Paper Title and Summary
Cohen I. Rymer A. Turner D. Gkioulidou M. Clark G. Kollmann P. Vines S. Allen R. Westlake J. Nikoukar R.
Why and How to Increase
Cross-Divisional Opportunities [#4073]
This white paper advocates for increased
cross-NASA Divisional collaboration to mutually enhance the scientific return
and impact of the heliophysics and other divisions.
Cohen I. Gkioulidou M. Turner D. Nikoukar R. Westlake J. Higginson A. McGranaghan R. Emslie G. Baker D. Spence H.
What is Heliophysics? Our Field’s Ongoing
Existential Crisis [#4074]
This white paper presents a vision for a
bolder and broader definition of what heliophysics is and could be by 2050
with increased emphasis on the fundamental and universal importance of space
plasma physics, more proactive community advocacy, and an appropriately
Gibson S. E. de Toma G. Qian L. McGranaghan R. Thompson B. J. Wallace S. Allen R. C. Bagenal F. Elliott H. Filwett R. Martinis C. Rivera Y.
Connecting the Whole Heliosphere [#4050]
Characterizing the interconnected
solar-heliospheric-planetary system can be challenging, due to a scarcity of
opportunities for scientists within different disciplines to meet and work
together on common science projects. As we move towards 2050, we must expand
upon current solar minimum campaigns/collaborations to treat the whole
heliosphere as an integrated system, thus cultivating a new generation of
scientists with a powerfully interdisciplinary background.
Halford A. J. Kellerman A. C. Murray S. A. McGranaghan R. M.
Mannucci A. J. Fung S. F. Jian L. K. Cid C. Klenzing J. Carter B. A. Zheng Y. Rastaetter L. Thompson B. Garcia-Sage K. Bingham S. J.
Tracking Heliophysics to 2050: Using the Application Usability Levels to
Ensure We Stay the Course [#4071]
Tracking a project or team’s productivity,
progress, and usefulness can help manage institutional portfolios. Having a
framework of metrics that are easy to use and interpret can show advancement
towards goal fulfillment, the success of a program, identify where roadblocks
exist, or new resources are needed, and help plan future directions. As we
look towards 2050, adopting such a framework can help ensure progress towards
identified science objectives.
Halford A. J. Frissell N. A. Glesener L. Hartinger M. Battams K. MacDonald E.
Science for All:
The Benefits and Continued Need for Crowd Sourced Science [#4126]
1. Heliophysics requires solutions that
address the cultural as well as the technical challenges. 2. The Zooniverse
model of an open platform, available to researchers for free, has been
instrumental in enabling projects to apply a crowdsourced science approach to
data analysis. 3. Crowdsourced science is a proven approach that is
inherently diverse, inclusive, and provides a powerful path to moving beyond
traditional connections enabling new scientific outcomes and
Endrizzi D. Juno J. Olson J. Dorfman S. Young R.
Enabling Discoveries in Heliospheric Science
Through Laboratory Plasma Experiments [#4065]
Resolving 3D physics occurring on multiple
spatial and temporal scales is difficult with spacecraft and computer
simulations alone, but can sometimes be studied much more easily with
laboratory plasma experiments. This white paper proposes increasing funding
for both human and physical infrastructure development in laboratory plasma
facilities, as well as educating early-career scientists on how to better
utilize laboratory experiments in their own research.
McGranaghan R. M. Thompson B. Halford A.
The Science of Team Science and Inclusivity
in Heliophysics [#4087]
Heliophysics is inherently
transdisciplinary and requires solutions that address the cultural as well as
the technical challenges. We describe a new sensibility to overcome the
cultural challenge that is guided by a plurality of thought and the science
of team science. This white paper identifies an important and ongoing
conversation about a cultural change needed to advance heliophysics science.
Reinecke D. M. Brandt P. C. Fountain G. H. Rymer A. M. Vertesi J. A.
The Team Science Challenges of Very Long
Duration Spaceflight Missions [#4031]
The science goals of next-generation
heliospheric and planetary missions may demand very long mission durations. A
very long duration space science mission calls for not only a spacecraft
designed for longevity, but also a team of scientists, engineers, and
managers that can support the mission over the very long term. The paper
offers some strategies for building and maintaining such a multi-generational
Rivera Y. J. Barnes W. Higginson A. Landi E. Raymond J. C. Reep J. W.
The Ongoing Development and Support of Atomic
Physics in Solar and Heliospheric Science [#4040]
This white paper outlines the necessity for
the availability, accessibility, and expansion of atomic physics values and
analysis tools for the meaningful interpretation of spectroscopic
observations, and their connection to the heliosphere. To this end, the paper
discusses the need for improvement and development of atomic physics
repositories and analysis tools through explicit funding to these projects
and ongoing community level collaboration in the upcoming decades.
Samara M. Michell R. Zesta E.
The Need for Coordinated Ground-Space
Observations of the Magnetosphere-Ionosphere-Thermosphere System [#4116]
In this white paper we want to highlight
that coordinated ground-space measurements are critical in order to
“characterize and understand how the ionosphere-thermosphere behaves as a
system” and what they can reveal for magnetospheric dynamics, one of the
standing unresolved problems in ionospheric system science.
Schonfeld S. J. Higginson A. K. Alterman B. L. Kirk M. S. F.
Resource for 21st Century Science [#4129]
To meet the ever-accelerating pace of
heliophysics discovery, we need a new resource for the internet age, a single
portal through which all heliophysics knowledge is cataloged, interlinked,
and discoverable. We propose the creation of HelioWeb
to facilitate scientific discovery, coordinate research efforts, develop
collaborations, enable data and knowledge access, recruit and train new
scientists, and educate the public.
Stough R. W. Holt J. B. Robinson K. F. Smith D. A. Hitt W. D. Perry B. A. McNutt R. L. Jr. Paul M. V.
NASA’s Space Launch System Capabilities for
Ultra-High C3 Missions [#4057]
Designed to meet NASA’s requirements for
human exploration of the Moon, Mars, and beyond, the Space Launch System
(SLS) vehicle offers enhancing and enabling capabilities for a variety of
missions. Using commercially available propulsion systems as third and/or
fourth stages, SLS offers C3 performance double the highest-C3 missions ever
flown. This capability can be game-changing for missions into the
interstellar medium or for high-energy solar observation missions.
Verniero J. L. Juno J. Sadykov V. M. Wright P. J. Schonfeld S. J. Alterman B. L.
Guiding Heliophysics Toward an Enhanced
Transdisciplinary Framework [#4117]
We outline steps toward a successful
platform for transdisciplinary efforts applied to heliophysics. Such
transdisciplinary research is critical to create a more holistic, sustainable
approach to scientific research that does not only advance our understanding
of the heliosphere, but also finds optimal pathways to NASA Heliophysics core objectives.
Westlake J. H. Turner D. L. Gkioulidou M. Cohen I. J. McNutt R. L. Jr. Ho G. C.
Rethinking Innovation in the Explorer Class
of Missions [#4098]
We propose a realignment of the
Heliophysics Explorers mission around innovation and risk classification
instead of the budgetary size. We posit that the SMEX class of missions are
limited to Low Earth Orbit (LEO) due to the cost cap and that if the launch vehicle
and operations costs were carried outside of the PI managed mission cost cap
then a whole new class of innovative missions would compete for the SMEX
mission class. We also note that the use of refurbished launch vehicles may
also open similar doors beyond LEO for SMEX missions.
Biechman C. Bock J. Brandt P. Chary R. R. Cooray A. Gorjian V. Harman C. E. Izenberg N. Lisse C. McNutt R. Poppe A. R. Paul M. V. Street R. A. Symons T. Werner M.
Astrophysics from the Outer Solar System: Leveraging Joint Missions to Maximize
Science Return [#4042]
Astrophysical measurements from the outer
solar system can enable science cases that are challenging or impossible to
perform near the Earth. Though transformative, a mission to the distant solar
system including modern instrumentation designed to perform astrophysical
science has never been flown. Here we briefly describe the science motivations
for such an instrument and advocate for flight opportunities that support
cross-divisional cooperation to enable these kind of
White Paper Title and Summary
Seaton D. Kirk M. Morgan H. Di Matteo S.
The Sun-Earth Connection as a Single
System: Data Analysis and Processing
Needs of Current and Future Missions [#4108]
Increasingly, diverse data sets are being
used to understand the Sun-Earth connection. However, current datasets and
tools are not always used to their full extent. By 2050, a suite of tools and
techniques would be the basis for the extensive and optimal use of archived
datasets and new observations other than setting the basis for
Bobra M. G. Barnes W. T. Cheung M. C. M. Hayes L. A. Ireland J. Janvier M. Kirk M. S. F. Mason J. P. Mumford S. J. Wright P. J.
Science Platforms for Heliophysics
Data Analysis [#4022]
We recommend that NASA maintain and fund
science platforms that enable interactive and scalable data analysis in order
to maximize the scientific return of data collected from
Brandt P. C.
Mitchell D. G.
McNutt R. Roelof E. C.
