Many of models are developed or still in a development phase. The drag-based model employs the hypothesis that after CME launch the Lorentz force ceases in the upper corona and that drag between solar wind and CME dominates in the interplanetary space. The basis of the hypothesis relies on the fact that the CME which is faster than the solar wind decelerates, whereas slower one accelerates. The drag-based kinematics is depended on the CME speed relative to the solar wind speed. It is expected to be the case in the interplanetary collisionless environment. The simple drag-based model utilizes the assumption of constant solar-wind speed and constant drag parameter. Under these assumptions, the drag-based kinematics can be solved analytically. The analytical solution gives fast forecasting calculation of the arrival time and speed of CME to any coordinate in the heliosphere. The basic DBM model forecasts only straightforward motion of the ICME in the IP environment. Further development included geometric expansion using constant cone-like ICME shape. In that case the initial shape only broadens during its propagation. The continuation of my work introduced analysis in which initial cone-like shape flattens during its kinematics. The leading edge flattens under the influence of the perturbed and radially dependent solar wind to the ICME leading rim. Next step was the introduction of a time dependent and perturbed IP environment into the model. The enhancement examines the possibility of application in various cases, such as automatic least-square fitting on initial CME kinematic data suitable for a real-time forecasting of CME kinematics, or combining the DBM into advanced numerical simulations of the interplanetary ambient conditions.

Zimbardo G.   Perri S.   Prete G.   Trotta D.

Superdiffusive Transport and Acceleration at Heliospheric Shocks [#2129]
Collisionless shock waves are considered to be one of the main sources of energetic particles in space and astrophysical environments. Particle acceleration is due to a first order Fermi process where particles are scattered by the magnetic irregularities present in the upstream and downstream medium, and gain energy at each crossing of the shock. However, the quantitative assessment of the predictions of diffusive shock acceleration (DSA), like spectral slope, acceleration times and maximum reachable energies, remains elusive. Therefore, extensions of the original model are needed.

In the last decade, we developed a scenario of superdiffusive transport, where the particle mean square displacement grows superlinearly with time, and of superdiffusive shock acceleration, which allows to have spectral indices harder than DSA. Superdiffusion is based on a non Markovian statistics for particle displacements and a non Gaussian propagator. This model predicts upstream energetic particle profiles which are power laws rather than exponential decays, and a non-constant downstream profile. Also, shorter acceleration times than those predicted by DSA are possible.

Thanks to in-situ observations it has been possible to make a complete determination of the parameters of the superdiffusive transport, such as the superdiffusive coefficient, the energy spectral index, the typical acceleration time. The diagnostic developed for energetic particle fluxes in the interplanetary space has been extended to the study of the termination shock, the X-ray emission profiles of relativistic electrons accelerated at the blast waves of some supernova remnants, and some applications have also been made for relativistic electrons accelerated at low Mach number shocks in galaxy cluster mergers. These results call for a more systematic investigation of heliospheric shock crossing, with the purpose to correlate the shock properties and the turbulence features to the energetic particle transport regimes.

An overview of the occurrence of superdiffusion in space plasmas will be given also in relation with results coming from numerical simulations. Applications to the prediction of solar energetic particle fluxes will be discussed.






Poster Title and Abstract

Alzate N.   Seaton D.   Kirk M.   Morgan H.   Di Matteo S.   Thompson B.   Higginson A.   De Toma G.   Arge C.

The Sun-Earth Connection as a Single System:  Data Analysis and Processing Needs of Current and Future Missions [#2123]
Heliospheric environment data constitutes a vast source of information whose potential is far from being completely exploited. Advancement in the understanding of the Sun/Corona/Heliosphere as a single system is connected to the improved use of increasingly diverse data sets, and a profusion of data analysis and processing techniques, which extract useful information from the data. Computationally, increases in processor speed and parallel computational techniques have improved the spatiotemporal resolution of analysis methods and models, and advancements in physics-based numerical simulations have improved our understanding of underlying physical processes. However, current datasets and tools are not always used to their full potential often as a result of data and/or computational limitations (e.g., different datasets requiring different analysis tools; data coverage of different regions and/or properties; various programming languages; lack of public availability of software tools to the community). New missions present new challenges to the data analysis capabilities of the solar heliospheric community, so developing techniques for application to current datasets will prove valuable in interpreting and planning future datasets. Further, emerging data science and parallel computing capabilities, combined with the large amount of data that will be available from imminent/future missions, will provide unprecedented opportunities. Here, we aim to discuss how the accessibility and interoperability of various tools is essential to extract information available about the Sun-Earth system, which serves the heliophysics community at large, including those developing modeling and theory. We also aim to foster discussions between researchers focused on developing solar data analysis and processing tools and the solar wind/heliosphere community, here and through the re-establishment of previous community efforts such as the Solar Information Processing Workshop (SIPWork), now the Solar and Heliospheric Information Processing Workshop (SHIPWork). The community’s engagement in this effort is essential to fully benefit from our current capabilities as well as to campaign for new investments in this project.

Anderson M. M.   Lazio J.   Hallinan G.   Airapetian V.   Brain D. A.   Clarke T. E.   Dolch T.   Dong C. F.   Driscoll P. E.   Fares R.   Griessmeier J.-M.   Farrell W. M.   Kasper J. C.   Murphy T.   Rogers L. A.   Shkolnik E.   Stanley S.   Strugarek A.   Turner N. J.   Wolszczan A.   Zarka P.   Knapp M.   Lynch C. R.   Turner J. D.

Extrasolar Planets, Magnetic Fields, and Planetary Habitability [#2030]
Jupiter’s radio emission has been linked to its planetary-scale magnetic field, and spacecraft investigations have revealed that most planets, and some moons, have or had a global magnetic field. Generated by internal dynamos, magnetic fields are one of the few remote sensing means of constraining the properties of planetary interiors. The Earth, Jupiter, and the other giant planets in the Solar System generate radio emission by electron cyclotron masers in their magnetic polar regions, driven at least in part by interactions between their magnetospheres and the solar wind. For the Earth, its magnetic field has been speculated to be partially responsible for its habitability by shielding the atmosphere from the solar particle environment, including coronal mass ejection (CME)-induced erosion. Therefore, assessing the habitability of an extrasolar planet will require knowledge of its magnetic field, as well as the characterization of stellar wind and transient mass loss events around its host star, detectable through radio bursts analogous to those produced by the Sun. Extrasolar planets also should sustain internal dynamos, and the diversity of extrasolar planets (e.g., super-Earths) may produce magnetospheres unlike those of Solar System planets. Detections of extrasolar planetary electron cyclotron masers will enable measurements of extrasolar planetary magnetic fields. Key advances in the next decade would include the ground-based detection of the radio emission from Jovian-mass planets and radio emission associated with stellar CMEs, as well as laying the technological foundations for future space-based detections of the radio emission from lower-mass planets.

Bagenal F.

Exploration of Planetary Magnetospheres:  Opening Imagination and Testing Theories [#2086]
The magnetospheres span scales from barely half a planetary radius above the surface at tiny Mercury to ~80 planetary radii at giant Jupiter. The daily modulation is controlled by the tilt of the magnetic axis from the planetary spin axis — barely detectable at Saturn to wildly tilted at Uranus and Neptune. Earth and Mercury are clear examples where the internal dynamics of the magnetosphere is dominated by reconnection between the planetary and interplanetary magnetic fields. In the giant planet magnetospheres, rotation dominates, with solar wind modulation being peripheral. After flybys of the Pioneers and Voyagers, orbiting spacecraft (Galileo at Jupiter, Cassini at Saturn) mapped out structure and revealed temporal variations. At Jupiter the Juno spacecraft is now surveying large regions of the magnetosphere, including close passes of the polar regions, while remote-sensing instruments measure structure and variabilities of auroral emissions. Myriad missions exploring the Earth’s magnetosphere predicted auroral processes for Juno to observe at Jupiter. But the giant planet is showing significant differences from terrestrial acceleration and auroral processes, perhaps with lessons for elsewhere in this and other solar systems. Embedded in these vast and variable magnetospheres are moons and rings. Not only can such moons feed the magnetosphere — such as Io dumping a ton per second of sulfur and oxygen into the system — but the magnetospheric particles also bombard the surfaces or interact with atmospheres, drastically changing moons. Most importantly, the time is ripe to send orbiters to Uranus and Neptune to explore what must be the weirdest magnetospheres in the solar system. Magnetospheric plasmas play a vital role in the evolution of planetary objects. Moreover, future exploration of planetary magnetospheres provides opportunities to test the space plasma physics theories developed from the extensive, detailed measurements at Earth by pushing parameter space in new environments, such as changing the characteristic scales, strength and orientation of the magnetic field, plasma pressure, etc. Thus, Heliophysics plays an important role in understanding planetary systems both within our solar system and likely other stellar systems.

