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Virtual Poster Session: Facilities and Informatics (Gather.town)

Monday, May 13, 2024, 12:30 PM

Allton J.* Gonzalez C. Jurewicz A. J. G.
Enabling Planetary Science by Preserving Artificially Implanted Genesis Collector Materials [#3007]
History- Genesis solar wind sample return mission acquired/archived flight-like collector materials, now curated at JSC, for reference use by solar wind researchers. A subset, for engineering use, was maintained by D. S. Burnett and A. J. G. Jurewicz and given as needed to Genesis researchers. Many were implanted with specific ions of known dose and energy upon request by researchers for calibrating solar wind measurements, but excess material was stored for future distribution. It is this set of implanted materials that we are reporting upon here. Fragments from ~100 implants have been stored or distributed to Genesis investigators as needed by Burnett/Jurewicz. Species implanted range from H to Os, energies from 10 to 180 keV, some specimens implanted with multiple species. Implanted materials include Genesis array wafer materials (Si, DLC on Si, Ge, AlOS, AuOS, SAP, SOS), concentrator target materials (SiC, CVD). A step-wise approach for developing this collection is being taken, starting with curation of calibrated implants (i.e., those for which the reported dose has been externally verified) and then moving on to well-documented implants whose calibration status may change with time. Function- The transfer of these materials and documentation to JSC Curation for storage and future allocation, is in process. Eventually they will be available to all users for projects meeting guidelines for enabling planetary science. This will include analysis of solar wind as well as using calibrated silicon standards to make calibrated analytical standards for other planetary materials [1]. Non-calibrated implants will be allocated as test materials for developing procedures or techniques needed for Genesis projects. Status- A pilot project (26 samples and documentation) has been received. Samples are separately stored under nitrogen purge in ISO 4 lab space. Their documentation was uploaded into an existing Genesis curation database that allows searching by material, ion species, energy, and dose. A schedule for completing acquisition of calibrated standards, preparing a public catalog, and developing guidelines for use is in progress. Input from potential users on their use and requirements is being collected. Curation supports development of this feature of the Genesis collection; LARS supports the transfer of materials/documentation from Jurewicz. Contact: judith.h.allton@nasa.gov [1] Burnett et al. (2015) Geostds Geoanal Res. 39(3), 265‐276 .
Elsila J. E. Aponte J. C. Glavin D. P.* Graham H. V. McLain H. L. et al.
The Astrobiology Analytical Laboratory at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center: Analysis of Soluble Organic Compounds in Extraterrestrial Samples [#3001]
The Astrobiology Analytical Laboratory at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center is an ~1800 ft^2 unique facility dedicated to analyzing organic compounds in terrestrial analogs and extraterrestrial materials. We are equipped with a wide variety of analytical instruments that enable us to identify and quantify soluble organic compounds, as well as measuring the enantiomeric ratios of chiral species and determining stable isotopic compositions. Our lab focuses on science questions related to the origin, distribution, and evolution of organic compounds throughout the Solar System. We analyze terrestrial and extraterrestrial samples including meteorites, lunar regolith, and returned cometary and asteroidal samples. We also analyze laboratory analogs created to support in situ Mars missions and the impact of ionizing radiation on organics and to simulate potential astrochemical processes or environments. We compare our results to modeled or predicted astrochemical processes. In addition, we study questions related to curation and contamination of precious extraterrestrial samples. We aim to quantify compounds present in low abundances in highly complex mixtures while controlling or understanding terrestrial contamination. We perform a range of sample preparations including extraction, acid vapor hydrolysis, desalting, and derivatization techniques targeting specific compound classes. We routinely study compounds such as amino acids, amines, carboxylic acids, aldehydes, ketones, cyanide species, alcohols, peptides, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and hypervolatiles, and we continue to expand our list of targeted compound classes. Although we are not equipped to serve as a “facility instrument” or to provide analyses for hire, we are open to collaborations. We have hosted visiting scientists and students through a variety of programs and have been part of many cross-institutional proposals to various NASA programs. Interested researchers are encouraged to reach out to discuss potential collaborations. We welcome conversations about both short-term projects (e.g., analyses of a single sample of interest) and longer-term (e.g., investigations of processes through laboratory simulations).