Provornikova E. Gkioulidou M. Mostafavi P. S. Nikoukar R. Westlake J. Opher M. Dialynas K. Kornblueth M. Galli A. Gruntman M. Reisenfeld D. Kubiak M. Sokół J. M. Fuselier S.
Sensing the Shape and Global Structure of
the Heliosphere [#4025]
Despite the importance of understanding the
physics and habitability of our astrosphere, its global structure and the
plasma processes that shape it continue to be mysteries. Our paper describes
a set of questions about the structure of the heliosphere that can be more
easily answered via Energetic Neutral Atom (ENA) imaging from a vantage point
outside of the heliosphere.
Krimigis S. M. Decker R. B. Mitchell D. G. Roelof E. C. Brandt P. C. Burlaga L. Della Torre S. DeMajistre R. Galli A. Gkioulidou M. Hill M. E. Kornbleuth M. Kurth W. McNutt R. Mostafavi P. S. Nikoukar R. Opher M. Powell E. Provornikova E. Rancoita P. G. Richardson J. D. Roussos E. La Vacca G. Westlake J.
The Dynamic Heliosphere and Its Interaction with
the LISM: Open Questions and
Future Perspectives [#4038]
We discuss three open science questions
concerning the interaction of the heliosphere with the LISM, that can only be
answered by exploiting a combination of in-situ ion measurements and remotely
sensed ENAs: 1) Where are the
heliosphere boundaries and how thick is the HS?, 2) A “missing” pressure
component towards exploring the dynamics of the global HS and its interaction
with the LISM?, 3) Why is the shape and size of the global heliosphere
different when looking in different ENA energies?
Eriksson S. Mallet A. Swisdak M. Opher M. Provornikova E. Bale S. D. Desai M. Alexandrova A.
Magnetic Reconnection Science in the
Outer Heliosphere [#4036]
Magnetic reconnection is a key mechanism
that converts magnetic field energy into bulk flow energy, particle
acceleration, and plasma heating. Reconnection exhausts are observed across
inner heliosphere current sheets of many spatial scales. We do not know if
reconnection ruptures current sheets in the solar wind beyond Jupiter,
through the HS, across the HP, or even beyond in the LISM itself. Is
reconnection truly a universal space plasma process that occurs in the whole
heliosphere and beyond?
Zhao L. L. Pogorelov N. V. Sorriso-Valvo L. Zank G. P.
Exploring Turbulence from the Sun to the Local
Interstellar Medium Using Interstellar Probe [#4114]
We present a survey of the principal
turbulence-related science questions Interstellar Probe (IP) will encounter
along its trajectory in the distant heliosphere and in the VLISM. The
production and dissipation of turbulence, its interplay with energetic
particles, shock waves, and magnetic reconnection are fundamental aspects of
the heliospheric and interstellar plasma physics. Unlike any previous
missions at such distances, IP should be designed to investigate fluctuations
on all relevant scales.
Linsky J. L. Redfield S.
What Lies Outside of the Heliosphere: Connecting the Outer Heliosphere with the
Interstellar Medium [#4007]
This white paper describes critical science
questions concerning the plasma and magnetic fields in the Very Local
Interstellar Medium (VLISM) and the Local Interstellar Medium (LISM). The
VLISM is the region extending from the heliopause (roughly 120 AU) to about
600 AU where the inflowing interstellar plasma charge exchanges and is
otherwise modified by energetic solar wind ions. The LISM consists of warm
partially ionized clouds and surrounding ionized plasma that envelopes
Al-Haddad N. Török T.
Farrugia C. J. Palmerio E.
Jian L. K. Lynch B. J. Winslow R. Vourlidas A. Lee C. O. Merkin V. G. Zhang J. Luhmann J. Gibson S. Colaninno R. Thompson B. J. Manchester W. B.
The Importance of Fundamental Research on the
Coronal and Heliospheric Evolution of Coronal Mass Ejections [#4017]
Coronal mass ejections (CMEs) are a
cornerstone of heliophysics research. It is essential to address the coronal
and interplanetary evolution of CMEs, independent of their space weather
impact through a comprehensive research program. Such a program should
include components of data analysis, theory and code development, and lead to
new missions, and instrumentation, especially for smallsat/rideshare
and explorer categories.
Mason E. I. Higginson A. K. Rivera Y. J. Weberg M. Spitzer S. A. Alterman B. L.
The Need for Consistent, Comprehensive Inner
Heliosphere Data [#4048]
The science goal presented in this white
paper is the capability to reliably track individual packets of solar wind
from the low corona to 1 AU by 2050. The field currently faces a significant
measurement gap along the Earth-Sun line, and near-complete inaccessibility
to the rest of the inner heliosphere. In order to remedy this situation and
accomplish the above goal, we need reliable, high-resolution compositional
data with 4pi coverage of the Sun evenly spaced throughout the 0-1
Quemerais E. Katushkina O. Goodwin L. Linsky J. Clarke J. Izmodenov V. Baliukin I.
Using Lyman-a to Probe the Interior and Edges of
the Heliosphere [#4003]
Understanding the role of neutral atoms in
the heliospheric interface (between the bow shock and heliopause) is critical
to identifying dynamics within our local bubble. This white paper recommends
building upon existing measurements with new, high-spectral resolution
observations of H Lyman-a, from a heliospheric mapping mission, to resolve
the momentum exchange in reactions between the Solar Wind and Energetic
Neutral Atoms that are key to identifying the most important
Merkin V. G. Provornikova E. Raouafi N. E. Velli M. Zank G. P. Sorathia K. Allen R. C. Arge N. Matthaeus W. Bourouaine S. Maruca B. Bandyopadhyay R. Spence H. Klein K. Verniero J. Lichko E.
High-Resolution Modeling of the Solar Wind
Turbulence: From Global
to Micro-Scales [#4069]
This white paper is about the
high-resolution modeling of the solar turbulence in the inner heliosphere.
The goal is to develop ultra-high-resolution global MHD and non-MHD models
that can reach into the dissipation range and capture the multi-scale physics
of the solar wind by 2050. The desired models should start from the
chromosphere all the way through the heliosphere.
Zank G. P. Roelof E. Burlaga L. Richardson J. Decker R. Provornikova E. Opher M. Demajistre B. Turner D. L. McNutt R. Brandt P. Dialynas K. Hill M. E. Merkin V. G. Rankin J. Zirnstein E. Florinski V.
Shock Waves Propagation Beyond the
Heliosphere: How Far Does the Sun’s
Influence Extend into the Interstellar Medium? [#4090]
This White Paper is about the propagation
of heliospheric shock waves beyond the heliosphere in the interstellar
medium. The need is to improve our understanding of the heliosphere-local
interstellar medium interaction to understand how far the Sun’s influence
extend into the interstellar medium.
Mukherjee S. PhD
Changes in Heliophysical
Parameter on Global Environment and Health [#4131]
It has been well documented that climatic
change has the potential to influence the Environment of the Earth in Space
and time. Influence of Heliophysical parameters and
Galactic Cosmic Rays on the Environment and Health of the living beings of
the Earth are being studied. The outbreak of Pandemic COVID 19 and the future
threat of various health hazards for the living organisms of the Earth need
to be studied in detail by the variables of Sunspots, Star spots, and Cosmic
Zank G. Florinski V. Fuselier S. Giacalone J. Toth G. Richardson J. Drake J. Swisdak M. Zieger B. Galli A. Dayeh M. Tenishev V. Izmodenov V. Kornbleuth M. Powell E. Boliukov I. Zirnstein E. Michaels A. Dialynas K. Krimigis S. Cummings A. Decker R. Elliott H. Gkioulidou M. Hill M. Nikoukar R. Roussos E. Szabos A. Kota J. Provornikova E. Mostafavi P. Brandt P. McNutt R. Gombosi T. Stone E. Schwadron N. Stern A. Loeb A.
Our Heliospheric Shield, a Case of a Habitable
Science Questions [#4030]
The heliosphere is an immense shield that
protects the solar system from harsh galactic radiation. The heliosphere is a
window into processes occurring in all other astrospheres. The in-situ
measurements by the Voyager, Pioneer, and New Horizon spacecraft combined
with the all-sky ENA images of the heliospheric boundary region have
transformed our understanding of the heliosphere. However, many fundamental
features of the heliosphere are still not well understood.
Katushkina O. A. Herbst K. Engelbrecht N. E. Brandt P. C. McNutt R. J. Lisse C. Opher M. Richardson J. D. Izmodenov V. V. Mostafavi P. Merkin V. S. Baliukin I. I. Korolkov S. D. Higginson A. K. Sterken V. Harman C. E.
Our Global Heliosphere: Toward Understanding Astrospheres Around
Other Stars [#4060]
New measurements at the heliospheric
boundary and in the local interstellar medium (ISM) are required in the
near-term to resolve the fundamental questions about the nature of the global
heliosphere. Understanding this region is necessary to enable future
longer-term investigations at the intersection of the heliophysics and astrophysics
fields, aimed at exploring the structure and evolution of other astrospheres
and their role in habitability of the exoplanets that they host.
