Solar and Space Physics Decadal Survey White Papers Workshops

Workshop #2: Next Generation Advances in Ground-Based Solar Physics — A Decadal Preparation

February 22–23, 2022





Times listed in the program are Eastern Standard Time (EST).  Time Zone Converter

10:00 a.m. PST

11:00 a.m. MST

12:00 p.m. CST

1:00 p.m. EST

7:00 p.m. CET


Tuesday, February 22, 2022

1:00 p.m.

Introduction to Next-Generation Solar Ground-Based Facilities and Instrumentation

3:15 p.m.

Photosphere and Chromosphere


Wednesday, February 23, 2022

1:00 p.m.

High-Energy Particle Measurements from the Ground

1:50 p.m.

Poster Lightning Round

2:00 p.m.

Poster Session in

2:45 p.m.

Corona and Heliosphere


Tuesday, February 22, 2022


1:00 p.m. EST

Introduction with invited talks to remind us of yet to be completed projects from previous decadal surveys.



Authors (*Presenter)

Abstract Title and Summary

1:00 p.m.

Dale Gary *

Welcome and Introduction  Recording

1:05 p.m.

Carrie Black, Lisa Winter *

Remarks from NSF about ground-based projects in the decadal  Recording

1:20 p.m.

Tomczyk S. *   Gibson S. E.

The Coronal Solar Magnetism Observatory (COSMO) [#3035]  Presentation  Recording
The COSMO suite of instruments will take continuous daytime synoptic measurements of magnetic fields in the solar corona and chromosphere, in order to understand solar eruptive events that drive space weather.

1:40 p.m.

Bastian T. S. *   FASR Team

Towards a Next Generation Solar Radiotelescope — FASR [#3014]  Recording
The long-standing goal of constructing a high-performance radio telescope to perform ultraviolet-broadband imaging spectropolarimetry is discussed. Examples of demonstrator science are given.

2:00 p.m.

Pevtsov A. A. *   Martinez-Pillet V.   Gilbert H.   de Wijn A. G.   Roth M.

Future Ground-Based Facilities for Research in Heliophysics and Space Weather Observations [#3022]  Recording
We propose to design a next-generation Ground-based solar Observing Network (ngGONG). This facility will enable fundamental research in solar and space physics, solar-stellar astrophysics, and modeling of geospace and space weather.

2:20 p.m.

Rimmele T. *   Woeger F.   Fehlmann A.   Jaeggli S.   Schad T.   Anan T.   Lin H.   Casini R.   Kuhn J.   DeWijn A.   Kentischer T.   Sigwarth M.   Schmidt D.

Second Generation Instrumentation for DKIST [#3009]  Recording
The unique capabilities of DKIST’s initial suite of instruments and ongoing upgrades will be briefly reviewed. We will solicit input concerning missing capabilities and discuss preliminary ideas and concepts for second-generation instrumentation for DKIST.

2:40 p.m.

Evenson P. A. *

Current Science and Impact of Ground-Based Energetic Particle Measurements [#3036]  Recording
Ensuring continuity in tracking variations in the cosmic ray distribution function requires maintaining the ground-based network, improving it with hardware employing the latest techniques, and adding stations in geographically strategic locations.

3:00 p.m.




Tuesday, February 22, 2022


3:15 p.m. EST

Discussion of science and next generation instruments and techniques needed to study the solar photospheric and chromospheric structure and processes.



Authors (*Presenter)

Abstract Title and Summary

3:15 p.m.

Reardon K. *   Wang H.   Cauzzi G.   Cao W.   Gorceix N.   Greco V.

Infrared Imaging Spectropolarimeter to Probe the Solar Atmosphere [#3030]  Recording
We propose a Fabry-Perot-based imaging spectropolarimeter, operating in the infrared, that will enable innovative studies of extended and dynamic structures in the full solar atmosphere with DKIST.

3:23 p.m.

Jain K. *   Lindsey C.   Braun D.   Pevtsov A.   Matinez-Pillet V.

Farside Imaging of the Sun — A Crucial Component in Future Space Weather Forecasting [#3010]  Recording
With ngGONG, farside maps will improve the detectability of active regions and quantify the probability of their emergence on the Earth-side, thus enabling better characterization of their EUV irradiance and flaring potential.