Bard C. M.   Dorelli J. C.   Kirk M. S. F.   McGranaghan R. M.   Narock A. A.   Thompson B. J.   Center for HelioAnalytics G. S. F. C.

The Discipline of HelioAnalytics [#2076]
HelioAnalytics is the cross-disciplinary convergence between physicists, statisticians, and computer scientists. This convergence will foster research into advanced methodologies for heliophysical research, and to amalgamate such methods into the broader helio community. The data science techniques broadly termed machine learning (ML) or artificial intelligence (AI) have been around for decades. The basic idea is to figure out how to make computers perform tasks that humans can do well in some respects, such as recognizing patterns, but in a way that is applicable to vast quantities of data and that can glean subtle patterns in data that is noisy, high dimensional, or in some other way thwarting to human cognition. Scientific AI/ML has applications in many areas, including Heliophysics, and has been slowly developing over the last decade. However, we believe there is great potential beyond the simple application of AI/ML techniques to existing data and we can attack many major heliophysical problems with these modern methods that we cannot solve otherwise. We discuss the current and future contributions of data science and AI/ML in five pillars as they apply within Heliophysics:  Mission-Enabling Development, Science Data Discovery, Strategic Partnerships and Resources, Advanced Capabilities and Method Enhancement, Responsible Applications of AI. We also introduce the Center for HelioAnalyitcs at NASA Goddard to develop a community of practice structured to respond to the evolving socio-technical landscape of heliophysics.

Barnes W. T.   Rivera Y. J.   Reep J. W.   Del Zanna G.   Higginson A.   Landi E.   Raymond J. C.   Stansby D. S.   Young P. R.   Murphy N.

The Ongoing Development and Support of Atomic Physics in Solar and Heliospheric Science [#2131]
This poster outlines the necessity for the availability, accessibility, and expansion of atomic physics values and analysis tools for the meaningful interpretation of spectroscopic observations, and their connection to the heliosphere. Our models of the Sun, and all associated space weather phenomena, rely on the accuracy and availability of these atomic physics quantities. For instance, the calculation and interpretation of spectral radiance or irradiance, including both spectral line and continuum intensities and uncertainties, fully relies upon accurate atomic data. Derived spectroscopic diagnostics and a full understanding of measurements from EUV imagers (e.g. AIA on SDO) and spectrometers (e.g. EIS on Hinode) require a detailed understanding of the atomic physics of spectral line formation. In addition, simulations of charge states within the radially expanding solar wind, that connect remote to in situ ion observations, completely rely on the accuracy of the ionization and recombination rates in the calculations. It is fair to say that advances in almost every aspect of the physics of the solar atmosphere, including coronal heating, solar wind, and solar activity, are dependent on the atomic data and transition rates used to interpret solar emission. Because of this, there are severe limitations on the scientific return of solar and heliospheric missions which rely on the availability and accuracy of atomic data and modeling codes for physical interpretation. Therefore, it is critical for technological advances to be coupled with the improvement and development of atomic physics repositories and analysis tools through explicit funding to these projects and ongoing community level collaboration in the upcoming decades.

Brain D.   Peterson W.   Cohen O.   Cravens T.   France K.   Glocer A.   Holmstrom M.   Kistler L.   Ma Y.   Peticolas L.   Ramstad R.   Seki K.   Strangeway R.   Vidotto A.

Near and Long Term Prospects for Understanding Whether Planetary Magnetic Fields are Required for Atmospheric Retention and Habitability [#2152]
The common assumption that planetary magnetic fields shield planetary atmospheres from escaping to space has been increasingly questioned over the past decade, based in part on a comparison of observations of ion escape from Earth, Venus, and Mars. This question is timely and relevant to address in coming years since the answer is relevant for the divergent climate evolution that occurred at terrestrial planets in our own solar system, for the thousands of exoplanets being discovered and characterized today, for Earth’s response to the solar wind during geomagnetic reversals. Here we present several approaches, via observations and modeling, to addressing this question, and make the case that substantial progress can be made in the next decade, leaving some long-term tasks for multiple decades.

Burrell A. G.   Halford A.   Coxon J.   Jones M. Jr.   Zawdie K.

Equitable Letters for Space Physics [#2075]
In our ideal vision of the scientific community in 2050, Heliophyiscs and the space physics communities are seen as leaders of inclusiveness, merit-based hiring and recognition, and providing safe spaces for people of all backgrounds and career levels in STEM disciplines. An environment of trust and diversity enables scientific creativity, supporting the scientific advancements discussed at this conference. To hasten the creation of an inclusive and equitable community within Heliophysics, we have created the Equitable Letters for Space Physics effort, which is working to encourage merit-based recommendations and nomination in the space physics community by providing resources and reviews. We are currently looking for reviewers to help with the upcoming deadlines for recommendation letters and nominations. To find out more about our vision for 2050 and resources and how to become involved please see our poster and visit https://equitableletterssp.github.io/ELSP/.

Clark G.   Li W.   Paranicas C.   Turner D. L.   Kollmann P.   Cohen I. J.   Roussous E.   Nenon Q.   Mauk B. H.   Jaynes A. N.   Blum L. W.   Smith H. T.   Ukhorskiy A. Y.   Hospodarsky G. B.   Sorathia K.   Dunn W. R.   Marshall R. A.   Li X.

JUGGERNOT:  A Mission to the Solar System’s Greatest Particle Accelerator [#2124]
In this presentation, we discuss a Heliophysics mission concept that will address the mysteries of particle acceleration within the full range of Jupiter’s radiation belts. The concept is called JUGGERNOT — or JUpiter’s Global maGnetic Environment and RadiatioN ObservaTory — and is a low inclination Jupiter orbiter with a perijove inside 2 Jovian radii (RJ) and an apojove >= 30 RJ outfitted with a novel scientific payload that is specifically focused on characterizing the >> 1 MeV ion and electron core radiation belt populations, the lower-energy seed populations, and their interactions within Jupiter’s material-dominated space environment via global imaging of X-rays. In addition, the concept carries instruments that will make key measurements of the thermal plasma, fields, and waves to understand the seeding and acceleration mechanisms. Why should Heliophysics send a mission to Jupiter? Jupiter’s space environment is unlike any others in the Solar System. It sets itself apart by having the fastest rotation, the strongest magnetic field and the most powerful aurora and most intense radiation belts. Jupiter is also the only planet within the Solar System that emits synchrotron radiation, which puts it in league with astrophysical systems. Embedded in Jupiter’s inner magnetosphere are a number of moons that also have their unique qualities, e.g., from Io’s extreme volcanic activity and Europa’s sub-surface ocean to the irregular inner satellites such as Amalthea; those moons shape the radiation belts via an intriguing combination of source and loss processes. Together, these various aspects provide a unique natural laboratory that can be exploited with the goal of unlocking the secrets of universal acceleration processes by exploring what drives the most intense radiation belts in the Solar System. This mission concept addresses a longer-term science strategy that the community is advocating for Heliophysics to adopt in the next decade. Namely, missions that broadly advance Heliophysics by addressing knowledge gaps across NASA’s science divisions. Jupiter is the stepping stone to understanding particle acceleration between Earth, the rest of the Solar System and in more extreme astrophysical domains.

Cohen C. M. S.   Berger T. E.   Desai M. I.   Duncan N.   Ho G.   Maruyama N.   Pulkkinen T. I.   Szabo A.   Vourlidas A.   Zesta E.   Zhang Y.

Living With a Star Architecture Committee Seeks Input [#2167]
In response to the recommendations of the 2013 National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine’s Decadal Survey for Solar and Space Physics and the subsequent 2019 Midterm Decadal Survey Assessment, the NASA Heliophysics Division (HPD) has begun to re-evaluate the Living With a Star (LWS) mission line. As part of the evaluation, the HPD has solicited the broad heliophysics community and formed a 10-member committee to 1) assess the current state of the mission aspect of the LWS program; and 2) propose a future LWS program architecture. Mirroring the successful LWS Focused Science Topics structure, the committee is working on creating Focused Mission Topics (FMTs) that address the strategic science areas which guide the LWS program. The committee seeks comments and input from the science community and will enable several avenues to do so; Heliophysics 2050 is an excellent example of one of those channels for input. We encourage scientists to reach out to the committee members present at the meeting, engage in discussion at the poster presentation, and avail themselves of other opportunities to provide feedback in the future. The committee’s final report will be completed by the end of the year and published in time to be useful as input to the 2024 Decadal Survey.

Cohen I.   Rymer A.   Turner D.   Gkioulidou M.   Clark G.   Kollmann P.   Vines S.   Allen R.   Westlake J.   Nikoukar R.   Regoli L.   Brandt P.   Mandt K.   Azari A.   Bagenal F.   DiBraccio G.   Garcia-Sage K.   Gershman D.   Ebert R.   Liemohn M.   Slavin J.   Paty C.   Roussos E.   Lamy L.   Halekas J.   Jaynes A.   Sulaiman A.   Szalay J.