Rivera Y. J. Higginson A. Lepri S. T. Viall N.
Multi-Point Compositional Measurements of Solar
Wind and Transient Phenomena [#4103]
Continuous 4π coverage of
compositional measurements to develop a comprehensive understanding of the
method of release and energization of the solar wind and transients.
Summerlin E. J. Pulkkinen A. A. Korendyke C. Vourlidas A.
Solar Tomography Revolutionizing Long Lead Space
Weather Prediction by 2050 [#4055]
The STEREO mission gave us a glimpse of the
capabilities of multi-spacecraft imaging to resolve coronal structures and
extract information vital to modeling and forecasting solar events. However,
while significant progress has been made over the past two decades in
understanding CMEs and associated energetic charged particles, new
technologies can now enable the additional viewpoints needed for solar
tomography to uncover the complex three-dimensional (3D) internal structure
Viall N. M. Borovsky J. Kepko L. Higginson A. Vourlidas A. Di Matteo S. Mason E. Alzate N. Seaton D.
Outstanding Questions in Solar Wind Physics [#4066]
There are major outstanding questions
regarding solar wind formation and its evolution as it advects
through the heliosphere. Synthesizing inputs from the solar wind research
community, nine outstanding questions of solar wind physics from a recent AGU
Grand Challenges review paper are described in this white paper, as well as potential solutions.
Wilson L. B. III
Accurate Measurements of Thermal Velocity
Distribution Functions in the Solar Wind [#4001]
We currently lack the cadence and
resolution to properly resolve the thermal plasma populations in the solar
wind near Earth to the accuracy required to address fundamental issues in
kinetic theory, plasma turbulence, and wave-particle interactions. This white
paper outlines current measurements and what is needed to make progress on
these fundamental physics issues.
Zhang S.-R. Foster J. C.
Geospace and Interdisciplinary Sciences Enabled by
Global Observational Networks [#4105]
The ionosphere, upper and middle atmosphere
system can be used as tracers of dynamic perturbations developing above and
below them, serving as a planetary-scale spherical screen on which one can
detect, study, and characterize these disturbances. We suggest prioritizing
instrumentation investment in the vicinity of the Great Meridian Circle
60W/120E across the Eastern American sector. The instrumentation includes
networks of radio, optical, geomagnetic sensors, and capable
White Paper Title and Summary
Bhatt A. B.
Achieving Closure on the Question of Energy and
Momentum Coupling Between the Lower and the Upper Atmosphere [#4122]
This white paper proposes a potential path
to achieving closure on the topic of energy and momentum coupling between
lower and upper atmosphere through mechanisms like gravity waves.
Borovsky J. E. Delzanno G. L. Henderson M. D. Carlsten B. E. Donovan E. Dors E. Fernades P. Gilchist B. Holloway M. Johnson J. Kepko L. Lewellen J. Marshall R. Miars G. Neilsen J. Nguyen D. Rowland D. Reeves G. Sanchez E. Skoug R.
A Concept to Unambiguously Establish
Magnetosphere-Ionosphere Connections and to Determine the Magnetospheric
Causes of Aurora [#4012]
A research roadmap is outlined in response
to a technology-development recommendation in the National Research Council
2013 Decadal Survey. This technology development is for magnetic-field-line
tracing between the magnetosphere and the ionosphere focused in this white
paper on solving the outstanding problem of how the magnetosphere drives aurora.
Chartier A. T.
Trace the Flow of Energy from Space into
the Atmosphere [#4124]
Electromagnetic energy constitutes a major
input to Earth’s upper atmosphere, more important than solar radiation during
active magnetic periods, and harder to characterize at all times. The heliophysics
community should aim to trace the flow of electromagnetic energy into the
atmosphere, and to obtain self-consistent measurements of the energy balance
throughout the system. This activity is likely to have a major impact on
high-latitude space weather specification and prediction.
Clemmons J. H. Swenson G. R. Vargas F. Dragic P.
The Need for – and Promise of – 3D Measurements
in the Ionosphere-Thermosphere System [#4070]
The need for thorough 3D sampling of the heliophysical domain is discussed and used to motivate
the idea that active remote sensing techniques, when deployed on orbiting
platforms, can provide a next-generation capability for the needed sampling
without requiring huge numbers of instrumented satellites.
Cohen I. Anderson B. Vines S. Bonnell J. Lessard M. Lysak B. Michell R. Varney R.
In-Situ Investigations of the Structure of
Ionospheric Closure Currents [#4072]
Ionospheric closure currents are critical
to understanding the nature of atmosphere-ionosphere-magnetosphere coupling
and have relevance to space weather parameters such as ionospheric densities,
thermospheric heating, and satellite drag. This
white paper provides motivation for a sounding rocket mission concept using
the novel deployment of multiple CubeSats as miniature sub-payloads to obtain
the first direct in-situ measurement of these ionospheric currents.
Delzanno G. L. Borovsky J. E. Buzulukova N. Chappell C. R. Denton M. Fernandes P. Friedel R. Gallagher D. Goldstein J. Henderson M. Larsen B. Jordanova V. Moore T. Reisenfeld D. Roytershteyn V. Skoug R. Varney R.
The Need to Understand the Cold-Ion and
Cold-Electron Populations of the Earth’s Magnetosphere: Their Origin, Their Controlling Factors,
and Their Impact on the System [#4033]
The cold-particle populations (with energy
less than ~100 eV) of the Earth’s magnetosphere are sparsely measured and
very poorly understood but play a critical role in the dynamics of the
system, both locally and globally. A research plan combining the development
of new measurement techniques, data analysis, and theory and modeling is
necessary to definitively understand the cold-particle populations. Without
such understanding, the magnetosphere-ionosphere system cannot be
Eastes R. W. Burns A. G. Solomon S. C.
Advancing Ultraviolet Remote Sensing for
Thermosphere-Ionosphere Forecasting in 2030 and Beyond [#4095]
Far Ultraviolet (FUV) remote sensing has
shown potential for providing critical information to make better forecasts
of the upper atmosphere system, an important region for space weather
responses. This document suggests needed advances for future use of FUV
Hysell D. L. Milla M. A.
An Ionospheric Modification Facility for the
Magnetic Equator [#4004]
We argue the possible benefits of
constructing an HF ionospheric modification facility near the magnetic
equator. Ionospheric modification experiments yield incisive information
about important processes including wave-particle interactions and electron
acceleration that informs closely-related but hard-to-access processes in the
ionosphere and magnetosphere. They also serve as diagnostics for ionospheric
and atmospheric state variables that are difficult to measure using other methods.
Lin M-Y. Glocer A.
The Need for Detailed Ionic Composition of the
Near-Earth Plasma [#4094]
We discuss the need for detailed ionic
composition, that can distinguish between ions with close masses (such as
nitrogen and oxygen), and also molecular species.
Zawdie K. A. Belehaki A. Blanch E. Burleigh M. Frissell N. Huba J. Kaeppler S.
Narayanan V. L.
Smith J. Xiong C.
Yokoyama T. Zettergren M.
Medium Scale Traveling Ionospheric Disturbances
(MSTIDs) — A Heliophsyics 2050 Roadmap [#4104]
The formation and development of Medium
Scale Traveling Ionospheric Disturbances (MSTIDs) are compelling because of
the immediate practical implications for communications and geolocation.
Additionally, the dynamics and interplay between the thermosphere and the
ionosphere creating and resulting from these structures are still unresolved.
This is due in part to the unpredictable nature of their occurrence and lack
of global measurements, as well as the lack of measurements of the
Knipp D. J. Verkhoglyadova O. P. Lynch K. A. Morton J.
Understanding and Quantifying Multi-Scale
Poynting Flux and Its Fate in the Coupled
Magnetosphere-Ionosphere-Thermosphere System [#4125]
The magnetosphere/solar-wind dynamo is the
primary source of the auroral and electromagnetic energy to the high-latitude
thermosphere and ionosphere. This energy source may be responsible for >
60% of the energy input during extreme space weather events. Impulsive
increases in energy deposition are linked to the inability to track LEO
spacecraft. With near exponential increases in cubesat
launches, this poor characterization could be disastrous for satellite
collision avoidance efforts.
Lieberman R. S. Yudin V. Goncharenko L. Harvey V. L. Yue J. France J. Pawson S.
Upper Atmosphere Reanalysis in the Goddard Earth
Observing System for Space Weather Applications and Support of Heliophysics
Missions (GEOS-H) [#4107]
Reanalysis refers to the processing of
observational data spanning an extended period using a single, consistent
assimilation (or “analysis”) scheme. The goals of this white paper are to
extend Goddard’s GEOS-5 weather and climate model into the
thermosphere-ionosphere, and to initiate and coordinate institutional and
agency collaborations that will lead the heliophysics community to the first
reanalysis of the mesosphere and lower thermosphere.
Lynch K. A.