3:31 p.m.

Judge P. G. *

The Tortoise and the Hare, Stellar Dynamos, and Diversity, Equity, and Inclusion [#3004]  Recording
Regular stellar activity measurements over multiple decades are now a part of history, just as their need from dynamo theory, exoplanet habitability is greater than ever. Also, DEI demands tortoise- as well as (easily funded) hare-like measurements.

3:39 p.m.

Criscuoli S. *   Bertello L.   Choudhary D. P.   DeLand M.   Kopp G.   Kowalski A.   Marchenko S.   Reardon K.

Ground-Based Monitoring of the Variability of Visible Solar Spectral Lines for Improved Understanding of Solar and Stellar Magnetism and Dynamics [#3018]  Recording
We will illustrate the scientific return and explore the technical requirements of a network of instruments devoted to monitoring disk-integrated, solar spectral variability at high spectral resolution and high photometric accuracy.

3:47 p.m.

Petrie G. J. D. *   Pevtsov A. A.   Marble A. R.   Martinez Pillet V.

Improving Polar Field Observations from the Ground [#3019]  Recording
The Sun’s polar magnetic fields dominate the global structure of the corona and heliosphere, but they are difficult to observe from Earth. Here, we discuss what is required of a new synoptic program to improve polar field measurements from the ground.

3:55 p.m.

Tremblay B. *   Reardon K.   Rast M.   Kazachenko M. D.

Coupling Models and Observations to Probe Fundamental Physical Processes [#3025]  Presentation  Recording
We advocate for an integrative, data-driven approach that intertwines the interpretive power of state-of-the-art numerical simulations and the physical touchstone of cutting-edge, highly-resolved solar observations.

4:03 p.m.

Tarr L. A. *   Afanasev A.   Fan Y.   Kazachenko M.   Kee N. D.   Pillet V.   Rimmele T.

Data Driving Our Way to 2032 [#3026]  Presentation  Recording
Data driven simulations are the best path forward towards accurate reconstructions of the Sun’s atmosphere. They require new computational approaches, special attention to boundary conditions, and detailed validation by observations and simulations.

4:11 p.m.

Tarr L. A. *   Anan T.   Cauzzi G.   Pillet V.   Reardon K.   Rimmele T.

A Catalog of Waves [#3027]  Presentation  Recording
Multi-fluid waves in the solar atmosphere are central to several outstanding problems in solar physics. Here, we argue that the topic must be studied holistically, as an intricately coupled global system, in order to make progress.

4:19 p.m.

Hofmann R. A.   Molnar M. E.   Reardon K. P.   Milic I. *   de Silva Santos J.   Uitenbroek H.

Spectral Inversion Techniques:  Purpose, Limitations, and Improvements [#3033]  Recording
Inversions are a useful tool for interpreting observations. Current techniques are limited by both computational load and simplifying approximations. Significant improvements are necessary if these techniques are to be practical for large datasets.

4:27 p.m.


Group discussion about day 1 presentations and possible teaming on white papers.  Recording

5:00 p.m.




Wednesday, February 23, 2022


1:00 p.m. EST

Current and future measurements of high-energy solar particles at ground-based facilities.



Authors (*Presenter)

Abstract Title and Summary

1:00 p.m.

Mishev A. L. *   Usoskin I. G.

Performance of the Current and Extended Global NM Network for Solar Particle Registration and Assessment of the Related Terrestrial Effects [#3003]  Recording
We discuss the current status and applications of the global neutron monitor network, namely its capability to study solar energetic particles. We also present and discuss the existing gaps in the network and propose an improvement of the network.

1:08 p.m.

Koldobskiy S. A. *   Raukunen O.   Vainio R.   Kovaltsov G. A.   Usoskin I. G.

New Reconstruction of Event-Integrated Spectra (Spectral Fluences) for Major Solar Energetic Particle Events [#3002]  Recording
In the talk, we want to cover some important results obtained using the worldwide network of neutron monitors used to study solar activity from the 1950s.

1:16 p.m.