The Case for Studying Other Planetary Magnetospheres and Atmospheres [#2117]
One of the best ways to learn about our world and where it resides on the planetary spectrum, is by studying the diversity of magnetospheric and atmospheric systems and processes that exist on our neighboring worlds. The diverse planetary systems within our solar system and beyond provide crucial data points that can provide deep insight into the fundamental physics that govern our local Heliophysics environment. To maximize opportunities for discovery and truly advance our understanding, we need to address programmatic restrictions and community stove-piping that often limit Helio-funded opportunities and aspirations to study key fundamental processes to relatively few targets, i.e., Earth, the Sun, solar wind, and local interstellar space. The solar system is ripe with compelling space physics targets. Mercury’s Earth-like magnetosphere is possibly the most solar-wind-driven and causes intense plasma interactions with the planet’s surface. Venus hosts a thick atmosphere and substantial ionosphere, without global-scale rotation, but no strong internal magnetic field. Mars presents yet another distinct magnetospheric category in the inner planets, lacking a global intrinsic field but with small, localized patches of surface magnetization in its crust. At each of the terrestrial planets, the solar wind coupling to the ionosphere and atmosphere is unique and requires observations to characterize and ultimately quantify the key controlling factors. In the outer solar system, the Giant planets present their own unique heliophysics-relevant questions. Saturn and Jupiter both contain volcanically active moons that provide significant sources of neutral gas and plasma to their magnetospheres. These worlds and their moons raise important questions about sources and losses of magnetospheric plasma, not to mention to role of icy rings and dust particles. Fundamental questions remain about how magnetospheric plasma is transported, sourced, and lost and how solar wind-magnetosphere-atmosphere coupling is governed by the asymmetric magnetospheres of Uranus and Neptune. Likewise, potential ocean world moons like Triton and Titan host fairly thick atmospheres and ionospheres that reside within complex magnetospheric systems.
There are multiple avenues for the Heliophysics community explore these worlds, including enhancing cross-Divisional collaborations and broadening programmatic scopes, and great examples of recent, past, and ongoing successes in such endeavors.

DeJong A.   Gallardo-Lacourt B.   Halford A.   Robinson R.

Best Practices for Supporting Soft Money Scientists [#2027]
The pathway to 2050 will undoubtedly involve a global community of scientists, linked together virtually and able to exploit emerging technologies for collaboration and resource sharing. This will overcome the boundaries separating scientists with various physical workplaces, employment affiliations, and home-life situations. This will expand the participation of what is now referred to as ‘soft-money’ scientists. Even now, most Heliophysics scientists will be a soft money scientist at some point in their career. With university faculty and government civil servant positions being limited, some may find themselves spending most, or all, of their careers as soft money scientists. Our goal is to identify ways that can make this type of career path more fulfilling and successful. We began our study by investigating the NASA GSFC Heliophysics Science Division (HSD), as a large portion of its work force are soft money contractors. We interviewed both NASA contractors and soft money scientists from other institutions to understand what practices has and has not worked for them. We have found that there are many universal problems facing the soft money scientist that need to be addressed as a community. The goal is to put together a living document of the best practices for our community that can be applied at any type of institution to better support soft money scientists. We will present some of our findings and solutions that we hope to implement in the HSD at NASA GSFC.

Dorfman S.   Carter T. A.   Fu X. R.   Chen C. H. K.   Vincena S. T.   Tripathi S. K. P.   Pribyl P.   Boldyrev S.   Franci L.   Lichko E.

Alfvén Wave Processes in Heliophysics:  The Role of Laboratory Experiments [#2135]
Today’s most advanced multi-spacecraft missions (MMS, THEMIS, Cluster) come with inherent limitations:  they only allow exploration of naturally occurring plasmas, lack control over the plasma parameters, and cannot distinguish whether the observations are due to local effects or variations in the initial and boundary conditions. Controlled laboratory experiments, which do not have the same limitations, represent a crucial tool for complementing space-based investigations. In the laboratory, it is possible to focus on key Heliophysics-relevant physical processes under well-controlled conditions in a real plasma. For example, on the Large Plasma Device (LAPD) at UCLA, Alfvén waves with well-defined frequencies and wave numbers may be launched in configurations tailored to various non-linear processes. Experiments along this line include: 
1) Alfvén wave parametric instabilities represent a possible cause of coronal heating (acoustic modes may directly heat ions) and a potential intermediate mechanism for the transfer of energy to small scales in the solar wind. LAPD experiments show the first laboratory observation of an Alfvén wave parametric instability, including features not yet predicted by theory [Dorfman and Carter, PRL 2016].
2) The presence of cold ions in the magnetosphere makes a reliable measurement of the ion mix difficult. An alternate method may involve measurements of non-linearly interacting Alfvén waves launched from spacecraft. Recent LAPD experiments launch two Alfvén waves in a multi-species plasma to demonstrate the feasibility of this technique [Fu and Dorfman, In Preparation].
3) In the solar wind, there is excess energy in the magnetic fluctuations compared to the velocity fluctuations [Chen, et. al. 2013]. However, for linear Alfvén waves this “residual energy” is zero. LAPD experiments starting from two counter-propagating Alfvén waves aim to probe the nonlinear source of this residual energy.
In all of these cases, which have applications from the magnetosphere to the solar surface, the range of normalized plasma parameters accessible in LAPD allow for the study of key physics in the relevant heliospheric regimes.

Espley J. R.   Gruesbeck J. R.   DiBraccio G. A.

The Martian Hybrid Magnetosphere:  A Natural Plasma Laboratory [#2004]
The interaction of the solar wind with the martian ionosphere creates what is often called an induced magnetosphere. The presence of localized strong magnetic field regions in the martian crust complicates this interaction, creating localized mini-magnetospheres. This combination of a global induced magnetosphere with crustal intrinsic magnetism is called a hybrid magnetosphere. This combination of magnetospheric and ionospheric regimes creates a rich natural plasma laboratory at Mars. Specifically, Mars has an abundance of asymmetrical and time-variable plasma boundaries, wave-particle interactions, reconnection regimes, and space weather responses. Looking to the future, Mars can be a place where we test observational strategies and theoretical understandings of plasma physics as applicable across the heliosphere. Furthermore, a detailed understanding of the space weather environment at Mars will become increasingly important as humanity continues its robotic and potentially crewed exploration of Mars.

Fox W.   Schaeffer D. B.

Opportunities for Laboratory Experiments on Heliospheric Plasma Physics [#2149]
Recent experimental capabilities in laser-produced plasmas offer significant opportunities to study plasma physics processes relevant to heliophysics, including energy conversion processes including magnetic reconnection, magnetized collisionless shocks, kinetic plasma instabilities, and magnetized plasma turbulence. Experiments can probe consequences of these processes including plasma heating and particle energization and acceleration.  The high laser energy now available allows high-temperature, low collisionality plasmas to be produced which are much larger than plasma kinetic scales (ion gyro-radius and ion inertial length), with imaging diagnostics which span the global to the kinetic scale.  We will highlight recent results and propose possible topics of partnership for future experiments.

Garcia-Sage K.   Halford A.   Domagal-Goldman S.   Kopparapu R.   Young K.   Mandell A.   DiBraccio G. A.   Yue J.   Cohen I.   Farrish A.   Gershman D.   Glocer A.

Enabling Cross-Heliophysics and Cross-Divisional Research [#2108]
Nature often does not provide us with clear boundaries — the atmosphere extends into the ionosphere, the ionosphere extends into the magnetosphere, and processes that begin at the Sun reach every planet in our Solar System. Heliophysics is tied to each of the other three science divisions at NASA and reaches across divisions and directorates at NSF. The physical dynamics studied by the heliophysics community are found throughout the universe. In contrast to this connectedness throughout heliophysics and with other branches of science, our funding typically acts as if clear physical boundaries exist.
While there are real needs and reasons for delineated funding between and within science divisions, additional mechanisms must simultaneously exist to help overcome the roadblocks that ensue. These mechanisms must be scaled to the various ways that research is carried out, from small ROSES grants and even internal institutional funding to mission-scale and large team efforts. Past efforts to carry out cross-disciplinary research of this nature include highly successful missions (e.g. Parker, MESSENGER, Juno, MAVEN), NASA/GSFC collaborations (e.g. the SEEC Exoplanet and EIMM Heliophysics/Planetary collaborations), and NASA Agency-level Astrobiology programs. However, dedicated sustained funding to carry out such efforts is still lacking. The NSF 10 Big Ideas initiatives and NASA’s DRIVE Center efforts are a step in the right direction to providing funding dedicated toward large-scale cross-disciplinary and cross-heliophysics efforts, respectively.
Additional support is needed for researchers to pursue smaller-scale interdisciplinary collaborations. These smaller collaborations would provide the benefit of promoting equity by enabling institutions and individuals that are not positioned to respond to large-scale efforts to carry out interdisciplinary work. They also would serve as a way to incubate ideas that may not be ready for large-scale efforts, ultimately improving the quality and diversity of interdisciplinary efforts. When dedicated funding streams enable cross-disciplinary science, it is likely that individual institutions will follow suit, establishing their own ways to promote connections and conversations between departments and labs. We encourage successful interdisciplinary science teams to contribute lessons learned and best practices, in order to assist scientists in spanning these divides and advancing equity in science through such efforts.