Ionosphere-Thermosphere System Science and the Use of Distributed
Heterogeneous Data Arrays: Vector
Fields, Volumetric Densities, Auroral Imagery [#4100]
We focus on tools and techniques for the
use of new heterogenous distributed observations for ionosphere system
science, including distributed vector data, volumetric plasma density data,
and invertible filtered auroral imagery. Rigorous representation of
distributed vector fields in the context of tomography and imagery data is
fundamental to a system-level understanding, requiring tools for
interpretation and manipulation of distributed datasets for data-driven
ionospheric system science.
Ozturk D. S. Garcia-Sage K. Connor H. K. Robinson R. M. Gabrielse C. Chen M. W. Kaeppler S. R. Mukhopadhyay A. Shprits Y. Walker R. Burleigh M. Jordanova V. K. Zheng Y. McGranaghan R. Rastaetter L. El Alaoui M. Knipp D. J. Lin D.
Halford A. J.
Vines S. K.
Zou S. Merkin V. G.
Edwards T. R. Liemohn M. W.
Young M. Yu Y. Lotko W. Matsuo T. MacDonald E.
A Collaborative Approach to Understanding
Auroral Region Magnetosphere-Ionosphere-Thermosphere Coupling Through
Ionospheric Conductivity [#4067]
The ionospheric conductivity provides a
link between the ionosphere/thermosphere and the magnetosphere systems.
Therefore, an accurate and self-consistent global ionospheric conductivity
model is necessary to understand how these systems couple. Due to the various
different phenomena that drive each system separately a collaborative
approach to predicting and quantifying uncertainties in calculations of
ionospheric conductivity is needed.
Pfaff R. Rowland D.
Planetary Electric Fields [#4113]
Electric fields constitute a fundamental
aspect of all planets that are very poorly known and understood. Such
potential structures exist on planets with and without magnetic fields and
represent both dynamic plasma variability as well as large scale static
structures. Understanding how planetary electric fields are set up and vary
represents an important next step to understanding planets both in our solar
system as well as orbiting around other stars.
Pfaff R. Rowland D.
Understanding the Earth’s Global
Electric Field [#4115]
The Earth’s global electric field is a
fundamental aspect of nature that is not well known. The highly variable
potential structure that surrounds the Earth — from the Earth’s surface to
the magnetosphere — varies considerably with altitude, latitude, and local
time, and needs to be measured and understood from a global perspective.
Rowland D. E. Kepko E. L. Pfaff R. F. Glocer A. Garcia-Sage K.
Investigating Bidirectional, Multiscale, and
Nonlinear Feedback in Plasma-Neutral Coupling, Using Geospace
as a Natural Laboratory to Study Universal Phenomena [#4130]
Partially ionized gases (and coupled
systems of ionized and neutral gases) are ubiquitous and universally
important for understanding flows of energy, momentum, and mass. Geospace serves as a “natural laboratory” that is readily
accessible and that can be used to explore how ionized and neutral gases,
under a variety of drivers, interact to produce complex, multiscale, and
nonlinear feedback that is bidirectional, and which modifies both the ionized
and neutral populations.
Swenson G. R. Vargas F. Dragic P.
Vertical Transport Cycling and Climatology of
MLT Constituent (e.g. Ox, Hx,COx,
HOx) Distributions, 80–150 km [#4049]
The climatology of minor species in the 80–150
km is important to the thermodynamics of the region, especially carbon
dioxide and methane, which have large cooling effects on the region. Atomic
oxygen, HOx, and COx,
all participate in a cycling process, which can only be understood (modeled),
only as well as the chemistry and vertical diffusion transport. A method of
achieving the measurements involves an atomic oxygen LIDAR, a technology
Swenson G. R. Vargas F. Dragic P. Clemmons J.
Heating via Gravity Wave Dissipation, 80–400 km, and Active Remote Sensing
with LIDAR [#4064]
An important energy source entering the
thermosphere includes gravity waves, coupling upward from the lower
atmosphere. Global observations of gravity waves, and their effects above 110
km are non-existent. Vertical distributions of atomic oxygen depart from
diffusive equilibrium, when waves are present. An O LIDAR (135.6 nm) is
suitable to measure O density and Doppler temperatures from 80–400 km, but
requires a long term, technological development.
Varney R. H. Coster A. J. Erickson P. J. Hysell D. L. Kendall E.
2050 Vision for Geospace
Radio Science [#4102]
Recent advances in radio technology will
enable the construction of future facilities that will be so flexible that
they can conduct multiple different types of radar and radio observations
simultaneously. This technology could advance studies of neutral dynamics in
the mesosphere and lower thermosphere, ionospheric electrodynamics at
multiple scales, cold plasma circulation, and plasma kinetic theory. New
facilities could also enable high-risk, high-reward discovery science.
Volz R. A. Erickson P. J. Palo S. E. Chau J. L. Vierinen J. P.
A Global Radio Remote Sensing Network for
Observing Space Weather Dynamics [#4127]
Our current sampling of the near-Earth
space environment is wholly insufficient to measure the highly variable
processes therein and make predictions on par with lower atmospheric weather.
We sketch out the scientific rationale for a network of radio instruments
delivering dense observations of the near-Earth space environment and the
broad steps necessary to implement wide-scale coverage in the next
White Paper Title and Summary
Andersson L. Thaller S. Malaspina D. M.
Bulk Plasma Dynamics on Large Scales [#4011]
The next 20–50 years of magnetospheric
space plasma research should focus on cold plasma dynamics using a
system-wide approach, instead of relying on individual
Fok M.-C. Sibeck D. Keesee A. Connor H. Collier M. DeMajistre R. Glocer A. Murphy K.
Global Imaging of the Earth’s Magnetosphere with
Energetic Neutral Atom (ENA) Detectors:
Transforming Discoveries Demand Breakthrough Technologies [#4024]
Global imaging is crucial for the
development of SW prediction tools. It will help to differentiate between
different modes of magnetospheric behavior. If successful, future ENA
missions will answer many questions about magnetospheric dynamics that the
community has been debating. Future developments in stereoscopic missions
with large geometrical factor for the energy range 1–100 keV will
significantly advance magnetospheric imaging, making possible the discoveries
that will transform the field.
Chen L.-J. Collier M. Dorelli J. Fung S. Gershman D. Karpen J. Michell R. Ng J. Rowland D. Samara M. Sibeck D. Wang S.
Kinetic Effects of Solar Driving
on Magnetospheres [#4083]
In this white paper, we discuss kinetic effects
of solar driving on magnetospheres and interconnected science topics
envisioned for future major research directions in heliophysics. We recommend
(1) promotion of global particle simulations to address how these kinetic
effects impact the evolution of magnetized planets and bodies in the
heliosphere, past and present; and (2) advancing NASA’s high-end computing to
exascale to provide the critical ground
Ebert R. Hospodarsky G.
Hsu H.-W. Livengood T.
Roussos E. Szalay J.
The Magnetosphere of Jupiter: Moving from Discoveries Towards Understanding [#4101]
We present some of the outstanding
questions needed to truly understand Jupiter’s magnetosphere and note that
these questions can be answered by small, focused missions. Such missions are
a fruitful place for collaboration between NASA’s heliophysics and planetary
Fernandes P. A. Delzanno G. L. Denton M. H. Henderson M. G. Jordanova V. K. Kim T. K. Larsen B. A. Maldonado C. A. Reeves G. Reisenfeld D. B. Skoug R. M.
Tracers and Drivers of Solar
Wind/Ionosphere/Magnetosphere Coupling [#4047]
The dearth of modern plasma composition
measurements in space and our poor understanding of differences in plasma
processes driven by different heavy ions inhibit our ability to predict and
characterize natural and man-made events in the near-Earth space environment.
We propose a community goal of characterizing the full complement of plasma
species (composition and charge state) within the Solar
Wind/Ionosphere/Magnetosphere (SW/I/M) system to understand how these
populations interact with one another and impact the system as a whole.
Goldstein J. Gallagher D. L. Molyneux P. Reeves G. D.
Core-Plasma Refilling and Erosion: Science Justification [#4063]
By 2050 GGCMs need to couple dynamic
plasmasphere models. This requires answering basic questions about erosion and
refilling of plasmaspheric plasma. During storms,
tens of metric tons of plasma are rapidly eroded, then slowly replenished. We
still do not understand the cross-scale mechanisms proposed to be responsible
for the cycle of this enormous plasma mass—as important to geospace dynamics as solar-wind driving. We must dedicate
the resources and effort needed to solve this enduring puzzle.
Hartinger M. D. Engebretson M. J. Lu G. Connors M. G. Dimmock A. P. McGranaghan R. Rigler E. J. Shi X. Kim H. Salzano M. L.
Towards a Better Understanding of the Causes and
Consequences of Geomagnetic Perturbations:
Remote Sensing, Diagnostics for Heliophysics Research, and
Geomagnetically Induced Currents [#4068]
Disturbances in the magnetic field at the
Earth’s surface are at the center of Heliophysics Research: remote sensing magnetosphere-ionosphere
current systems, construction of geomagnetic indices used for space weather
forecasts and model validation, monitoring of geoelectric fields, and related
Geomagnetically Induced Currents (GIC). The purpose of this white paper is to
highlight future research that is needed to improve our understanding of the
causes and consequences of these perturbations.