Steigies C. T. *

Future of the Worldwide Network of Neutron Monitors [#3007]  Recording
Neutron Monitors provide valuable input for space weather. However, the stations are getting old and they should be equipped with maintainable hardware which can be reliably operated for decades to come.

1:24 p.m.

Böttcher S. I. *   Steigies C. T.

Novel Registration System for Neutron Monitors [#3024]  Recording
We present a novel registration system for counter signals of a Neutron Monitor with up to 24 counter channels.

1:32 p.m.

Bindi V. *   Consolandi C.   Croti C.   Ryan J.   Nuntiyakul W.

Haleakala Neutron Monitor Redeployment for Solar Neutrons and High Energy Cosmic Ray Observations [#3021]  Presentation  Recording
We plan to extend the coverage of the worldwide NM network, for solar neutron particles and galactic cosmic rays by redeploying the Haleakala NM station on Maui. The initial phase of the project has already started and will operate by fall 2022.

1:40 p.m.

Clem J. M. *

Space Weather Warning Techniques [#3020]  Presentation  Recording
Cosmic ray anisotropies observed by neutron monitor and muon detector networks provide key information of an approaching disturbance. These observations potentially contain signatures that could be used to predict the IMF in various directions.


Wednesday, February 23, 2022


1:50 p.m. EST

Series of one-minute summaries of posters prior to the Poster Session in



Authors (*Presenter)

Abstract Title and Summary



Recording of all Lightning Talks

1:50 p.m.

DeLuca E. E. *

Airborne Instrumentation for Solar Coronal Studies

1:51 p.m.

Anan T. *

Near InfraRed Tunable Filter (NIRTF) for a 2nd Generation Instrument of DKIST

1:52 p.m.

Kumari A. *

Solar Radio Spectro-Polarimetry (50 - 500 MHz):  Design and Development of Cross-Polarized Log-Periodic Dipole Antenna and Configuration of Receiver System

1:53 p.m.

Kato C. *

Space Weather Study with Global Muon Detector Network (GMDN)

1:54 p.m.

Ruffolo D. *

Remote Sensing of Plasma Conditions in the Heliosphere Using Neutron Monitor Measurements of CosmicRays

1:55 p.m.

Mangeard P.-S. *

Ground Level Enhancement Measurements with the Neutron Monitors

1:56 p.m.

Evenson P. A. *

Measuring the Cosmic Ray Spectrum Using Neutron Monitors

1:57 p.m.

Seunarine S. *

The Simpson Neutron Monitor Network

1:58 p.m.

Chen T. Y. *

Leveraging Artificial Intelligence Capabilities for State-of-the-Art Helio- and Astrophysics Research


Wednesday, February 23, 2022


2:00 p.m. EST


Authors (*Presenter)

Abstract Title and Summary

DeLuca E. E. *   Samra J. E.   Caspi A.

Airborne Instrumentation for Solar Coronal Studies [#3028] 
Airborne instrumentation is used to explore the mid-infrared corona through solar eclipse observations. Existing platforms, the NSF/NCAR Gulfstream V (GV) and NASA’s WB-57F. We give an overview of recent science from observations and future uses.

Asai A.   Ichimoto K.   Yokoyama T.   Nagata S.   Ueno S.   Katsukawa Y.   Suematsu Y.   Hanaoka Y.   Kubo M.   Kawabata Y.   Anan T. *

Near InfraRed Tunable Filter (NIRTF) for a 2nd Generation Instrument of DKIST [#3011] 
A Japanese solar physics community has started to design scientific and technical concepts of an instrument, Near InfraRed Tunable Filter (NIRTF) in 2021 for a 2nd generation instrument of DKIST. In this presentation, we introduce the concepts.

Kumari A. *   Gireesh G. V. S.   Kathiravan C.   Mugundhan V.   Indrajit I. V.   Ramesh R.

Solar Radio Spectro-Polarimetry (50–500 MHz):  Design and Development of Cross-Polarized Log-Periodic Dipole Antenna and Configuration of Receiver System [#3017] 

Kato C. *   GMDN Collaboration

Space Weather Study with Global Muon Detector Network (GMDN) [#3012] 
The Global Muon Detector Network (GMDN) has been observing cosmic ray muons for 15 years, providing valuable information to study space weather phenomena. It observes at higher energy than neutron monitors and the data are complementary.