Gibson S. E.   DeForest C.   Attie R.   Gallardo Lacourt B.   Gilly C. R.   Provornikova E.   Viall-Krepko N.   Cranmer S.   Thompson B. J.   Malanushenko A.   Webb D.   de Koning C.   Desai M.

The PUNCH Associate Investigator (AI) Program [#2082]
PUNCH (Polarimeter to UNify the Corona and Heliosphere) is an in-development NASA mission that will image the outer corona and solar wind throughout the inner heliosphere. PUNCH has instituted a program to recognize and encourage early-career scientists working with the Science Team on problems that support and enhance mission science. PUNCH Associate Investigators (AIs) pursue science projects with mentorship from PUNCH coI(s), attend team meetings, participate in PUNCH working group activities, and present at PUNCH science meetings. They act as liaisons, communicating PUNCH science to the broader community and community needs back to the project. In this way, they help grow the PUNCH user base, and also benefit from the career-enriching experience of being embedded in a NASA mission at an early stage of their careers. In this poster, we introduce the 2021 PUNCH AIs and their science, and discuss the broader context of this program with regard to involving early career scientists in NASA missions in order to grow a diverse cohort of potential future PIs.

Gibson S. E.   de Toma G.   Qian L.   Kolinski D.   Hewins I.   Allen R.   Thompson B.   Emery B.   Gasperini F.   Hudson M.   Aryal S.   Kozyra J.

Whole Heliosphere and Planetary Interactions (WHPI):  A New Initiative on Solar Minimum [#2040]
The Whole Heliosphere and Planetary Interactions (or WHPI) is an international initiative focused around the solar minimum period, which aims to understand the interconnected Sun-heliospheric planetary system. WHPI follows two similar initiatives during previous solar minima. With each initiative we have expanded our scope, from sun/solar wind during the Whole Sun Month of 1996, to sun/solar wind-geospace science during the Whole Heliosphere Intervals of 2008-2009, and now with the study of sun/solar wind/planetary interactions during the Whole Heliosphere and Planetary Interactions initiative. The success of these efforts relies on a broad participation of scientists worldwide and across disciplines.

Glesener L.   Allred J.   Caspi A.   Christe S. D.   Guidoni S.   Kerr G.   Krucker S.   Reeves K.   Shih A. Y.   Veronig A.   Vievering J. T.

Understanding Stellar Flares by Observing the High-Energy Sun [#2153]
Understanding high-energy aspects of flaring activity on the Sun can help to understand the capability of other stars to support life or to wipe it out (or both!). This includes understanding the effects of solar and stellar flares on planetary atmospheres, such as radiation level changes (particularly high-energy photons and energetic particles) at the surfaces of planets in the habitable zone. To better merge what is known about flares on the Sun and on other stars, and their effects on other planets, multidisciplinary efforts will be needed that span solar, heliospheric, magnetospheric, ionospheric, planetary, and stellar physics. High-energy measurements will play a key role. Within the area of solar flare investigation, efforts are needed to better characterize the entire flare frequency distribution and place these within the context of flare distributions measured on other stars. This includes studying large flares that could cause abrupt damage all the way down to nanoflares, which could be influential due to the power in numbers. High-energy measurements of flares (especially those observed in hard and soft X-rays, EUV, and radio) are among the measurements that can be compared with stellar studies. It should be noted that stellar flares often do not have the multiwavelength coverage than solar flares do, and non-thermal stellar flare observations are extremely rare. A concerted effort should be made to garner thorough, multiwavelength studies of individual high-energy solar flares and of solar flare distributions, including up to nonthermal energies, along with the development of models that can be applied to other stars (with tuned parameters and with constraints from stellar observations). The development of analysis methods that can be utilized for both solar and stellar measurements is also required.  Lastly, an effort will need to be made to bridge heliophysics and astrophysics communities in order to leverage the full capability of this line of inquiry.

Goodwin L. V.   Bhatt A.   Bossert K.   Jones M. A. Jr   Mcgranaghan R. M.   Oberheide J.

Long-Term Vision for Heliophysics:  A Summary of Thoughts from the CEDAR Community [#2100]
The Coupling, Energetics and Dynamics of Atmospheric Regions (CEDAR) workshop is an annual meeting sponsored by the National Science Foundation. Although it only represents a portion of the broader heliophysics community, it is instrumental in advancing science goals related to the Earth’s upper atmosphere and understanding the role space weather plays in our modern lives. At the 2020 CEDAR workshop, a “Long-Term Vision” session took place that identified the directions in which the CEDAR community wishes to see itself and the heliophysics community grow and change. During these discussions, a desire for the following transformative changes were vocalized:  1) in keeping with CEDAR’s strategic vision (which mentions that what “has emerged from CEDAR research is the recognition that many of these natural coupling processes are linked through system processes that demonstrate complexity”), the creation of stronger collaborations between different physics communities (e.g. exoplanets, planetary atmospheres, troposphere, comparative atmospheres, etc.) and STEM communities (e.g. mathematics, computer science, engineering, etc.) to develop science goals with complementary observations and models, 2) the consideration of how space science plays a role in tech and industry communities and re-evaluating how we collaborate with those groups, 3) improved inclusion of citizen science by identifying groups already engaged in heliophysics research and the creation of well-designed citizen science projects with ample funding for all pieces of the project (e.g., science, software, people/volunteers, education, and data storage),4) broadening participation in science and improving the diversity, equity, and inclusivity of heliophysics,5) more adequately preparing students and heliophysics for the future of science, such as through discussions of data science and machine learning,6) raise awareness of the relevance of heliophysics to society and more adequately address the goals of society by understanding its needs, improving the bridge from fundamental research to applied research, and improving the feedback between society and scientists. These themes, as well as additional thoughts from the CEDAR community, will be discussed further in this poster.

Halford A. J.   Garcia Sage K.   Thompson B.   Kellerman A.   ISWAT 01-01 Team

Documenting the Pathway into the Future with Application Usability Levels [#2054]
Nature often does not provide us with clear boundaries — the Earth’s Atmosphere extends into the ionosphere. The Ionosphere extends into the magnetosphere, etc. And the physical dynamics observed across these regions are found on other planets, other solar systems, and throughout the universe. In contrast, our funding for research often does act as though clear boundaries exist. While there are real needs and reasons for this delineated funding, it does hamper interdisciplinary through transdisciplinary collaborations. Many have recognized the issues and roadblocks which have arisen from this disconnect and we hope that by 2050 solutions and mitigations will have been adapted. Here we suggest one possible solution that establishing a ‘Center for Cross Division Science’ that consists of area experts from different departments from an academic institution would spur interconnectivity and conversations that promote cross-division/cross-center science collaborations. We also welcome to develop other possible avenues for promoting cross-division interactions, identify best practices and lessons learned, for how to span these institutional and divisional divides.

Halford A. J.   Garcia-Sage K.   Samara M.   Welling D.   Walsh B.   Kirk M. S. F.   Thompson B. J.   Rowland D.   Bain H. M.   Bard C.   Gabrielse C.   Liemohn M. W.   Breneman A. W.   Rivera Y. J.   Lejosne S.   McGranaghan R. M.   MacDonald E.   Turner D.   Allen R. C.   Jaynes A. N.   Vines S. K.   Nikoukar R.   LLera K.   Stawarz J. E.   Gingell I.   Genestreti K. J.   Blum L.   Filwett R. J.   Saikin A. A.   Sibeck D.   Vievering J.   Higginson A. K.   Mostafavi P.   Hartinger M. D.   Atz E. A.   Greeley A. D.   Willson L. B. III   Bortnik J.   Masongsong E. V.   Tu W.   Kosar B.   Brandt L.   Clark G.   Sorathia K.   Gkioulidou M.   Regoli L.   Merkin S.   Rymer A.   Cohen I.   Claudepierre S.   Maute A.   Mitchell R.   Giles B.   Knudsen D.   Cattell C.   Kistler L.   Lyons L.   Spann J.   Li W.   Chen L.-J.   Woodroffe J.   Argall M. R.   Savage S.   Dorelli J. C.   Pfaff R.   Zettergren M.   Jahn J.-M.   Arge C. N.   Zesta E.   Glesener L.   Turner N. E.   Mirizio E. R.   LeMay M.   Bonnell J.   Athiray P. S.   Pulkkinen T. I.   Lepri S. T.   Ridley A. J.   McHarg M. G.   Malaspina D.   Erlandson R.   Sotirelis T. S.   Gonzales E. V.   Klenzing J.   Thomas B.   Young C. A.   Collado-Vega Y.   Sittler E. C.   Mays M. L.   Katus R. M.   DeJong A. D.   Habash Krause L.   Kepko L.   Klimchuk J.   Whittlsey P. L.   Shumko M.   Lynch K. A.   Mandt K.   Domagal-Goldman S. D.   Young K.   Cash M. D.   Marbel A. R.   Raftery C. L.   Keesee A. M.   Kerr G. S.   DeForest C. E.   Seaton D. B.   Milic I.   Cheung M. C. M.   Bowen T. A.   Badman S. T.   Gallardo-Lacourt B.   Korreck K. E.   Mason J. P.   Zou S.   Moldwin M. B.   Viall N.   Alterman B. L.   Caspi A.