Jaynes A. N. Randall C. Bailey S. Baker D. N. Kanekal S. G. Marshall R. M. Huang C.-L. Fang X. Harvey V. L. Rodger C. Blake J. B. Turner D. L. Blum L. W.
A Call for Interdisciplinary Science Focusing on
How Particle Precipitation from the Magnetosphere Affects
Earth’s Atmosphere [#4123]
As we look forward to 30 years from now, we
should intentionally shift away from a traditionally siloed science and
toward a more interdisciplinary approach to understanding the Sun-Earth
system. Energetic particle precipitation is the primary source of nitrogen
oxides (NOx) in the polar upper atmosphere, which is known to catalytically
destroy stratospheric ozone. We still don’t understand how energy from the
Sun and space is absorbed and transported in the layers of
Merkin S. Viall N. Vourlidas A. McIntosh S.
Mesoscale Dynamics — The Key to Unlocking the
Universal Physics of Multiscale Feedback [#4041]
The systems we study in heliophysics — the
extended solar atmosphere, the solar-wind, the magnetosphere, and the MIT
system — are all highly complex, multi-scale systems. The undersampled
mesoscale regime is crucial to study and we believe could be a unifying focus
of heliospheric research in the coming decades.
Turner D. L.
Roussos E. Nenon Q.
Cohen I. Li W. Sulaiman A.
Jupiter’s Radiation Belts as a Target for NASA’s
Heliophysics Division [#4026]
NASA’s heliospheric division studies “the
Sun, the heliosphere, and Earth’s magnetosphere and... universal plasma
phenomena.” Here we argue that Jupiter’s magnetosphere and radiation belts
should be considered as relevant targets for NASA’s Heliophysics missions.
Jupiter’s magnetosphere covers all universal processes called out in the 2013
Decadal and provides a unique opportunity to study processes with less
ambiguity than at the Earth and potentially in the heliosphere.
Merkin V. G. Sorathia K. A. Lyon J. G. Ukhorskiy A. Y. Wang W. Huba J. Liu H.-L. Varney R. Sitnov M. I. Delzanno G. L. Lin Y. Liu Y.-H.
Active Geospace: 2050 Vision for
First-Principles Modeling [#4006]
Because of the collective nature of the
cross-domain and cross-scale interactions within geospacer, the space science
community still lacks a basic understanding of how this physical system
behaves as a whole during varying solar wind conditions. In the upcoming age
of exascale supercomputing, more diverse and
powerful computing technology will undoubtedly usher in a new era of
physics-based approaches for geospace modeling that
will become feasible well before 2050.
Pfaff R. Rowland D.
Earth’s Electromagnetic Environment
in Space [#4120]
The Earth’s geospace
region is replete with plasma waves of natural and human-made origin. In
particular, the electromagnetic waves that fill the geospace
region — from lightning to powerline radiation to Schumann resonances — are a
fundamental part of our environment with important consequences for heating
the upper atmosphere which must be measured and understood from a
Sitnov M. I. Stephens G. K. Merkin V. G. Wang C. P. Turner D. Genestreti K. Argall M. Ukhorskiy A. Y. Wing S. Liu Y. H.
Artificial Intelligence to Enhance Mission
Science Output for In-Situ Observations:
Dealing with the Sparse Data Challenge [#4015]
In the Earth’s magnetosphere, there are
fewer than a dozen dedicated probes beyond low-Earth orbit making in-situ
observations at any given time. As a result, we poorly understand its global
structure and evolution, the mechanisms of its main activity processes,
magnetic storms, and substorms. New Artificial Intelligence (AI) methods,
including machine learning, data mining, and data assimilation, as well as
new AI-enabled missions will need to be developed to meet this Sparse
White Paper Title and Summary
Arge C. N. Jones S. Henney C. J. Schonfeld S. Vourlidas A. Muglach K. Luhmann J. G. Wallace S.
Multi-Vantage-Point Solar and Heliospheric
Observations to Advance Physical Understanding of the Corona and
Solar Wind [#4056]
To significantly advance basic
understanding of the corona and solar wind, it is essential to have
continuous monitoring of the Sun’s global magnetic field distribution, along
with equivalent coverage in EUV and white light, as well as in situ
monitoring of the solar wind from multiple and widely spaced
Attie R. A. Tremblay B. T. Kirk M. K.
Flow Maps as a Systematic Data Product [#4110]
Calling for a discussion on the mapping of photospheric flows as a systematic data product, which
often has equal or superior values than the imagery data from which they
originate. We advocate for onboard processing in a situation where the
telemetry would not provide enough imagery data for accurate processing of photospheric flow maps and where providing the latter
would reveal more valuable than the imagery, for solar physics and space
Brosius J. W. Young P. R. Klimchuk J. A.
The Case for Comprehensive Spectroscopic
Measurements of the Sun: Understanding
Solar Flares and Coronal Heating [#4044]
At present, the solar physics community’s
efforts are largely focused on answering two of the overarching, unresolved
questions in the field: (1) What heats
the solar corona? (2) What causes the sudden, rapid release of energy that
produces flares? Comprehensive spectroscopic measurements — those that
thoroughly cover the entire range of atmospheric temperature that occurs
along any given line of sight — are essential to answer these questions.
Caspi A. Shih A. Y. Warren H. P. Winebarger A. R. Cheung M. C. M. DeForest C. E. Gburek S. Klimchuk J. A. Kowaliński M. Laurent G. T. Mason J. P. Mrozek T. Palo S. E. Schattenburg M. Schwartz R. A. Seaton D. B. Stęślicki M. Sylwester J. Woods T. N.
Understanding Heating of the Solar Corona
Through Soft X-Ray Spectroscopy [#4128]
Why the solar corona is orders of magnitude
hotter than the underlying atmosphere remains a fundamental unanswered
question. Soft X-ray emission provides unique diagnostics of high-energy
processes, but spectroscopic observations have been sporadic, with incomplete
wavelength coverage. Significant progress on this critical question is easily
achievable by 2050 if we leverage emerging technological advances to fill
this observational gap and prioritize development of new solar
Chamberlin P. C. Woods T. N.
Global Scale Plasma Diagnostics, Radiated
Energy, and Bulk Motions of the Sun [#4079]
Great strides are made in Solar Physics by
utilizing advanced models in combination with new technology to continually
improve spatial, spectral/thermal, and temporal resolutions and ranges in the
measurements. Continually driving to more advanced measurements, especially
with regards to spatial resolution improvements, one caution over the coming
decades is to continue to utilize the non-spatially resolved, “Sun-as-a-Star”
solar irradiance measurements for advancing solar physics.
Di Matteo S. Viall N. M. Kepko L. Roberts A. DeForest C. E.
The Structured and Turbulent Nature of the Solar
Wind Between the Injection and the Inertial Range [#4077]
We posed questions about the coexistence
of, and mutual feedback between, solar wind turbulence and structures of
solar origin. Focusing on the time-scales and length-scales that mark the
transition from the injection to the inertial range, we stressed how the
advancement of our understanding of the connections between solar variability
and the Earth’s environment requires synergy between different research
fields with multi-disciplinary approaches.
Gibson S. E. de Toma G. Hassler D. M. DeForest C. Hoeksema J. T. Vourlidas A. Newmark J. Thompson B. J. Kirk M. Viall N. Wallace S. LInker J. Rivera Y.
The Science Case for a 4π Perspective: A Polar/Global View of the Heliosphere [#4054]
The heliosphere is a network of
magnetically connected systems, from Sun, through solar wind, to the planets.
Understanding the global heliosphere is central to the field of heliophysics
and requires more observations away from the Sun-Earth line. The ultimate
goal for 2050 is 4π coverage, and between now and then the priority must
be obtaining high-latitude (> 60 degree) views from above the
Gibson S. E. Malanushenko A. de Toma G. Tomczyk S. Reeves K. Tian H. Yang Z. Chen B. Fleishman G. Gary D. Nita G. Pillet V. M. White S. Rachmeler L. A. Raouafi N. E. Zhao J. Bąk-Stęślicka U. Dalmasse K. Kucera T.
Untangling the Global Coronal Magnetic Field
with Multiwavelength Observations [#4062]
A key goal for 2050 is to make
comprehensive, ongoing synoptic maps of the global coronal magnetic field
using multiwavelength observations. This will require the construction of new
telescopes, both ground and space-based, at all wavelengths. It will also
require ongoing development of inversion frameworks capable of incorporating
multi-wavelength data, and forward analysis tools and simulation testbeds to
prioritize and establish observational requirements on the
Hassler D. M. Gibson S. E. Hoeksema J. T. Newmark J. Vourlidas A.
The Science Case for a Polar Perspective: Discovery Space [#4076]
Just as our understanding of Jupiter and
Saturn are being revolutionized by new observations from Juno and Cassini
(revealing turbulent cyclones and motion never before imagined), our
understanding of the Sun, the solar dynamo, and how polar magnetic fields and
flows shape the solar activity cycle will be revolutionized by observations
of the solar poles. Solar polar pathfinders, such as the Solaris Explorer
mission, will provide the first glimpse of mysteries likely to drive our
science for decades to come.