Ni P.* Bell E. A. Young E. D. Manning C. E. Harrison M. T.
UCLA geochemistry and cosmochemistry facilities [#3002]
The Department of Earth, Planetary, and Space Sciences of UCLA houses a range of micro-beam facilities, mass spectrometers, and experimental facilities for extraterrestrial sample analysis. The MC-ICP-MS lab (PI Ni) has a newly installed Nu Sapphire, which couples an inductively-coupled-plasma source with modern mass spectrometry design for high precision stable isotope analyses of metal elements, such as Fe, Cu, Mg, K, and Si. The dual path design of the Sapphire adds an option of gas reaction/collision cell on one of the two paths, which efficiently reacts away the argon related interferences, making it possible to analyze elements such as K and Ca, also enabling high sensitivity analyses of Fe, Cr, and other elements affected by Ar-related interferences. The UCLA/NSF SIMS lab (PI Harrison) is a national facility that houses a Cameca ims-1270 and an ims-1290, which are ideal for non-destructive micro-beam analyses of extraterrestrial samples for U-Pb dating, stable isotope analyses (e.g. O and S), and trace element compositions. The PANORAMA lab (PI Young) houses a unique large-geometry gas-source mass spectrometer, designed for measuring rare multiply-substituted isotopologues of methane (CH4), N2, and O2 that is made possible by the high mass resolving power of the instrument. Combined with an in-house fluorination line, the PANORAMA lab is capable of measuring triple oxygen isotopes of extraterrestrial materials to 8 ppm precision. Measurements of the abundance of different isotopologues of methane (e.g. 13CH3D, 12CH2D2) allows for diagnosis of various methane formation and destruction pathways, providing a potential mechanism for detecting biogenic methane on extraterrestrial bodies. In addition to the unique combination of mass spectrometers, the UCLA geochemistry and cosmochemistry group also houses an SEM and an EPMA for chemical characterization of extraterrestrial materials, and a high-temperature high-pressured experimental lab (PI Ni & Manning) that are equipped with furnaces and piston cylinders for preprocessing extraterrestrial materials prior to analyses (e.g. homogenization of mineral-hosted melt inclusions) or synthesizing analytical standards. The facilities hosted by the UCLA geochemistry and cosmochemistry group were purchased using combined funds from the university, NSF, NASA, and private foundations. The SIMS lab is operated as a national facility and the other labs are supported by external funds to individual PIs. Collaborations are typically initiated by directly contacting PIs of the facilities.
Merchel S.* Marchhart O. Martschini M. Wieser A. Golser R.
Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) for the Determination of Long-lived Cosmogenic Radionuclides in Stony Meteorites – Now Without Chemical Preparation [#3004]
Long-lived radionuclides in meteorites are a result of the interaction with cosmic rays. Therefore, the concentrations of these cosmogenic nuclides (CNs) record the irradiation history of extraterrestrial matter. Reconstruction parameters of interest are: 1. pre-atmospheric size and shielding depth of the body in space (meteoroid) 2. irradiation time in space (irradiation age) 3. identification of complex exposure, i.e., repeated collisions or inherited CNs from pre-exposure at the surface of the meteoroid’s parent body (asteroid, Moon, Mars) 4. residence time on Earth (terrestrial age) for meteorite finds. Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) is the method-of-choice for the detection of long-lived CNs such as Be-10, C-14, Al-26, Cl-36 and Ca-41 (t1/2 = 6 ka-1.4 Ma). However, tedious radiochemical separation to deplete matrices and isobars was a prerequisite for AMS preventing fast and reasonable analysis until recently. Now, the world-wide unique Ion-Laser InterAction Mass Spectrometry (ILIAMS) system developed at the Vienna Environmental Research Accelerator (VERA) provides isobar suppression by up to fourteen orders of magnitude (Martschini et al., Radiocarbon, 2022). Hence, ILIAMS-assisted AMS, enables the direct detection of Al-26/Al-27 (~E-10) and Ca-41/Ca-40 (~E-11) in crushed stony meteorites containing intrinsic ~1% Al and Ca. Isobars from the naturally-abundant elements (~15% Mg, ~1‰ K) do not cause any analysis problems making radiochemical separation redundant. Successful examples are the recent Austrian and German meteorite falls of Kindberg (unpubl.), Elmshorn (Bischoff et al., subm. to MAPS) and Ribbeck (Bischoff et al., in prep. for MAPS), as well as some meteorite finds (unpubl.). Currently, we are using the bulk Al-27 and Ca-40 data from collaborators to convert nuclide ratios into specific activities (dpm/kg). However, we are installing a new setup to measure these elements in the identical powder by non-destructive Particle-Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) at VERA in the near future. This way, we will also take into account any sample inhomogeneity. For iron meteorites, chemistry is still needed, but ILIAMS allows easy isobar suppression and very efficient Cl-36, Ca-41 and Al-26 (by high current AlO-) determination. Other CNs (Mn-53, Ni-59) are currently under investigation. Ackn.: We thank A. Bischoff, D. Heinlein & L. Ferrière for precious samples, and the VERA team, especially S. Adler, P. Steier & C. Vivo Vilches for assisting in AMS.
Hanna R. D.* Ketcham R. A. Edey D. R.
Planetary Science Enabling Facility: University of Texas High-Resolution X-Ray CT Facility (UTCT) [#3005]
X-ray computed tomography (XCT) is a 3D analytical technique that is highly beneficial, and in some cases critical, for investigating planetary materials. While the number of labs with XCT scanners is growing, most are lacking either in their instrumentation capabilities (i.e., imaging resolution and energies, sample size range) or in the expertise required to extract the highest-quality image data and follow-on analysis. The University of Texas High-Resolution X-ray CT Facility (UTCT) serves a broad range of scientists worldwide, from academia, industry, and government, working in the earth and planetary sciences and ancillary fields. UTCT also functions as a premier center for technique development and research applications of XCT in the geosciences, including extraterrestrial materials. UTCT operates a suite of XCT instruments capable of imaging a wide array of sample sizes and types – from submicron imaging of small samples (~mm scale) to lower-resolution imaging of large samples (up to ~75 cm in height and ~45 cm in diameter, depending on sample density). Other specialized scanning capabilities include: ‘SubpiX’, which utilizes precise shifting of the detector to double the scan resolution for large objects; X-ray diffraction contrast tomography (DCT) for the 3D distribution of crystallographic orientations in sufficiently small samples (currently, < 2 mm); and experimental cells for scanning samples under controlled environmental conditions of temperature and pressure. UTCT has a dedicated staff possessing a combined ~100 years of scientific XCT experience that assists users in the interpretation and analysis of their data and conducts annual short courses that provide in-depth training on the acquisition, visualization, and quantitative analysis of XCT data. As a NASA Planetary Science Enabling Facility (PSEF), UTCT provides a 50% discount and priority scheduling to all NASA Planetary Science Division (PSD)-funded users. Samples shipped to our facility typically have a two-week turnaround to data delivery, or clients are welcome to bring samples and visit the lab. Contact Romy Hanna at romy@jsg.utexas.edu or visit www.ctlab.geo.utexas.edu for more information.
Dunlap D. R.* Hexel C. R. Manard B. T. Zirakparvar A. N. Ticknor B. W. et al.