Enabling and Advancing Scientific Innovation Through Cultivating a Collaborative, Inclusive, Diverse, and Safe Community Culture [#2130]
This workshop asks us to dream big about what our field, our community, will be in 2050. Specifically, we have been encouraged to think innovatively about what science questions we hope to address within 30 years. We believe a uniquely fundamental question will drive those science innovations:  What research environment and community will we build in the next 30 years? The most innovative scientific ideas and discoveries will come by cultivating a safe, inclusive, diverse, accessible, and collaborative environment. This environment will also strengthen all types of collaborations from intra- to trans-disciplinary - furthering the potential innovations. If we ignore this critical aspect of science, we will maintain the same issues our field is experiencing regarding diversity, retention, and succession, all of which inhibit true innovation. Some activities to cultivate an equitable environment have started through organizations like NASA, AGU, NSF, and others. We will pose additional clear steps that we can take now so that future scientists born today will enter into an inclusive field in 2050. The first step is to embrace and employ the best practices laid out in the National Academy’s Science of Team Science (STS) report and to continue studying their impact and update them as our understanding improves. The next step is to ensure equity and access across the field through adopting open science practices whenever possible. We can integrate the lessons learned from the past year during pandemic-imposed telework to better enable virtual participation in workshops and encourage collaboration across geographically dispersed teams. This past year has also highlighted many roadblocks that inhibit some of these best practices, such as a lack of access to and affordability for some collaborative tools/workshops. What is presented within this poster is just a small step forward along the path needed to establish an inclusive, equitable, and anti-racist scientific field by 2050. As we grow and learn as a community, we will identify new paths forward, and we hope to encourage humility, ongoing self-reflection, respect, and empathy. By establishing and instituting actionable paths forward to foster these traits, our community will ensure that our field keeps a steady eye on how we collaborate and work with each other to ensure that the best ideas are elevated. Ultimately, we can better learn from each other and innovate within this collaborative environment.

Harman A. S.   Mastandrea J.   Paul M. V.

The Pragmatic Interstellar Probe Mission Concept Study Online Library [#2038]
The Pragmatic Interstellar Probe Mission Concept Study is compiling an online library of articles, papers, presentations, study reports, and annotated bibliographies for the scientific and engineering communities, and beyond. This material is relevant to the development of the mission concept. At the conclusion of the concept study, the website will be a storehouse of information available to the public. In presenting this library, the study team hopes to receive feedback on how to improve its utility.
The materials library is available to the public on the Pragmatic Interstellar Probe Mission Concept Study’s website (http://interstellarprobe.jhuapl.edu/). When possible, full presentations or papers are made available. If materials are copyrighted, a citation is given or a link to where they can be accessed is provided.
Several types of content are located on the website. First, the site pages themselves are populated with content from reports and presentations for the general public. This ‘top level’ content is navigable and organized to provide an overview of the science and engineering aspects of the study. Another section is a library of material from events and meetings presented by the study team. This includes content such whitepapers (e.g., decadal surveys, Helio 2050), and session materials from various meetings. Specially developed collections include a webinar series with 14 episodes and counting, covering a range of relevant topics.
A number of audiences for this material have been identified, and the study team is soliciting feedback to ensure that this resource is useful for all of them. The first is engineers and scientists who can use this material to support their own work and research. Second, are students, both at undergraduate and graduate levels. An effort is currently underway to identify how best to present this information and make it useful for those who are just starting their research careers. A related audience is teaching professionals, who could use it to develop lesson plans about a variety of space science and engineering topics. Another important group are legislators. This website could be a tool they can use when considering the priority that should be given to a potential Interstellar Probe Mission, which would support vital science objectives for decades to come. This list of potential uses for the website is by no means exhaustive, but includes the key stakeholders who could most benefit from this resource.

Jaynes A. N.   Cohen I.   Ridley A.   Erickson P. J.   Alterman B. L.   Wilson L. B. III   Halford A. J.   McGranaghan R.   Filwett R. J.   Regoli L. H.   Gasperini F.   Llera K.   Nikoukar R.   Hartinger M. D.   Stawarz J. E.   Ferdousi B.   Argall M. R.   Bortnik J.   Goodwin L. V.   Turner D. L.   Claudepierre S.   Keesee A.

An Open-Access Community:  Why We Need to Prioritize Our Scientific Environment as a Welcoming Space [#2140]
Historically marginalized groups are disproportionately represented in the US geosciences. This is unacceptable. As Heliophysicists, we publish open-access articles in our peer-reviewed journals and we push for transparency in data and simulations used in these manuscripts. We need to be equally emphatic about the access to our communities from historically marginalized groups. It’s not only the right thing to do:  the very future of our science depends on how well we can provide a supportive and safe environment for every scientific mind.
The incoming generations of students and early career professionals are much more interested in the diversity, equity and inclusion climate of their workplace than previous generations. These issues are increasingly important to the younger generations when deciding (1) where to go to school; (2) where to work; and (3) what field to specialize in. Coupling this with data showing a drop-off in college-age US residents (due to the population bust) and we are competing for fewer students who hold clear opinions about what values they want their workplace and career to uphold. Thus, if we want to retain scientists and build our field we must work on upholding and implementing these values. In the geosciences, there has been no advancement in representation of racial and ethnic groups for 40 years. This means Heliophysics is not recruiting the best talent. It also means that the discipline itself is failing to represent the community that funds it and benefits from its work. This is unacceptable and we, as Heliophysicists and leaders, must implement open-access principles across our discipline. The cultural transformation must come from changes on both sides: individually and from leadership. We cannot be inactive any longer. We will outline some examples of change that can be initiated to foster anti-racism, radical inclusion, and respectful spaces for all gender identities and sexualities. The idea of identity is naturally intersectional, and our community must be welcoming and accessible for all people, including those who identify as neurodiverse, experience disability, and struggle with mental health. New and ongoing initiatives to combat bias and harassment in our community are just the start – we need everyone to commit to these principles and agree to support each other going forward. The future of Heliophysics depends on it.

Ji H.   Karpen J.   106 Co-Authors

Major Scientific Challenges and Opportunities in Understanding Magnetic Reconnection and Related Explosive Phenomena in Solar and Heliospheric Plasmas [#2133]
Magnetic reconnection underlies many explosive phenomena across a wide range of natural and laboratory plasmas. It plays a pivotal role in electron and ion heating, particle acceleration to high energies, energy transport, and self-organization. In this presentation, we present a white paper (https://arxiv.org/abs/2009.08779) submitted to Helio2050 workshop to describe major scientific challenges and opportunities in coming decades. New capabilities in theory, simulations, observations, and laboratory experiments provide exciting opportunities to solve the grand scientific challenges in understanding magnetic reconnection and predicting space weather events. Success requires enhanced and sustained investments from funding agencies, interagency partnerships, and close collaborations among solar, heliospheric, and laboratory plasma communities.

Johnson L.   McKenzie D.   Newmark J.   Carr J.   Turse D.