Hoeksema J. T. Basu S. Braun D. Brown B. Dikpati M. Featherstone N. Gibson S. Hassler D. Hindman B. Komm R. Newmark J. Pevtsov A. A. Upton L. Vourlidas A. Zhao J.
The Science Case for a 4π Perspective: A Polar/Global View for Understanding the
Solar Cycle [#4039]
Will we in 2050 look back and wonder at our
inability to predict the last three solar cycles? A critical gap in our
knowledge of cycle drivers arises because we can only see a fraction of the
Sun at a time. In particular, our view of the poles is severely compromised.
Long duration, truly global observations of magnetic and velocity fields are
needed to better understand interior flows through helioseismology, subtle
azimuthal variations, and flux emergence and transport over the course of
Ji H. Karpen J. Alt A. Antiochos S. Baalrud S. Bale S. Bellan P. M. Begelman M. Beresnyak A. Bhattacharjee A. Blackman E. G. Brennan D. Brown M. Buechner J. Burch J. Cassak P. Chen B. Chen L. -J. Chen Y. Chien A. Comisso L. Craig D. Dahlin J. Daughton W. DeLuca E. Dong C. F. Dorfman S. Drake J. F. Ebrahimi F. Egedal J. Ergun R. Eyink G. Fan Y. Fiksel G. Forest C. Fox W. Froula D. Fujimoto K. Gao L. Genestreti K. Gilson S. Goldstein M. Guo F. Hare J. Hesse M. Hoshino M. Hu Q. Huang Y. -M. Jara-Almonte J. Karimabadi H. Klimchuk J. Kunz M. Kusano K. Lazarian A. Le A. Lebedev S. Li H. Li X. Lin Y. Linton M. Liu Y. -H. Liu W. Longcope D. Loureiro N. Lu Q. -M. Ma Z. -W. Matthaeus W. H. Meyerhofer D. Mozer F. Munsat T. Murphy N. A. Nilson P. Ono Y. Opher M. Park H. Parker S. Petropoulou M. Phan T. Prager S. Rempel M. Ren C. Ren Y. Rosner R. Roytershteyn V. Sarff J. Savcheva A. Schaffner D. Schoeffier K. Scime E. Shay M. Sironi L. Sitnov M. Stanier A. Swisdak M. TenBarge J. Tharp T. Uzdensky D. Vaivads A. Velli M. Vishiac E. Wang H. Werner G. Xiao C. Yamada M. Yokoyama T. Yoo J. Zenitani S. Zweibel E.
Major Scientific Challenges and Opportunities in
Understanding Magnetic Reconnection and Related Explosive Phenomena in Solar
and Heliospheric Plasmas [#4082]
Magnetic reconnection underlies many
explosive phenomena in heliophysical and laboratory
plasmas. New capabilities in theory/simulations, observations, and lab
experiments provide exciting opportunities to solve the grand scientific challenges
in understanding reconnection and predicting space weather events. Success
requires enhanced and sustained investments from funding agencies,
interagency partnerships, and close collaborations among solar, heliospheric,
and laboratory plasma communities.
Jones A. R. Chamberlin P. C. Mason J. P. Schmit D. J.
Understanding the Thermal Structure of the Chromospheric and Coronal Plasmas [#4058]
To fully understand the mechanisms driving
the energy balance and evolution in the solar chromosphere and corona will
require a sea change in solar instrumentation that can provide the required
simultaneously high spatial, temporal, and spectral measurements of the
Kerr G. S. Alaoui M. Allred J. C. Bian N. H. Dennis B. R. Emslie A. G. Fletcher L. Guidoni S. Hayes L. A. Holman G. D. Hudson H. S. Karpen J. T. Kowalski A. F. Milligan R. O. Polito V. Qiu J. Ryan D. F.
Solar Flare Energy Partitioning and Transport —
The Impulsive Phase [#4088]
Flares are a fundamental component of
geoeffective solar eruptive events (SEEs, together with CMEs). To explain and
ultimately predict SEEs, we need a comprehensive understanding of their
energy release, conversion, and transport. We discuss the flare impulsive
phase part of SEEs. By 2050 we must determine the mechanisms of particle
acceleration and propagation, and must push beyond the paradigm of electron
beams, to also account for accelerated protons and ions and downward directed
Kerr G. S. Alaoui M. Allred J. C. Bian N. H. Dennis B. R. Emslie A. G. Fletcher L. Guidoni S. Hayes L. A. Holman G. D. Hudson H. S. Karpen J. T. Kowalski A. F. Milligan R. O. Polito V. Qiu J. Ryan D. F.
Solar Flare Energy Partitioning and Transport —
The Gradual Phase [#4089]
Flares are a fundamental component of
geoeffective solar eruptive events (SEEs, together with CMEs). To explain and
ultimately predict SEEs we require a comprehensive understanding of their
energy release, conversion, and transport. We discuss the flare gradual
phase, which persists much longer than predicted. By 2050 we must identify
the characteristics of the significant energy deposition sustaining the
gradual phase and address the fundamental processes of turbulence and
non-local heat flux.
Klimchuk J. A. Antiochos S. K. Brosius J. W. Daldorff L. K. S. Johnston C. D. Kucera T. A. Leake J. E. Uritsky V. M. Viall N. M.
Heating of the Magnetically Closed Corona [#4027]
This white paper describes observation,
theory, and modeling efforts that should be pursued over the next 10–30 years
to finally explain the heating of the magnetically closed solar corona
(active regions and quiet Sun), a prerequisite to accurate forecasts of the
solar spectral irradiance and its space weather impacts.
Klimchuk J. A. Daw A. N. Del Zanna G.
The Case for Spectroscopic Observations of Very
Hot (5–10 MK) Plasma [#4028]
This white paper explains why spectroscopic
observations of very hot plasma are crucial to understanding the explosive
release of magnetic energy that is at the heart of many important solar and
astrophysical phenomena, including CMEs, flares, nanoflares, and jets.
Karpen J. DeVore R. MacNeice P. Mays L. Rastaetter L. Collado-Vega Y. Daldorff L. Tarr L. Torok T. Reep J.
Future Predictive Modeling of Solar
Eruptive Events [#4111]
This document outlines future requirements
to develop predictive models of Solar Eruptive Event initiation. It provides
suggestions for targeted programs to meet these requirements by 2050,
including both theoretical and modeling development, and
Leamon R. J. McIntosh S. W.
Heliospheric Meteorology: HMM, the $200 Mission [#4021]
Rapid advances were made in the study, and
forecasting, of terrestrial meteorology half a century ago with the launch of
earth observing satellites. We propose a concept — the Heliospheric
Meteorology Mission (HMM) — to mirror the weather forecast advances to Space
Weather using a distributed network of deep space hardened smallsats that view the entire Sun. HMM really is the
$200 mission for heliophysics in (if not by) 2050. As in, “Go to HMM. Go
directly, do not pass ‘Go’, do not collect $200.”
Martinez Pillet V.
Gibson S. Pevtsov A.
de Wijn A. G. Gosain S. Burkepile J. Henney C. J. McAteer J. Muglach K. Bain H. M. Manchester W. Lin H. Roth M. Ichimoto K. Suematsu Y.
Ground-Based Synoptic Studies of the Sun [#4016]
This white paper describes existing and
future contextual synoptic observations needed to fully exploit the new
knowledge of the underlying microphysics about the magnetic linkages between
the Earth and the Sun. This combination of a better understanding of
small-scale processes and the appropriate global context enables a
physics-based approach to Space Weather comparable to Terrestrial Weather forecasting.
McIntosh S. W. Leamon R. J. Newmark J. Johnson L. Dikpati M.
Rush the Poles:
What is Going on Around 55° Latitude? [#4091]
Is 55° the seat of the Sun’s dynamo
processes — where the magnetic field that shapes and drives the heliosphere
originates? Critical spectroscopic access to this region and measurement of
the underlying structures and flow patterns requires long-duration, continuous
observing periods over the Sun’s poles. This white paper highlights
observations that unveil the region around 55° latitude, challenge theory,
and presents a scientific target of a magnitude similar to tracing the source
of the Nile.
Newmark J. Hoeksema J. T. Featherstone N. Vourlidas A. McIntosh S. Gibson S. Hassler D. Dikpati M. Brown B.
Solar Magnetism and Structure from
the Poles [#4045]
Progress on understanding generation of the
solar magnetic field requires detailed observations of the solar polar
regions, where data is currently scarce and where much of the subtle
interplay between plasma flows and magnetic fields that gives rise to cyclic
polarity reversals is thought to occur. High-latitude observations will
provide an unprecedented vantage point for helioseismic
imaging that can be used to probe flows and fields from deep in the
convection zone to the surface.
Pevtsov A. A. Gibson S. Webb D. Dikpati M. Burkepile J. Bertello L.