Extraterrestrial Material Analysis at Oak Ridge National Laboratory [#3008]
Oak Ridge National laboratory (ORNL) has been a keystone of scientific progress in the United States for the last 80 years. Today, ORNL is host to unique capabilities ranging from the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) with the strongest reactor-based neutron source in the US, the Spallation Neutron Source for neutron scattering, the fastest supercomputer in the world (Frontier), the Low Activation Materials Development and Analysis (LAMBDA) for material characterization and the Chemical and Isotopic Mass Spectrometry (CIMS) Group. Of particular focus her is the CIMS group which is housed in the Ultra-trace Forensic Science Center offering nearly 7,400 sq ft of clean room space from ISO 5 through ISO 7 for sample storage, preparation, chemical separation and analyses of precious materials. The CIMS group is home to three next generation Neoma Multi-Collector Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometers (MC-ICP-MS) including one outfitted with the collision cell and pre-cell mass filter, a Neptune Plus, two Triton TIMS, several variants of single detector ICP-MS instruments, a Time of Flight (TOF) ICP-MS, an imageGEO laser with Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) upgrade, a GEO 193 excimer laser and an imageBIO 266 with LIBS upgrade. ORNL is a Department of Energy (DOE) laboratory operated by UT-Battelle. Research and Development funding comes through a variety of internal and external sources. Collaborative research at ORNL is managed through Strategic Partnership Projects, Cooperative Research and Development Agreements and through Interagency Agreements. Additionally, ORNL has the infrastructure in place to easily support students (undergrad and grad) as well as postdocs and visiting scientists. The research scope of the facility is broad ranging from nuclear safeguard and forensics applications to biologic lung tissue sampling to geochemistry. The CIMS group routinely handles high priority, precious samples for a variety of sponsors and collaborators providing high ORNL and the CIMS group encourage scientific engagement in the broad scientific community and can support efforts to pursue extraterrestrial material analysis at any capacity. Interest in collaborations should be sent to Daniel Dunlap (dunlapdr@ornl.gov) and Cole Hexel (hexelcr@ornl.gov). More information about the CIMS group can be found at https://www.ornl.gov/group/nacil/cims.
Allton J.* Gonzalez C. Calva C.
Genesis Solar Wind Sample Curation Facility [#3009]
In the controlled access facility, designed and constructed as NASA’s first ISO 4 payload assembly facility, Genesis payload flight hardware was cleaned with ultrapure water and assembled for launch in 1998-2000. After launch, facility was re-configured for storing and examining returned Genesis solar wind samples. The facility consists of two adjacent laboratories, both ISO Class 4 cleanrooms (vertical laminar flow, ULPA filtered). One cleanroom is equipped with ultrapure water (UPW) for experimental cleaning of containers and tools used in handling the solar wind samples, flight hardware and witness plates. The ultrapure water is also used for cleaning the solar wind samples. The other cleanroom is for long-term nitrogen storage of samples and for examination and processing of Genesis samples. Upon request by a researcher, we clean Genesis sample fragments by applying megasonically energized ultrapure water using a wafer spin cleaner at 3000 rpm to remove surface particles. UV ozone can be used to reduce molecular film. The Leica DM6000 captures excellent images of the polished wafer fragments, showing damage/debris from hard landing. Acquiring good optical images, between each cleaning or analytical session by researchers, is useful for indicating cleaning process effectiveness or contamination from analytical technique. The Nicolet 6700 FT-IR/Continuum microscope is used to distinguish Czochralski silicon, with diagnostic C-O peak, from Float Zone silicon. The Woollam M-2000 spectroscopic ellipsometer was originally acquired to map the molecular film, from spacecraft off-gassing, deposited on whole hexagon wafers. Ellipsometry is a non-destructive, rapid measurement for collector surfaces, having possibilities for screening samples. Genesis Lab ISO 4 level cleanliness and availability of UPW has supported several sample missions for specific, short-term tasks, usually associated with cleaning unique space flight hardware. Witness coupons were prepared and cleaned for OSIRIS-REx assembly monitoring. Mars Perseverance SHERLOC target and MMX hardware were cleaned for flight with UPW. Hubble non-flight mirror element examined with ellipsometry. Genesis facility is supported by JSC Astromaterials Curation. Contact: judith.h.allton@nasa.gov. https://curator.jsc.nasa.gov/genesis/index.cfm.