Ruffolo D. *

Remote Sensing of Plasma Conditions in the Heliosphere Using Neutron Monitor Measurements of CosmicRays [#3013] 
Neutron monitor observations of cosmic rays enable unique remote sensing of plasma conditions/processes in the heliosphere. We show examples in ground-level enhancements, solar modulation, Forbush decrease anisotropy, and two-week modulation events.

Mangeard P.-S. *

Ground Level Enhancement Measurements with the Neutron Monitors [#3015] 
The neutron monitors are the primary ground-based instruments to detect and measure the Ground Level Enhancements (GLEs) of radiations induced by the Solar Energetic Particles (SEPs).

Evenson P. A. *

Measuring the Cosmic Ray Spectrum Using Neutron Monitors [#3016] 
Ensuring continuity in tracking variations in the cosmic ray spectrum requires maintaining the neutron monitor network, improving it with hardware employing the latest techniques, and adding stations in geographically strategic locations.

Seunarine S. *

The Simpson Neutron Monitor Network [#3032] 
This submission serves as an introduction to the Simpson Neutron Monitor Network; the bringing together of all US operated neutron monitors under a single umbrella to address science goals more effectively and to more efficiently manage operations.

Chen T. Y. *

Leveraging Artificial Intelligence Capabilities for State-of-the-Art Helio- and Astrophysics Research [#3034] 
Machine learning modeling and artificial intelligence have become nascent data analysis tools in the fields of heliophysics and astrophysics, providing opportunities to conduct rapid evaluation of large-scale datasets.


Wednesday, February 23, 2022


2:45 p.m. EST

Discussion of science and next generation instruments and techniques needed to study the solar corona and heliospheric structure and processes.



Authors (*Presenter)

Abstract Title and Summary

2:45 p.m.

Tripathy S. C. *   Jain K.   Kholikov S.   Pevtsov A.

Advancing the Understanding of Subsurface Structure and Dynamics of Solar Active Regions:  An Opportunity with ngGONG [#3006]  Recording
National Solar Observatory and High Altitude Observatory are promoting the design of a new global ground-based network.  Here, we describe additional science goals that could be addressed by this new network through multi-height observations.

2:53 p.m.

Schad T. A. *   Fehlmann A.   Jaeggli S.   Kuhn J. R.   Lin H.   Tarr L. A.

Ground-Based Coronal Physics in the Next Decade:  The DKIST View [#3029]  Presentation  Recording
In this contribution, we discuss planned upgrades, synergies, and future concepts for coronal science using the 4 meter DKIST coronagraph.

3:01 p.m.

Bertello L. *   Pevtsov A.   Pevtsov A. A.

Multi-Height Measurements of the Solar Vector Magnetic Field [#3008]  Presentation  Recording
Measurements of the solar vector magnetic field are becoming critical for driving the latest solar and heliospheric 3-D numerical models. Specific techniques to construct reliable synoptic maps of the solar vector magnetic field will be discussed.

3:09 p.m.

Cauzzi G. *   Uitenbroek H.   Raftery C.   Martinez Pillet V.

Community Education to Foster Facility Engagement:  The Example of the DKIST Data Training Workshops [#3023]  Recording
We advocate for a continued effort of community-engagement activity similar to the “DKIST Data Training Workshops,” run by NSO, in order to best exploit the scientific potential of the advanced but complex facilities the community plans to operate.

3:17 p.m.

Chen T. Y. *

Machine Learning for High-Level Heliophysics Insights Using the European Solar Telescope [#3031] 
Machine learning is a nascent tool used in heliophysics to gain insight into solar phenomena such as coronal jets and filament eruptions. The European Solar Telescope (EST) is a next-generation initiative that will drive the collection of big data.

3:25 p.m.


General Discussion About Day 2 Presentations and Possible Teaming on White Papers.  Recording


Wednesday, February 23, 2022


4:00 p.m. EST




Abstract Title and Summary

4:00 p.m.


Breakout Session 1

Breakout Session 2

5:00 p.m.