Long-Term Data Sets — Key to Understanding Past
and Future of Solar Activity [#4032]
Learning about Sun’s long-term behavior
requires the continuity of long-term synoptic observations. Long-term
observing programs and datasets (1) provide reference for the typical or
normal states of natural systems such as the sun and heliosphere, (2) provide
information about evolutionary (time scales longer than solar cycle) and
transient changes in these natural systems, and (3) feed future research to
solve issues that may not be identified at the time when the data
Pevtsov A. A. Woods T. Martinez Pillet V. Hassler D. Berger T. Gosain S. Hoeksema T. Jones A. Kohnert R.
Solar and Heliospheric Magnetism in 5D [#4034]
To understand the Sun and the heliosphere
requires taking observations from multiple vantage points. We describe six
science objectives: to understand (1)
the interconnected magnetic system in the solar corona; (2) the evolving
structures of ICMEs and solar wind streamers; (3) the life cycle of active
region; (4) the true 3D orientation of magnetic fields; (5) explore the solar
polar magnetic fields and their role on solar dynamo; and (6) Improve
prediction of solar wind and CMEs.
Rabin D. M. Daw A. N. Denis K. L. Klimchuk J. A. Kamalabadi F. Schmit D. J.
Observing Coronal Microscales [#4078]
Diffractive optics can enable the
observation of individual energy-release sites in the solar corona to test
theories of coronal heating. We present a progression of science-driven
technology advancements leading to the capability to study in detail
small-scale structure (<100 km) that figures in almost all contemporary
theories of coronal heating. The development path culminates in the ability to
employ milliarcsecond imaging spectroscopy for solar and
Reardon K. Cauzzi G. Rimmele T. Schad T. Tarr L. Tremblay B. Rast M.
Revealing Fundamental Physics of the Sun
with DKIST [#4106]
We advocate for the integrative study of
the solar atmosphere, which will enhance our ability forecast its dynamical
evolution and inform understanding of the underlying plasma processes. With
the system’s complex physics and observables, successful data interpretation
requires comparison with model output. Conversely, realistic simulations
require observational touchstones. The Daniel K. Inouye Solar Telescope will
be essential to these efforts, an integral partner in advancing heliophysics.
Rempel M. Fan Y. Dikpati M. Malanushenko A. Kazachenko M. D. Cheung M. C. M. Chintzoglou G. Sun X. Fisher G. H.
Towards Data-Driven Modeling and Real-Time
Prediction of Solar Flares and Coronal Mass Ejections [#4085]
Modeling of transient events in the solar
atmosphere requires the confluence of 3 critical elements: (1) model sophistication, (2) data
availability, and (3) data assimilation. This white paper describes required
advances that will enable statistical flare and CME forecasting (e.g.
eruption probability and timing, estimation of strength, and CME details,
such as speed and magnetic field orientation) similar to weather prediction
Ryan J. M. de Nolfo G. A. Mackinnon A. McConnell M. L. Murphy R. Vilmer N. Young C. A.
High-Energy Neutrons in the Heliosphere [#4086]
We outline the value of performing low
background, spectroscopic measurements of fast neutrons to advance the
science of solar energetic particles, the inner radiation belt proton budget,
and lunar and planetary regolith composition. With the existing rarity of
such measurements, breakthroughs are likely in understanding Long Duration
Gamma Ray Flares, accelerated solar proton spectra, time resolved proton
injection into the inner belts, and average Z measurements of lunar
Scherrer P. Pillet V. Moore R. Arge N. Cheung M. Gopalwamy N. Habbal S. Harvey J. Hathaway D. Linker J. Martens P. Munoz-Jaramillo A. Ulrich R. Wang H. Wang Y.-M.
On the Need for Full-Disk Solar Magnetographs in
Space Around the Sun [#4005]
The white paper stresses the importance and
need for full-disk magnetographs in space around the Sun for all of solar
science and heliosphere science in the coming decades.
Seaton D. B. West M. J. Caspi A. DeForest C. E. Golub L. Mason J. Savage S. Viall N.
A Strategy for a Coherent and Comprehensive
Basis for Understanding the Middle Corona [#4075]
The middle corona encompasses almost all of
the influential physical transitions and processes that govern the behavior
of coronal outflow and inflow. Because it is challenging to observe, the
middle corona has been largely overlooked by major solar missions going back
decades. We discuss the need for strategic planning for continuous, coherent,
and comprehensive observations of the middle corona and outline a plan to
achieve such observations in the coming decades.
Shih A. Y. Vilmer N. MacKinnon A. Pesce-Rollins M. Vainio R. Hudson H. Simões P. J. A. Cohen C. M. S.
Ion Acceleration in Solar Eruptive Events [#4023]
Observations of energetic ions in solar
eruptive events — solar flares with associated CMEs — are critical to
understanding the transient, efficient release of stored magnetic energy at
the Sun. Solar flares are the most powerful explosions in the solar system,
efficiently accelerating ions up to tens of GeV. CME-driven shocks also
accelerate ions to extreme energies in SEP events. Observing ion signatures
is necessary to answer open questions regarding ion acceleration
Shih A. Y. Glesener L. Krucker S. Guidoni S. Christe S. Reeves K. Gburek S. Caspi A. Alaoui M. Allred J. Battaglia M. Baumgartner W. Dennis B. Drake J. Goetz K. Golub L. Hannah I. Hayes L. Holman G. Inglis A. Ireland J. Kerr G. Klimchuk J. McKenzie D. Moore C. Musset S. Reep J. Ryan D. Saint-Hilaire P. Savage S. Schwartz R. Seaton D. Stęślicki M. Woods T.
Fundamentals of Impulsive Energy Release in
the Corona [#4093]
Solar eruptive events are the most
energetic and geo-effective space-weather drivers. Many of the processes
involved in triggering, driving, and sustaining solar eruptive events — including
magnetic reconnection, particle acceleration, plasma heating, and energy
transport in magnetized plasmas — also play important roles in phenomena
throughout the Universe. We discuss areas of science investigation that would
significantly advance our understanding of these fundamental
Solomon S. C. Woods T. N. Eparvier F. G. Chamberlin P. C.
Solar Spectral Irradiance Objectives for
Improved Understanding of Atmospheric Variability [#4080]
Accurate and precise knowledge of solar
spectral irradiance and its variability are critical throughout terrestrial
and planetary atmospheres. This is particularly true for UV and X-ray fluxes
that impact the upper atmosphere and ionosphere, but includes visible and
infrared irradiance that dominate total solar irradiance, which is important
for climate. A robust ongoing observational and modeling program is needed to
understand key spectral regions and how they affect the geospace environment.
Sterling A. C. Moore R. L.
Future High-Resolution and High-Cadence
Observations for Unraveling Eruptive Solar Features [#4118]
Many of the key advances in solar science
over the previous fifty years have been strongly influenced by imaging with
increasing resolution and cadence of the Sun’s atmosphere from space. There
is still much room for further advances in this area in the coming decades.
Here we demonstrate this need using as an example recent past advances of the
features known as solar coronal jets.
Viall-kepko N. Laming J. M. Cranmer S. Arge N. DeForest C. de Toma G. Caspi A. Raouafi N.-E.
Exploring the Critical Coronal Transition
Region: The Key to Uncovering the
Genesis of the Solar Wind and Solar Eruptions [#4013]
The development of the solar wind and CME
occurs within 10 Rs, particularly below 4 Rs. This seemingly narrow spatial
region encompasses the transition of coronal plasma processes through the
entire range of physical regimes from fluid to kinetic, and from primarily
closed magnetic field structures to primarily open. The comprehensive
exploration of this Critical Coronal Transition Region will answer two of the
most central heliophysics questions with repercussions across NASA
Hoeksema T. Liinton M. Lugaz N.
The Science Case for the 4π Perspective: A Polar/Global View for Studying the
Evolution and Propagation of the Solar Wind and Solar Transients [#4019]
To make progress on the open questions on
CME/CIR propagation, their interactions and the role and nature of the
ambient solar wind, we need spatially resolved coverage of the inner
heliosphere — both in-situ and (critically) imaging — at temporal scales
matching the evolutionary timescales of these phenomena (tens of minutes to
hours), and from multiple vantage points. The polar vantage is uniquely
beneficial because of the wide coverage and unique perspective
Woods T. N. Caspi A. Chamberlin P. C. Gibson S. Jones A. R. Mason J. P. Thiemann E. M. B.
Key Science Objectives for Advancing Flare
Forecast Accuracy [#4020]
The keys to unlocking the science of solar
storm forecasts are understanding (1) the creation and evolution of the solar
magnetic field in complex active regions, (2) how the magnetic field
interacts with the solar plasma to release energy and accelerate energetic
particles, and (3) the global interactions between active regions and other
solar features that can enhance some events or suppress others. This white
paper has a narrow focus on the context of these for the full-disk
Youngblood A. Cranmer S. Van Kooten S. Mason J. P. Pineda J. S. France K. Vorobiev D. Eparvier F. Notsu Y.