Solar Sail Propulsion — Accessing New Vantage Points for Heliophysics [#2026]
Many high-priority Heliophysics science goals identified in the last two decadal surveys remain unaddressed due to the difficulties in obtaining the required observations. Solar sails provide extremely large ΔV (potentially many 10s of km/sec), enabling missions to new vantage points and allowing compelling science questions to be addressed, including:
• What is the relationship between the dynamics and magnetism of the Sun’s polar regions and the evolution of solar activity and the solar cycle?
• What are the physics of the propagation and evolution of the large-scale structures in the heliosphere?
• What are the physical processes that control the transport of mass and energy through the Earth’s magnetosphere in response to solar and terrestrial inputs?
Destinations enabled by solar sails that are not practically implementable using conventional rocket propulsion include sustained observations away from the Sun-Earth line (SEL); sustained sub-L1 station keeping for improving space-weather monitoring, prediction, and science, and supporting human spaceflight crew safety and health needs; sustained in-situ Earth magnetotail measurements; those that require a high inclination solar orbit; low perihelion and out-of-the-ecliptic missions; multiple fast transit missions to study heliosphere to interstellar medium transition; other novel orbits not easily accessible using conventional propulsion, like near-continuous observations over the poles of Earth or Mars.
Sails are relatively low-cost to implement and the continuous solar photon pressure provides propellantless thrust to perform a wide range of advanced maneuvers, such as to hover indefinitely at points in space, or conduct high DV orbital plane changes. The NASA MSFC Solar Cruiser mission will demonstrate solar sail technology for use in implementing these future Heliophysics missions during its 2025 flight utilizing a ~1653 m2 solar sail containing embedded reflectivity control devices and photovoltaic cells. The mission timeline includes deployment of largest sail ever flown, validation of all sail subsystems, controlled station-keeping inside of the Sun-Earth L1 region, demonstration of pointing performance for science imaging, and an increase in heliocentric inclination (out of the ecliptic plane). Solar sail propulsion will provide an enabling capability for future Heliophysics missions, allowing scientists to address multiple outstanding science questions between now and 2050 and beyond.

Johnson P. A.   Johnson J. C.   Mardon A. A.

Corona Discharge-Mediated Ionic Wind Powered Propulsion [#2010]
Ionic winds are an electrohydrodynamic phenomenon which is a form of air movement resulting from the collision of neutral and charged molecules subjected to an electric field. The possibility that they can be harnessed for the propulsion of aircrafts has been widely explored, however the feasibility remained untested and unclear. Recently, a proof-of-concept prototype for ionic wind propulsion has overcome limitations which were believed to make ionic wind-driven propulsion unviable. We propose ionic wind propulsion as an achievable means of propulsion for aircraft in the lunar and extra-celestial atmosphere. We assessed this proof-of-concept design and critically evaluated it against current understandings of principles established to affect propulsion systems in space. We also provide a summative analysis based on existing knowledge about propulsion systems in space, particularly aircraft transport.
A challenge for ionic wind propulsion to be maintained is generating sufficient thrust while ensuring low aircraft drag and weight. This means overcoming the thrust-to-power ratio and thrust density, which has been deemed unrealistic until recently. However, the overall efficiency of such a propulsion system is poor. There exists a threshold thrust-to-power ratio and thrust density using corona discharge and the tradeoff between the two variables result in inequality constraints and a lower efficiency. While an ionic wind propulsion system appears to be a feasible alternative to aircrafts fueled by combustion on the moon. This theory remains untested and is based on the assumption that the lunar or planetary atmosphere is able to support such a system. There is no knowledge about the range for flight or its feasibility on the surface of different celestial bodies. The use of ionic wind propulsion for aircraft transport in space is conceivable although it is presently theoretical. With the current advancements in technology, such a propulsion system not only seems much more feasible outside of Earth, it also offers a promising means of transport in the future for humans habitation on the moon or other planets.

Kollmann P.   Turner D. L.   Roussos E.   Nenon Q.   Clark G.   Cohen I.   Li W.   Sulaiman A.

Jupiter’s Radiation Belts as a Target for NASA’s Heliophysics Division [#2033]
NASA’s heliospheric division studies “the Sun, the heliosphere, and Earth’s magnetosphere and... universal plasma phenomena”. We will argue that Jupiter’s magnetosphere, radiation belts, and near-space environment should be considered as relevant targets for NASA’s Heliophysics missions. Jupiter’s magnetosphere covers all universal processes called out in the 2013 Decadal. Space plasma physics at planetary systems is much more relevant to the defined focus of NASA’s Heliophysics division than for the core sciences of the planetary division.
Jupiter’s giant magnetosphere hosts a wealth of particle species and charges subject to processes that can be studied with less ambiguity relative to Earth thanks to spatial unmixing. This makes Jupiter an ideal laboratory to investigate a wide range of space plasma processes. Its magnetosphere continuously accelerates particles to higher energies than what is even reached during extreme space weather events. Jupiter covers such an immense parameter range in particle energies, magnetic field, and waves that it can bridge the in-situ study of magnetospheres and the remote observation of extrasolar systems like supernova remnants.

Lazio T. J. W.   Arnold B. W.   Dowen A. Z.   Levesque M. E.   Boyles C. A.   Giovannoni B. J.   Berner J. B.   Smith A. E.   Lichten S. M.   Castano R.

Enabling Richer Data Sets for Future Heliophysics Missions [#2025]
A consequence of our improved understanding of the Sun and the heliosphere is that future Heliophysics missions must envision richer data sets. NASA has enabled an infrastructure that permits future Heliophysics missions to deliver richer and more complex data sets. Importantly, this infrastructure has been and is being implemented without requiring funding from NASA’s Heliophysics Division, but it is available to future Heliophysics missions.
NASA’s Deep Space Network (DSN) is a series of large, sensitive antennas distributed around the world and that are integral to Heliophysics missions, such as STEREO, Parker Solar Probe, and the Sun Radio Interferometer Space Experiment (SunRISE). Among the various improvements planned for the DSN in the next decade are (i) Increased capability at higher frequencies, which enables higher data rates by virtue of larger bandwidths available (including 26 GHz for missions at Earth-Sun L1 point); and (ii) Additional antennas at each of the three Complexes.
NASA’s Advanced Multi-Mission Operating System (AMMOS) is a suite of software tools and services designed to facilitate the rapid construction of low-cost and reliable mission operations and data processing capabilities for robotic missions. Various AMMOS capabilities are used by numerous Heliophysics missions, and improvements planned for the AMMOS in the next decade include (i) A Reference Mission System enabling the rapid deployment of a ground system by providing a comprehensive and integrated set of AMMOS products; (ii) An implementation for the “cloud,” allowing processing without requiring dedicated on-site hardware; and (iii) Enhanced data visualization, allowing both rapid assessment of spacecraft health and initial capabilities to examine science data before higher level data products are produced.
Part of this research was carried out at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under a contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

Mandt K. E.

Advancing Space Science Requires NASA Support for Coordination Between the Science Mission Directorate Communities [#2061]
There is growing awareness that advancing science requires greater coordination and collaboration between the communities represented by the NASA Science Mission Directorate (SMD) Divisions. We outline specific steps to address this growing need but note that the only way that this effort can be successful is if it is initiated within NASA and is supported through directed resources provided by NASA to the community.
The Exoplanet Science Strategy describes exoplanet science as an “avalanche of unexpected discoveries,” and outlines how detecting life on an exoplanet “will happen only when researchers bring together the combined insights of astrophysicists, planetary scientists, Earth scientists, and heliophysicists, and provide them the resources to collaborate.” This finding demonstrates awareness that progress is limited by the lack of pathways and resources for coordination between different research communities. Historically, the SMD Divisions have had limited freedom to coordinate resources (e.g. funding, mission observations) to address science objectives that cross Divisions. The need for broadened coordination between Divisions is most obvious and immediate for exoplanet characterization. The exoplanet community is predominantly made up of stellar astrophysicists because this expertise is essential for enabling detections. However, characterization of exoplanets requires understanding in situ planetary and heliophysics data in appropriate context.
Recommendations for NASA:  There are several steps that NASA could take:  (1) Assign cross-division representatives to the NASA SMD Advisory Committees; (2) Request cross-division representatives serve on decadal survey committees; (3) Incorporate cross-division objectives into active and future missions; (4) Establish additional formal coordination networks like NexSS; (5) Fund cross-division meetings between the communities; (6) Actively work to eliminate discrimination and harassment, which are barriers to a socially healthy community.
Recommendations for the community: There are several steps that the space science communities can take:  (1) Inventory community needs; (2) Advocate for observations that benefit multiple communities; (3) Actively work to eliminate discrimination and harassment, which are barriers to a socially healthy community.
These recommendations are described in detail in a white paper available here https://docs.google.com/document/d/1XTx9G7ym9wf8SWH0-pAPXtDKOeWQII3GBV8N2jagD40/edit#.

McGranaghan R. M.   Borovsky J.   Chapman S.   Donovan E.   Semeter J.   Valdivia J.   Uritsky V.   Wing S.   Johnson J.   Verkhoglyadova O.   Consolini G.   Materassi M.   Thayer J.   Dorelli J.