Hafner J. H.* Birkenfeld K. R. Pacheco C. R.
Meso-Raman Scanner for High Resolution Spectra of Unprocessed Samples [#3010]
Our research laboratory at Rice University has constructed a Meso-Raman Scanner which raster scans a fiber optic Raman probe to collect spectra over unprocessed mineral samples at a resolution of ~50 microns with a scan size up to 10’s of cm. The laser excitation is at 785 nm and the spectrometer range is 200 – 2000 cm-1. The probe path is guided by an initial structural model of the sample which is recorded with an optical 3D scanner. The probe-sample separation is also adjusted to maximize the Raman signal at each location. In this way, the instrument can map Raman spectra independent of sample topography. Furthermore, a two-wavelength diode laser excitation source (785.5 nm and 785.8 nm) has been constructed so that two Raman spectra can be recorded and at each location. The slight shift in excitation causes shifted Raman peaks, but identical luminescence and fluorescence so that the Raman signal can be isolated from those backgrounds. Initial work on L chondrite fragments clearly identifies and maps the mineral components. We are identifying localized luminescence centers that are frequently observed (but not understood) in Raman measurements on mineral samples. The system was constructed to detect organics for astrobiology and paleobiology. Prof. Hafner’s research lab is in the Dept. of Physics & Astronomy at Rice University, where it is supported by private (Welch Foundation) and federal (NSF, DOD) sources. Current funded work has focused on biomolecular structure from Raman spectra interpreted by density functional theory. A new effort to study astromaterials is partially supported by Rice University. Please email Professor Hafner for scientific collaborations.
Northrup P.* Tappero R.
Facilities for Non-Invasive Chemical Characterization of Extraterrestrial Materials by Synchrotron X-ray Fluorescence Microprobes: Pink-Beam CT and Tender-Energy Microspectroscopy [#3011]
Synchrotron X-ray fluorescence (XRF) micro- and nanoprobes are excellent non-destructive element-specific tools for characterizing the composition and local-scale chemical speciation in heterogeneous extraterrestrial materials. At the National Synchrotron Light Source II (NSLS-II), the unique combination of XRF techniques, pink-beam computed tomography (CT) and tender-energy microspectroscopy, provide an opportunity for non-invasive characterization of chemistry in samples of extraterrestrial materials (e.g. Northrup et al., LPSC 2023 Abstract 3035). Pink beam CT at XFM enables chemical mapping of elements Cr and heavier in ~1-micrometer-thick virtual slices through a sample without physically cutting it. These “slices” can approach 1 mm across, much larger than can be physically sectioned by ultramicrotome or FIB methods. Complementary tender-energy microspectroscopy of whole intact samples, at XFM and TES Beamlines (Northrup 2019, J. Synch. Rad.) provides measurement of lighter elements Mg-Ti. A recent NASA-funded project developed a new tender-energy instrument with submicron spatial resolution. Coupled microbeam X-ray absorption spectroscopy enables determination and mapping of an element’s oxidation state and chemical speciation, as well as local structure in crystalline or non-crystalline materials. As such, these are natural techniques to pair with electron microscopic techniques, providing chemical context and scaling up the field of view in samples that are heterogeneous on the nm to cm scale. These national User Facilities are operated and maintained by NSLS-II, and available at no cost through peer-reviewed General User proposal access (see https://www.bnl.gov/nsls2/userguide/ ), while P. Northrup provides local expertise/advice for potential users as well as collaboration opportunities for projects on extraterrestrial materials. Analysis of extraterrestrial materials is an integral part of the long-term multidisciplinary scientific scope of these facilities. Further details and information can be found at the NSLS-II web site noted above, or by directly contacting P. Northrup (paul.northrup@stonybrook.edu).


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