Solar Analogs as a Tool to Understand
the Sun [#4029]
Solar analogs provide a useful laboratory
for exploring the range of Sun-like behaviors and the physical mechanisms
underlying some of the Sun’s most elusive processes. We argue for a series of
heliophysics-motivated, but astrophysics-like studies of solar analogs, which
should be considered in the framework of statistical studies of the
dependences of various observables like activity, magnetism, and granulation
on fundamental stellar parameters like mass, metallicity, and rotation.
White Paper Title and Summary
Chakraborty S. Bland E. C. Fiori R. A. D. Ruohoniemi J. M. Baker J. B. H.
Observing and Modeling Radio Blackout in the
Ionosphere Following Solar Flares [#4109]
Networks of ground-based remote sensing
instruments, such as SuperDARN radars, riometers,
and ionosondes, continue to be developed to facilitate further progress on
the most pressing outstanding questions in space science and enhance the
capabilities for monitoring sudden ionospheric disturbances and
Cheung M. C. M. Kepko L. Ho G. C. Tan F. Braatz L. De Pontieu B. Biesecker D. Jin M. Chintzoglou G.
An Autonomous Space Weather Constellation [#4051]
We present the science case, concept of
operations, and technological capabilities needed for an Autonomous Space
Weather Constellation. It will observe the Sun from multiple vantage points
and sample solar-wind conditions from multiple locations. It aims to fill the
gaps in our observational capabilities in order to facilitate validated,
near-real time, data-driven models of the Sun’s global corona, heliosphere,
and associated space weather effects to safeguard human and
Leamon R. J.
Anderson J. L. Belucz B. Biesecker D.
Bothun G. Fan Y. Gilman P. A. Guerrero G. Hoeksema J. T. Kitiashvili I. N. Kosovichev A. G. Linkmann M. McIntosh S. W. Norton A. A. Rempel M. Tripathy S. C. Upton L. Wang H. Wing S.
Space Weather Modeling and Prediction for
Intermediate Time-Scales [#4035]
Originating from solar activity, space
weather occurs on short (hours/days), intermediate (weeks/months), and long
(years/decades) time-scales. Significant progress has been made in predicting
space weather on short and long time-scales, but much less for intermediate
times. With recent advances in observing and modeling solar Rossby waves, we
see a bright future for simulating MHD Rossby waves, which (combined with
data) can lead to operational space weather predictions
Dorelli J. C. Bard C. Da Silva D.
dos Santos L. F. G. Ireland J. Kirk M. McGranaghan R. Narock A. Nieves-Chinchilla T. Samara M. Sarantos M. Schuck P. Thompson B.
Deep Learning for Space Weather Prediction: Bridging the Gap Between Heliophysics Data
and Theory [#4053]
Traditionally, data analysis and theory
have been viewed as separate disciplines, each feeding into fundamentally
different types of models. Modern deep learning technology is beginning to
unify these two disciplines and will produce a new class of predictively
powerful space weather models that combine the physical insights gained by
data and theory. We call on NASA to invest in the research and infrastructure
necessary for the heliophysics’ community to take advantage of
Gibson S. E. de Toma G. Malanushenko A. Fan Y. Hassler D. M. DeForest C. Hoeksema J. T. Vourlidas A. Newmark J. Thompson B. J. Kirk M. Viall N. Wallace S. Dalmasse K. Berger T. Rivera Y.
The Science Case for a 4π Perspective: A Polar/Global View on Space
Weather Origins [#4059]
One of the fundamental inputs to
space-weather forecasting is information about the origins of coronal mass
ejection (CMEs). Ultimately, improving space-weather forecasts requires
observations from off the Sun-Earth line (SEL) and in particular,
observations from the solar poles which yield a longitudinal “sunny-side-up”
view, providing space-weather monitoring for all the planets and spacecraft
in the inner heliosphere, not just the Earth-Moon system and L1.
Green J. L. Dong C. Hesse M. Young C. A.
Space Weather Observations and Modeling in
Support of Human Exploration of Mars [#4010]
Space Weather (SW) observations and
modeling at Mars have begun, but it must be significantly increased in order
to support the future of human exploration. A comprehensive SW understanding of
a planet without a global magnetosphere but thin atmosphere is very different
than our situation at Earth so there is substantial fundamental research
remaining. The next heliophysics decadal must include a new initiative in
order to meet expected demands for SW information at Mars.
Holler B. J. Benecchi S. D. Britt D. Cartwright R. Gladstone R. Kollmann P. Lisse C. M. Pinilla-Alonso N. Quirico E. Runyon K. D. Scipioni F. Stryk T.
Probing the Endo- and Exo-Heliospheric
Environments with Trans-Neptunian Objects (TNOs) [#4081]
Trans-Neptunian objects (TNOs) orbit beyond
Neptune and represent a diverse population of solar system worlds, both
dynamically and compositionally. Two dynamical classes that are of particular
interest to the study of space weathering environments inside and outside the
solar heliosphere are the cold classical Kuiper Belt objects (CCKBOs) that
are believed to have formed in situ and the extreme TNOs (ETNOs) that spend a
significant fraction of their orbits outside the current
Mannucci A. J.
Space Weather Prediction and Forecasting
in 2050 [#4096]
This white paper is based on the
recommendations document that was developed following the Chapman Conference
on Scientific Challenges Pertaining to Space Weather Forecasting Including
Extremes, which was held on February 11–15, 2019 in Pasadena, California,
USA. We describe our vision for space weather research in 2050.
Mason J. P. Chamberlin P. C. Woods T. N. Jones A. Kirk M. Veronig A. M. Dissauer K. SunCET Team
CME Acceleration as a Probe of the Coronal
Magnetic Field [#4018]
By 2050, we expect that CME models will
accurately describe, and ideally predict, observed solar eruptions and the
propagation of the CMEs through the corona. We describe some of the present
known unknowns in observations and models that would need to be addressed in
order to reach this goal. We also describe how we might prepare for some of
the unknown unknowns that will surely become challenges.
McGranaghan R. M. Thompson B. Camporeale E.
Bortnik J. Bobra M. Lapenta G. Wing S. Poduval B. Lotz S. Murray S. Kirk M. Bain H. M. Riley P. Tremblay B. Cheung M. Delouille V.
Heliophysics Discovery Tools for the 21st
Century: Data Science and Machine
Learning Structures and Recommendations for 2020–2050 [#4052]
Three main points: 1. Data Science (DS) will be increasingly
important to heliophysics; 2. Methods of heliophysics science discovery will
continually evolve, requiring the use of learning technologies [e.g., machine
learning (ML)] that are applied rigorously and that are capable of supporting
discovery; and 3. To grow with the pace of data, technology, and workforce
changes, heliophysics requires a new approach to the representation
Improved Plasma Science Through Multi-Point,
Multi-Scale Measurements in the Solar Wind [#4008]
The ultimate goal of the proposed, future,
multi-point, cross-scale measurements at the orbits and Lagrange 1, 3, 4, and
5 points of Mercury, Venus, and Earth are 1) to improve our understanding of
the basic plasma physics in the solar wind; 2) to reveal the evolution of
solar wind in the interplanetary region; and 3) to monitor the upstream solar
wind conditions for downstream space missions.
Posner P. Arge N. Cho K. Heber B. Effenberger F. Krucker S. Kuehl P. Malandraki O. Park Y.-D. Pulkkinen A. Raouafi N. E. Solanki S. K. StCyr O. C. Strauss R. D.
Space Weather Strategy for Securing Earth, and Human Exploration of the Moon
and Mars [#4061]
This white paper recognizes
gaps in observations that will, when addressed, much improve solar radiation
hazard and geomagnetic storm forecasting. Radiation forecasting depends on
observations of the entire “Solar Radiation Hemisphere” that we will define.
Mars exploration needs strategic placement of radiation-relevant
observations. We also suggest an orbital solution that will improve
geomagnetic storm forecasting through improved in situ and solar/heliospheric
Turner D. Sotirelis T.
Erlandson R. Likar J. Vourlidas A.
Lanzerotti L. Millan R. Spence H. Kletzing C.
Radiation Belt Space Weather at NASA: From Basic Research to Operations [#4092]
Ambient and increased levels of
relativistic electrons and highly penetrating ion radiation can cause substantial
economic impact by damaging and destroying orbiting spacecraft and are
hazardous for astronauts in space. Protecting the nation’s infrastructure
from adverse particle radiation effects requires a community-wide systems
solution employing a large-spacecraft constellation, capable ground-based
operations, and comprehensive data-driven modeling infrastructure.
Merkin S. Turner D. Nikoukar R. Paxton L. Ukhorskiy A. Sotirelis T. Zhang Y.
Solving the Space Weather Problem: A 15+ Year Roadmap to Revolutionize Space
Weather Research, Protect NASA Space Assets, and Enable
Robust Operations [#4014]
We propose a ‘system-of-systems’ — an
integrated web of SpWx stations and
state-of-the-art modeling facilities to enable a transformative advance in
Space Weather nowcasting and forecasting. The Space Weather Aggregated
Network of Systems (SWANS) will enable space situational awareness for
end-users invested in spaceflight operations, infrastructure risk mitigation,
and future human endeavors in space exploration while profoundly transforming
heliophysics research by 2050 or earlier.