Complexity Heliophysics:  A New Science that Transcends the Previous Boundaries of Our Field [#2125]
“The [21st] century will be the century of complexity.” - Stephen Hawking Heliophysics processes span at least 15 orders of magnitude in space and another 15 in time. The reaches of our science go well beyond our own solar system and Earth’s space environment to touch planetary, exoplanetary, and astrophysical domains. The history of Heliophysics has, like many sciences, been one of specialization — categorizing and separating domains and building understanding within those ever smaller systems. The approach has produced remarkable achievement, yet in a century in which our sensing capabilities are revealing cross-scale behavior, data analysis and computational tools are enabling cross-system research, and the demands on our science are growing exponentially (e.g., dependence on space, risk of space weather, dissolving of the boundary between Heliophysics and humanity), our community faces the need to shift the paradigm [Kuhn, 1962] — the advent of Complexity Heliophysics. Complexity is a term often confused to mean complicated, but principally complexity is the study of phenomena which emerge from a collection of interacting objects. In the context of Heliophysics it is the study of the Sun, interplanetary environment, magnetosphere, upper and terrestrial atmospheres, and planetary surface. Heliophysics from the complexity perspective will be from systems-level analyses and their methodologies. While the toolkit for an existing heliophysicist contains:  correlational analysis, scale-dependent understanding, and case studies; Complexity Heliophysics will embrace the toolkit of the complexity scientist: information theory, network analysis, multiscale/multifractal descriptions, system science, computation, intelligent algorithms. This poster will shape a vision for a new science of Complexity Heliophysics, presenting existing research that are selected glimpses into that future. While a companion poster will focus on the observations needed for understanding systems and across scales (c.f., Eric Donovan), our focus will be on the organization, analysis, and communication of data, those elements of improved information representation that underlies complexity science.
The complexity paradigm will reach all aspects of Heliophysics research, how we understand our data, science questions we ask, even missions we target. The goal is to engender a Kuhnian atmosphere of paradigmatic shift in Heliophysics science (and, correspondingly, culture).

Mukherjee S.

Impact of Solar Variability on Planetary Systems [#2014]
Impact of solar flare, coronal mass ejection during solar maximum, and galactic cosmic ray influence during solar minimum is a matter of concern in the Earth and its planets. Earth’s polar region shows variations of heliophysical influence in comparison with the equatorial region. Martian and Lunar equatorial and polar regions have been chosen for this study as selective landform formation due to the solar radiation effect. Planet Earth has shown variations of solar influence in space and time. The attempt was based on the changes in the concentration of atmospheric gases like Sulpher Dioxide, Nitrogen Dioxide, Aerosol and Cloud cover on the Earth during changes within the Sun. A similar direct correlation of cosmic ray intensity, heliophysical and atmospheric variation during the solar eclipse has been recorded. Planet-directed coronal mass ejection and solar flare prominence may influence the fluctuations in the upper part of the surface. Effect of the Sun on Ice-water system was found out to be more prominent in different planets under investigation. The magnetic field in between Sun-Mars-Saturn and Sun-Moon is different. Using Mars Orbiter Probe (Mangalyan) and Indian Lunar Probe (Chandrayan-1) different morphological features on the martian and lunar surface were inferred. The sinuous ridges, or eskers, seen in the northern side of the peak ring basin on Mars are an outcome of fluvial-glacial activity in the area. These are branched and often interrupted in places. They seem to have formed due to the melting of basal ice as a result of heating and as the ice melted over time, sub-glacial tunnels filled with deposits remained forming long winding ridges. The channels in show Mars some ring and crater rim with dendritic patterns not typical of the lava flow. This confirms fluvial activity in the later stages of the modification process. While the findings on Moon are more exciting it shows that the tectonic activities in the South Pole are more than the North Pole and the Equator.

Narock A. A.   Thompson B. J.   McLarney E. L.   Kirk M. S.   Bard C. M.   Dorelli J. C.   Mcgranaghan R. M.

Ethical AI and Responsible Data Science for Heliophysics [#2157]
Ethical AI is more than ensuring that decisions made by machines are in the best interest of humanity. It includes interpretable results, no matter how sophisticated or complicated the method. It includes ensuring scientific robustness and integrity for both the science topic and the team members. It includes an environment where diverse voices are heard and respected. Most of the elements of Ethical AI consist of best practices for Heliophysics in general. However, it is important to explore these principles under the lens of data science, machine learning, and artificial intelligence. As our field continues to embrace new and increasingly abstract methods, Ethical and Responsible AI ensures that the practice of and results derived from machine learning remain rooted to our core values of scientific integrity and equitable team functionality. The upcoming NASA publication “NASA Framework for the Ethical Use of Artificial Intelligence (AI)” presents guidelines for six principles of Ethical AI:  (1) Fair; (2) Explainable and Transparent; (3) Accountable; (4) Secure and Safe; (5) Human-Centric and Societally Beneficial; (6) Scientifically and Technically Robust. The Center for HelioAnalytics at NASA GSFC is adopting these guidelines and determining how they map into the field of HelioAnalytics.
This presentation will describe elements of Ethical and Responsible AI, and report on efforts to produce community resources for responsible and explainable data science.

Olson J.   Lichko E.   Endrizzi D.   Juno J.   Dorfman S.   Young R.

Enhancing Collaboration Between Laboratory Plasma Experiments and the Heliophysics Community [#2164]
With a demonstrated ability to investigate both the 3D and multi-scale nature of heliospheric phenomena, laboratory plasma experiments are an important complement to the work of current and future spacecraft missions (MMS, HelioSwarm, etc.) and computational studies. Basic plasma user facilities (WiPPL, LAPD, MPRL, etc.) provide a platform for the heliophysics community to develop relevant experiments for this purpose. However, there exists a significant knowledge barrier for potential researchers without a background in experimental plasma physics to effectively use these tools. This poster will focus on a call for increased funding for human and physical infrastructure at laboratory plasma facilities to more equitably serve users from a diverse range of institutions and continually expand the explorable parameter space of plasma systems. In addition, there should be continued education of early-career scientists to create a workforce better prepared to integrate laboratory experiments in their own work. This poster will illustrate the importance and potential of laboratory experiments to address these open questions by including recent results from the Wisconsin Plasma Physics Laboratory relevant to magnetospheric magnetic reconnection. This work shows that in a system a highly driven inflow, magnetic pileup is shown to enhance the upstream Alfven speed, lowering the normalized reconnection rate to values expected from theory. Given the small relative system size, the reconnection rate approaches values up 0.8, consistent with a transition to electron-only reconnection observed in the magnetopause.

Panasenco O.   Velli M.   Tenerani A.   Runov A.   Artemyev A.   Thripati S.   Nishimura T.   Downs C.   Lynch B. J.   Lin Y.   Wang X.   Innocenti M. E.   Titov V.   Egedal J.   Abbett B.   HERMES Team

The HERMES NASA DRIVE Science Center as a Unifying Laboratory for Fundamental Physics of the Sun, Heliosphere, Magnetosphere, and Applications for Astrophysics [#2147]
Solar magnetic activity provides the dynamic, pulsating heart of the Heliosphere. The transformations of energy that accompany solar magnetic activity remain a mysterious, complex phenomenon, with ramifications that extend beyond space physics into astrophysics as a whole. Routine human presence in near-Earth space and space travel depends on specification, with predictive capability, of galactic and solar energetic particle fluxes and other space weather phenomena. Understanding the dynamical chain — magnetic activity to wind to interaction with planets — is fundamental to assess habitability and the capacity for life elsewhere. The HERMES (HEliospheRic Magnetic Energy Storage and conversion) DRIVE Center provides a unifying framework characterizing the basic mechanisms of energy storage and release in the natural plasmas of the heliosphere, incorporating the lessons learned within individual specialized subfields and providing a unifying theme to further our understanding of nonlinear plasma dynamics underlying the energy transformations that define the Heliosphere. The full benefits of synergies between theory, modeling, data analysis and machine learning requires the coherent structure the HERMES Science Center, where experts from the different specialized areas, methods and environments, can work collaboratively to broaden the useful datasets and investigation methods, move beyond simplistic analogy in modeling different environments, find synergies and learn new techniques to analyze the vast amounts of data collected from earth and from space. Integration of theoretical modeling, multi-scale numerical simulations, comprehensive remote sensing and in-situ observations to solve the physics of Space Weather; provide state of the art STEM education to diverse student populations; bring machine learning and AI into data analysis and numerical modeling of the solar system space environment and fundamental for astrophysics. This work was supported by the NASA HERMES DRIVE Science Center grant No. 80NSSC20K0604.

Paxton L. J.

Reframing Heliophysics as Discovery and Exploration Science [#2113]
The aftermath of the Covid-19 pandemic is likely to bring all NASA budgets (and other Federally funded activities) under scrutiny. The multi-trillion dollar relief programs will be paid from the budget over the course of the next decades. Heliophysics can once again inspire wonder, participation and innovation.
Heliophysics also enables the outward journey. The use of outer space as a global resource for supporting our society is well-recognized. There are two new relevance areas for Heliophysics:  space traffic management and cis-lunar operations. Space traffic management will become more of an issue as tens of thousands of satellites are placed in LEO where atmospheric drag can have a small but important impact on the validity of orbit predictions. Note that an orbit prediction must be accurate to within 1m or 0.0001 sec in order to be useful for taking action and it must be available with sufficient warning to be able to take action. As part of human and robotic exploration and, in particular, missions to the Moon and cis-lunar space, predicting the magnitude and timing of energetic particle events will become necessary.
In summary, the Vision for the Heliophysics Roadmap, can be tied to the broadest and most compelling themes of NASA’s exploration activities and can inspire the next generations of scientists and engineers. We can still do our science while providing relevance to societal needs and creating a inclusive, enabling environment with missions ranging from cubesats to large observatory class missions.

Rymer A. M.   Korth H.   Westlake J. H.   Retherford K. D.

Cross-Divisional Opportunities to Maximize the Science Return from Solar System Missions [#2155]
Missions to the outer solar system provide numerous opportunities for cross-disciplinary science and collaboration. To be successful, missions must clearly address Divisional goals as defined in the Decadal Surveys conducted by the National Academies of Sciences. It is advantageous to be focused, following clear hypothesis driven science questions. This approach has produced excellent mission concepts with well-defined scientific goals and priorities. In order to further maximize the science return from future missions (e.g., Europa Clipper – launch 2024; a long-anticipated voyage to Uranus and Neptune and an Interstellar Probe), it is advantageous to identify and plan for science opportunities that can be achieved by the spacecraft that would address additional Divisional and cross-Divisional goals. Such joint efforts could be vastly improved upon, and, in order to maximize opportunities and cost-sharing, woven into projects from inception. As an example of one strategy to foster collaboration and cost-sharing, the ‘directed good fortune’ represented by NASA Missions of Opportunity, MoOs, is an excellent model that could be more broadly applied. In this presentation, we provide examples of achievements through both fortuitous and directed collaboration and suggest strategies to identify and enable cross-division collaboration and cost-sharing to improve cost and effort effective science return over the upcoming decades.

Schonfeld S. J.   Higginson A. K.   Alterman B. L.   Kirk M. S. F.

HelioWeb:  A Resource for 21st Century Science [#2078]
To meet the ever-accelerating pace of heliophysics discovery driven by exciting new missions, data products, analysis tools, and open-access science, the community must leverage the promise of a digital future. We propose the creation of a “HelioWeb” that connects researchers and resources, a single portal through which all heliophysics knowledge is cataloged, interlinked, and discoverable. HelioWeb will:  (1) enable scientific discovery through improved data, tool, and knowledge access; (2) strengthen the community by facilitating the development of collaborations, the coordination of research efforts, and the recruitment and training of new scientist; and (3) provide a unified hub of information and resources for public education and outreach. HelioWeb must also promote the decentralization and democratization of heliophysics research and expand scientific networks to include and embrace traditionally underserved and undervalued communities. We explore existing and developing resources and technologies and envision how to combine and expand them to realize a more inviting, interconnected, equitable, and efficient online heliophysics community in 2050 and beyond.

Snyder R. M.   Halford A. J.   Naasz B. J.   Brown T. L.   Easley J. W.   Lupisella M. L.   Roberts B. J.

Enabling Long-Term Solar Cycle Science Through In-Space Servicing [#2105]
Solar dynamics occur on a large timescale that is best observed by very long lifespan missions. Cooperative servicing can extend satellite operations over decades to observe multiple solar cycles in their entirety. Consistent in situ and remote observations would help explain such phenomenon as the drastic changes in the radiation belts between two solar cycles, Li et al 2017, where data from multiple satellites show that there was a depletion of >2MeV electrons during the second solar cycle. If these type of events were well understood, they could be used to make more informed estimates of energy deposition at aviation altitudes, as well as the source population and acceleration mechanisms that dominate the magnetosphere between solar cycles. To address science questions on decade timescales with consistent datasets, we need to consider orbiting platforms that are continuously renewed. Industry, and government agencies are making the investments to establish a robotic servicing infrastructure and refueling depot services that will expand the frontier for long-term scientific measurements and unprecedented data continuity. Robotic servicers are capable of autonomously capturing satellites in order to refuel and extend the lifespan of that measurement, as well as to reconfigure and repair scientific observatories, so that new instruments can be installed adjacent to heritage instruments to calibration between them. By 2050 we hope that it is standard practice to maintain these observational platforms, but the work to begin designing them begins now. NASA’s Exploration & In-space Services (NExIS) project office at Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) will present the cooperative servicing spectrum for the heliophysics community to consider as they begin collaborating on the decadal studies. Incorporating these design features will enable access to the servicing infrastructure. The Earth science community saw a transformation in their understanding of the terrestrial weather system with the expansion of long term datasets in the 20th century, which they used to improve their forecast models. By 2050, we hope that the same will be true for the heliophysics and space weather communities by providing consistent datasets over long timescales. By incorporating cooperative servicing features into our missions, we see the potential for the heliophysics community to take this giant leap forward in our understanding by realizing very long timescale missions.

Summerlin E. J.   Pulkkinen A. A.   Vourlidas A.   Korendyke C. N.

Co-Axial Tomography of the Solar Corona and Near Sun Environment (CATSCANS) [#2073]
The STEREO mission gave us a tantalizing glimpse of the capabilities of multi-spacecraft imaging to resolve coronal structures and extract information vital to modeling and forecasting solar events. However, it also demonstrated the limitations posed by a limited number of spacecraft. While significant progress has been made over the past two decades in detecting, analyzing, and understanding CMEs and associated energetic charged particles, another breakthrough is needed in our observing capability of solar transients and their heliospheric consequences to facilitate the next generation science needed to uncover the complex three-dimensional (3D) internal structure of CMEs. Advances in smallsat communications and miniaturization of coronagraphs make feasible multi-spacecraft missions to image solar transients from multiple viewpoints at reasonable cost. As the number of spacecraft increases from a half-dozen in 2030 to dozens in 2050, the 3D reconstruction of these structures will improve commensurately allowing a full self-consistent modeling of both the magnetic and plasma 3D structure of a CME and thus leading to robust quantification of the space weather effects of CMEs, for the first time. These advances can be used predictively to safeguard space assets and the journey to Mars.

Turner D. L.   Cohen I. J.   Gkioulidou M.   Clark G.   Brandt P.   Rymer A.   Vievering J.   Chartier A.   Merkin V.   Provornikova E.   Ukhorskiy A.   Westlake J.   Nikoukar R.   Paxton L.   Millan R.   Slavin J.   Bagenal F.   Bornik J.   Jaynes A.   Wilson L. B. III   DiBraccio G. A.   Gershman D.   Kepko E. L.   Goldstein J.   McGranaghan R.   Claudepierre S. G.   Gabrielse C.

Re-Envisioning Heliophysics for 2050:  A Compelling Discipline with a Unified Identity, New Brand, and Long-Term Vision [#2087]
As a unified community, we should strive to develop a coherent and effective brand for Heliophysics, a brand that we can use to better express the relevance of our science to other grand scientific endeavors and more generally to society as a whole. The other divisions in NASA SMD have clear, overarching brands:  Earth Sciences ultimately studies the nature and future of our home world and our anthropogenic impacts upon it; Planetary Sciences is leading the charge to find life on other worlds and understand how planets, including our own, formed; Astrophysics is tackling the origins of the Universe itself and where else life may exist. Heliophysics must rival these empowering brands to justify our existence and make a strong case for why we deserve an SMD budget on par with Earth Sciences, Planetary Sciences, and Astrophysics. Is Heliophysics not the bridge that ties the other three divisions together? Heliophysics explores and defines the space between Earth, the planets, and the stars, and considering those intersections between Helio and the other three NASA SMD divisions, Heliophysics is a truly cross-divisional discipline. Heliophysics quite literally studies the physics of our Sun as a star and our Heliosphere as an astrosphere, the space environment that spans between Earth and the other planets and beyond into interstellar space, and how stellar winds and energy input shape planetary atmospheres and near-space environments and drive the space weather that adversely impacts our technology and health. With a combination of remote sensing and in situ observations, Heliophysicists directly study the only planetary space environments and stellar and interstellar systems that are currently within reach to do so, and also the only ones that we know of that do indeed harbor life. Furthermore, it is into that space environment, those turbulent and volatile leagues of particles and fields that fill the void between Earth and the Moon and Mars and beyond, that humanity must venture as we pursue our dreams of traveling to and establishing humanity on worlds beyond our home planet. The future of our species depends on us at some point traversing that space environment, the science of which is purely the territory of Heliophysics. Thus, to address the concerns outlined above, we argue that we as a unified Heliophysics community consider a new brand to advocate our science, “Heliophysics: Understanding the space we live in and our home in the galaxy.”